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Aliases for PRKCB Gene

Aliases for PRKCB Gene

  • Protein Kinase C Beta 2 3 5
  • EC 2.7.11.13 4 61
  • PKC-Beta 3 4
  • PRKCB1 3 4
  • PKC-B 3 4
  • PKCB 3 4
  • Protein Kinase C, Beta 1 Polypeptide 3
  • Protein Kinase C Beta Type 3
  • Protein Kinase C, Beta 1 2
  • Protein Kinase C, Beta 2
  • EC 2.7.11 61
  • PRKCB2 3

External Ids for PRKCB Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PRKCB Gene

  • PRKCB2
  • PKCB
  • PRKCB1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKCB Gene

  • GC16P023755
  • GC16P021938

Summaries for PRKCB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKCB Gene

  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PRKCB Gene

PRKCB (Protein Kinase C Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKCB include Myotonic Dystrophy 1 and Microvascular Complications Of Diabetes 5. Among its related pathways are p70S6K Signaling and MAPK Signaling: Oxidative Stress Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCB Gene

  • Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at Ser-559, Ser-644 and Ser-652. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at Ser-180, which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates Ser-36 of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of Thr-6 of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 Lys-4 (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKCB Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRKCB Gene

Genomics for PRKCB Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRKCB Gene

Enhancers for PRKCB Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around PRKCB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PRKCB Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PRKCB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKCB gene promoter:

Genomic Location for PRKCB Gene

Chromosome:
16
Start:
23,835,979 bp from pter
End:
24,220,611 bp from pter
Size:
384,633 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PRKCB Gene

Genes around PRKCB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKCB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKCB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKCB Gene

Proteins for PRKCB Gene

  • Protein details for PRKCB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P05771-KPCB_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protein kinase C beta type
    Protein Accession:
    P05771
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C5IFJ8
    • D3DWF5
    • O43744
    • P05127
    • Q15138
    • Q93060
    • Q9UE49
    • Q9UE50
    • Q9UEH8
    • Q9UJ30
    • Q9UJ33

    Protein attributes for PRKCB Gene

    Size:
    671 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    76869 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PDK1 (By similarity). Interacts in vitro with PRKCBP1. Interacts with PHLPP1 and PHLPP2; both proteins mediate its dephosphorylation. Interacts with KDM1A/LSD1, PKN1 and ANDR.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKCB Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRKCB Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PRKCB Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRKCB Gene

  • Phosphorylation on Thr-500 within the activation loop renders it competent to autophosphorylate. Subsequent autophosphorylation of Thr-642 maintains catalytic competence, and autophosphorylation on Ser-661 appears to release the kinase into the cytosol. Autophosphorylation on other sites i.e. in the N-terminal and hinge regions have no effect on enzyme activity. Phosphorylation at Tyr-662 by SYK induces binding with GRB2 and contributes to the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling cascade (By similarity).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 141 and Lys 489
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRKCB Gene

Domains & Families for PRKCB Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKCB Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P05771

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KPCB_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
  • Contains 2 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 C2 domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
Similarity:
  • Contains 2 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKCB: view

Function for PRKCB Gene

Molecular function for PRKCB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Classical (or conventional) PKCs (PRKCA, PRKCB and PRKCG) are activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-500 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Thr-642 (turn motif) and Ser-661 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. Specifically inhibited by enzastaurin (LY317615).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at Ser-559, Ser-644 and Ser-652. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at Ser-180, which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates Ser-36 of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of Thr-6 of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 Lys-4 (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PRKCB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKCB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003682 chromatin binding IDA 20228790
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0004697 protein kinase C activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0004698 calcium-dependent protein kinase C activity TAS --
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 20228790
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKCB: view

Animal Models for PRKCB Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKCB:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRKCB

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKCB Gene

Localization for PRKCB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCB Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PRKCB Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKCB gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKCB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 20228790
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 15632189
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCB: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKCB Gene

SuperPathways for PRKCB Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 IL-2 Pathway
2 Circadian entrainment
3 Blood-Brain Barrier and Immune Cell Transmigration: VCAM-1/CD106 Signaling Pathways
4 fMLP Pathway
5 Development VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 - generic cascades
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKCB: view

Pathways by source for PRKCB Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKCB Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKCB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IEA --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IMP 20228790
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,TAS 3755548
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKCB: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKCB Gene

(66) Drugs for PRKCB Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
vitamin e Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Target 392,395
Tamoxifen Approved Pharma Antagonist, Target TGF-β modulatory and PKC inhibitory effects, ER antagonist, Anti-Estrogens 368
Atenolol Approved Pharma Antagonist 99
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist 515
Ingenol Mebutate Approved Pharma 0

(35) Additional Compounds for PRKCB Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
Diglycerides Group A
  • 1,2-Dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol
  • DAG(14:0/14:0)
  • DAG(28:0)
  • DG(14:0/14:0)
  • DG(28:0)
Diglycerides Group B
  • 1-Palmitoleoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(16:1/20:0)
  • DAG(16:1n7/20:0)
  • DAG(16:1w7/20:0)
  • DAG(36:1)
Diglycerides Group C
  • 1-Myristoyl-3-stearoyl-sn-glycerol
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-3-octadecanoyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(14:0/0:0/18:0)
  • DAG(32:0)
  • DG(32:0)
Diglycerides Group D
  • 1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl-rac-glycerol
  • DAG(22:6/22:6)
  • DAG(22:6n3/22:6n3)
  • DAG(22:6w3/22:6w3)
  • DAG(44:12)

(5) Tocris Compounds for PRKCB Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Enzastaurin Potent PKCbeta inhibitor 170364-57-5
GF 109203X Protein kinase C inhibitor 133052-90-1
Go 6976 Potent protein kinase C inhibitor; selective for alpha and beta isozymes 136194-77-9
Go 6983 Broad spectrum PKC inhibitor 133053-19-7
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate Protein kinase C activator 16561-29-8

(17) ApexBio Compounds for PRKCB Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumor agent 989-51-5
[Ser25] Protein Kinase C (19-31) PKC substrate 136795-05-6
Chelerythrine PKC inhibitor 34316-15-9
Chelerythrine Chloride PKC antagonist 34316-15-9
Daphnetin Protein kinases inhibitor for EGFR/PKA/PKC 486-35-1
Dequalinium Chloride 522-51-0
Enzastaurin (LY317615) PKC beta inhibitor,potent and selective 170364-57-5
GF 109203X Protein kinase C,MLCK,PKG and PKA inhibitor 133052-90-1
Go 6976 PKCα/PKCβ1 inhibitor 136194-77-9
Go 6983 pan-PKC inhibitor 133053-19-7
K-252c Protein kinase inhibitor 85753-43-1
Midostaurin (PKC412) PKC inhibitor 120685-11-2
PKC β pseudosubstrate 172308-76-8
Ro 31-8220 pan-PKC inhibitor 125314-64-9
Ro 31-8220 Mesylate Pan-PKC inhibitor 138489-18-6
Verbascoside PKC/NF-κB inhibitor 61276-17-3
ZIP PKMζ inhibitor 863987-12-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKCB: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PRKCB Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRKCB Gene

Protein kinase C, beta:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRKCB

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKCB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PRKCB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRKCB
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PRKCB

Expression for PRKCB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PRKCB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKCB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x5.6), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x5.4), Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x5.3), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x5.2), Brain - Cortex (x5.0), Whole Blood (x4.9), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRKCB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (19.0), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (12.9), and Frontal cortex (10.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKCB Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKCB Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRKCB Gene:

PRKCB

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKCB Gene:

Hs.460355
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKCB: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRKCB Gene

Orthologs for PRKCB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PRKCB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKCB 34
  • 93.26 (n)
  • 98.37 (a)
PRKCB 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKCB 34
  • 92.93 (n)
  • 98.66 (a)
PRKCB 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkcb 34
  • 91.48 (n)
  • 98.81 (a)
Prkcb 16
Prkcb 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKCB 34
  • 96.09 (n)
  • 95.78 (a)
PRKCB 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkcb 34
  • 91.23 (n)
  • 98.37 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKCB 35
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKCB 35
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKCB 34
  • 81.88 (n)
  • 91.79 (a)
PRKCB 35
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkcb 34
  • 80.27 (n)
  • 91.18 (a)
Str.18182 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.34027 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prkcbb 34
  • 78.26 (n)
  • 88.01 (a)
zgc63591 34
prkcba 35
  • 79 (a)
OneToMany
prkcbb 35
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta inaC 35
  • 49 (a)
ManyToMany
Pkc53E 35
  • 64 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pkc-2 35
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PKC1 37
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pck1 34
  • 51.01 (n)
  • 44.18 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PRKCB was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxo