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Aliases for PRKAR2A Gene

Aliases for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Alpha 2 3 5
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory Subunit Type II Alpha 2 3
  • PRKAR2 3 4
  • PKR2 3 4
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II-Alpha Regulatory Subunit 3
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, Alpha 2
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunit RII Alpha 3
  • Protein Kinase A, RII-Alpha Subunit 3

External Ids for PRKAR2A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PRKAR2A Gene

  • PRKAR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKAR2A Gene

  • GC03M048574
  • GC03M048067
  • GC03M048746
  • GC03M048747
  • GC03M048762

Summaries for PRKAR2A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

  • cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

PRKAR2A (Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAR2A include Kallmann Syndrome. Among its related pathways are CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages and Aquaporin-mediated transport. GO annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin protein ligase binding and cAMP binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRKAR2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.

Tocris Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein kinase A (PKA, aka cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and is a component of the signal transduction mechanism of certain GPCRs. PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAR2A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

Genomics for PRKAR2A Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRKAR2A Gene

Enhancers for PRKAR2A Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03G048654 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 9.3 +191.4 191439 2.8 ARID4B SIN3A RAD21 ETS1 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS CREM EGR2 SP5 WDR6 TMEM89 UQCRC1 NCKIPSD FBXW12 PRKAR2A PRKAR2A-AS1 CDC25A PIR43914 MIR4793
GH03G048811 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 +35.2 35188 1.7 ZBTB33 CREM SP7 WDR6 PRKAR2A-AS1 PRKAR2A PIR40170
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PRKAR2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PRKAR2A Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000152159 446 1601 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143

Genomic Location for PRKAR2A Gene

48,744,597 bp from pter
48,847,846 bp from pter
103,250 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRKAR2A Gene

Genes around PRKAR2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKAR2A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKAR2A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKAR2A Gene

Proteins for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein details for PRKAR2A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16823
    • Q9BUB1

    Protein attributes for PRKAR2A Gene

    404 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45518 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The inactive form of the enzyme is composed of two regulatory chains and two catalytic chains. Activation by cAMP produces two active catalytic monomers and a regulatory dimer that binds four cAMP molecules. Interacts with AKAP4 and CBFA2T3. Interacts with the phosphorylated form of PJA2. Interacts with MYRIP. This interaction may link PKA to components of the exocytosis machinery, thus facilitating exocytosis, including insulin release (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKAR2A Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRKAR2A Gene


neXtProt entry for PRKAR2A Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRKAR2A Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRKAR2A Gene

Domains & Families for PRKAR2A Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKAR2A Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKAR2A: view

Function for PRKAR2A Gene

Molecular function for PRKAR2A Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase,cAMP dependent,regulatory type II,alpha subunit,ubiquitously expressed,interacting with A kinase anchoring proteins,necessary for cAMP dependent modulation of ion channels
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004862 cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity IDA 21812984
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9473338
GO:0008603 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity NAS 9003463
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0030552 cAMP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKAR2A: view

Animal Models for PRKAR2A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKAR2A:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PRKAR2A Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRKAR2A

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKAR2A Gene

Localization for PRKAR2A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Colocalizes with PJA2 in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKAR2A gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS,IDA 21423175
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA 21399614
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IDA 21423175
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IDA 21423176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKAR2A Gene

SuperPathways for PRKAR2A Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 DAG and IP3 signaling
2 RET signaling
3 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
4 Aquaporin-mediated transport
5 Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKAR2A: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKAR2A Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis TAS --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0034199 activation of protein kinase A activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

(6) Drugs for PRKAR2A Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
GEM-231 Investigational Pharma Target 0
KT 5720 Pharma Positive, Allosteric regulator Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 0
cAMPS-Sp, triethylammonium salt Pharma Cell-permeable cAMP analog 0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Pharma Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
H 89 dihydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
cAMPS-Sp, triethylammonium salt Cell-permeable cAMP analog 93602-66-5
H 89 dihydrochloride Protein kinase A inhibitor 130964-39-5
KT 5720 Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 108068-98-0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 121932-06-7
PKI 14-22 amide, myristoylated Cell-permeable protein kinase A inhibitor 201422-03-9

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
KT 5720 108068-98-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKAR2A: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PRKAR2A Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRKAR2A Gene

Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKAR2A Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for PRKAR2A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRKAR2A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRKAR2A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKAR2A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKAR2A Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKAR2A Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRKAR2A Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKAR2A Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRKAR2A Gene:

Tissue specificity: Four types of regulatory chains are found: I-alpha, I-beta, II-alpha, and II-beta. Their expression varies among tissues and is in some cases constitutive and in others inducible.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Blood(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKAR2A: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRKAR2A Gene

Orthologs for PRKAR2A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PRKAR2A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 35
  • 98 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34 35
  • 91.52 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34 35
  • 90.27 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkar2a 34 16 35
  • 87.07 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkar2a 34
  • 86.36 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 35
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 35
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKAR2A 35
  • 77 (a)
LOC100858827 34
  • 76.63 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRKAR2A 35
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkar2a 34
  • 71.55 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prkar2aa 34 35
  • 70.58 (n)
prkar2ab 35
  • 58 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3297 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004940 34
  • 58.49 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pka-R2 34 35
  • 56.45 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E04181g 34
  • 51.64 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BCY1 34 35 37
  • 51.38 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL099C 34
  • 48.98 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01166 34
  • 50.95 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8307 35
  • 50 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cgs1 34
  • 49.61 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PRKAR2A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRKAR2A Gene

Gene Tree for PRKAR2A (if available)
Gene Tree for PRKAR2A (if available)

Paralogs for PRKAR2A Gene

Paralogs for PRKAR2A Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for PRKAR2A Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRKAR2A: view

Variants for PRKAR2A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRKAR2A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000046043 -- 48,759,131(+) CAGCT(A/G)AAAAC intron-variant
rs1000056000 -- 48,751,150(+) GGCTA(A/C)ATTTC intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000068571 -- 48,757,027(+) TCTTA(A/C)CAACC intron-variant
rs1000108747 -- 48,799,438(+) CATTG(A/G)GGTTA intron-variant
rs1000118130 -- 48,778,470(+) GCATG(C/T)GCCAC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRKAR2A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1169569 CNV deletion 17803354
esv3434274 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3596114 CNV loss 21293372
esv3893694 CNV loss 25118596
nsv508918 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv590247 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PRKAR2A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 71.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.57; 44.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRKAR2A Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

Disorders for PRKAR2A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PRKAR2A Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
kallmann syndrome
  • familial hypogonadism with anosmia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for PRKAR2A

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRKAR2A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRKAR2A Gene

Publications for PRKAR2A Gene

  1. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. (PMID: 21423175) Lignitto L. … Feliciello A. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2011) 3 4 64
  2. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PMID: 19367581) So H.C. … Sham P.C. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  3. Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. (PMID: 17081983) Olsen J.V. … Mann M. (Cell 2006) 3 4 64
  4. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary. (PMID: 16807684) Beranova-Giorgianni S. … Giorgianni F. (Pituitary 2006) 3 4 64
  5. Identification and characterization of myeloid translocation gene 16b as a novel a kinase anchoring protein in T lymphocytes. (PMID: 11823486) Schillace R.V. … Carr D.W. (J. Immunol. 2002) 3 4 64

Products for PRKAR2A Gene

Sources for PRKAR2A Gene

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