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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PRKAA2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC01P057027

Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit


(Previous symbol: PRKAA)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit1 2     EC 2.7.11.13 8
AMPK2 3 5     5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha-22
PRKAA1 2     5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Catalytic Alpha-2 Chain2
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Kinase2 3     AMPKa22
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Kinase2 3     AMPK-Alpha-2 Chain2
AMPK22 3     EC 2.7.11.273
ACACA Kinase2 3     EC 2.7.11.313
AMPK Subunit Alpha-22 3     EC 2.7.118
HMGCR Kinase2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 93771   Entrez Gene: 55632   Ensembl: ENSG000001624097   OMIM: 6004975   UniProtKB: P546463   

Export aliases for PRKAA2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01P056025 GC01P056468 GC01P056480 GC01P056823 GC01P055223


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PRKAA2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a
heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an
important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses,
AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy
beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid
and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body
insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PRKAA2 Gene: 
PRKAA2 (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAA2 include wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, and ischemia, and among its related super-pathways are Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK and Insulin receptor signalling cascade. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is NUAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
Function: Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a
key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK
activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and
lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic
enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of
cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid
synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE;
regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and
hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by
phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation
of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of
TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators
involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A,
p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating
CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates
'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and
proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively
regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and
activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating
ATG1/ULK1. AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to
destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also
phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1

summary for PRKAA2 Gene:
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterodimeric protein serine/threonine kinase that is composed of
alpha- (catalytic) and beta/gamma- (regulatory) subunits. AMPK acts as a sensor of the energy status of
cells and ensures survival at times of metabolic stress. AMPK phosphorylates many metabolic enzymes to
stimulate catabolic pathways, such as ketogenesis, and inhibit anabolic pathways, such as protein synthesis.
The long-term activation of AMPK increases the capacity of cells to produce ATP. AMPK is regulated by
phosphorylation at the Thr-172 residue of the alpha-subunit by AMPKK and by phosphorylation by
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CamKKbeta). In addition, the ratio of AMP:ATP mediates
allosteric activation of the enzyme. AMPK is found throughout the body with high concentrations in
metabolically active tissues such as the skeletal muscles and liver.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAA2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_032977.9  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRKAA2 gene promoter:
         Nkx3-1 v2   Nkx3-1   FOXI1   HFH-3   Nkx3-1 v4   HFH-1   Nkx3-1 v3   Nkx3-1 v1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRKAA2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PRKAA2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PRKAA2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p31

PRKAA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRKAA2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P057027:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
57,110,990 bp from pter      End:
57,181,008 bp from pter
Size:
70,019 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2  
Size: 552 amino acids; 62320 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium (By similarity)
Subunit: AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2), a beta (PRKAB1 or PRKAB2) and a
gamma non-catalytic subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3). Interacts with FNIP1 and FNIP2
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm (By similarity). Nucleus. Note=In response to stress, recruited by p53/TP53 to
specific promoters
4 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRKAA2:
2H6D (3D)        2LTU (3D)        2YZA (3D)        3AQV (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q9H1E8 Q9UD43

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRKAA2: NX_P54646

Explore proteomics data for PRKAA2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Ubiquitinated (By similarity)
  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylated at Thr-172 by STK11/LKB1 in complex with STE20-related adapter-alpha (STRADA) pseudo kinase and
    CAB39. Also phosphorylated at Thr-172 by CAMKK2; triggered by a rise in intracellular calcium ions, without
    detectable changes in the AMP/ATP ratio. CAMKK1 can also phosphorylate Thr-172, but at much lower level.
    Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A and 2C (PP2A and PP2C). Phosphorylated by ULK1; leading to negatively
    regulate AMPK activity and suggesting the existence of a regulatory feedback loop between ULK1 and AMPK
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P54646

  • 4/28 DME Specific Peptides for PRKAA2 (P54646) (see all 28)
     VVHRDLK  KRATIKD  HPHIIKL  KMSLQLY 

    PRKAA2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PRKAA2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_006243.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000360290  
    Reactome Protein details: P54646
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PRKAA2: 
    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant PRKAA2 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRKAA2
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PRKAA2
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    Novus Biologicals PRKAA2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PRKAA2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    PRKAA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PRKAA2 Antibody Products: 
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    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PRKAA2
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    Abcam antibodies for PRKAA2
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRKAA2 

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    GenScript PRKAA2-Activity-based Kinase Assay for Compound Screening
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for PRKAA2 (AMPKA2)
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 
    AMPK subfamily
    Selected non-AGC protein kinase activities

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_cat_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P54646

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P54646

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
    Domain: The AIS (autoinhibitory sequence) region shows some sequence similarity with the ubiquitin-associated
    domains and represses kinase activity
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    PRKAA2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
    Function: Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a
    key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK
    activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and
    lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic
    enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of
    cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid
    synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE;
    regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and
    hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by
    phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation
    of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of
    TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators
    involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A,
    p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating
    CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates
    'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and
    proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively
    regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and
    activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating
    ATG1/ULK1. AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to
    destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also
    phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Catalytic activity: ATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] = ADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
    reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
    Catalytic activity: ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] = ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by phosphorylation on Thr-172. Binding of AMP to non-catalytic gamma subunit (PRKAG1,
    PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) results in allosteric activation, inducing phosphorylation on Thr-172. AMP-binding to gamma
    subunit also sustains activity by preventing dephosphorylation of Thr-172. ADP also stimulates Thr-172
    phosphorylation, without stimulating already phosphorylated AMPK. ATP promotes dephosphorylation of Thr-172,
    rendering the enzyme inactive. Under physiological conditions AMPK mainly exists in its inactive form in complex
    with ATP, which is much more abundant than AMP. AMPK is activated by antihyperglycemic drug metformin, a drug
    prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes: in vivo, metformin seems to mainly inhibit liver gluconeogenesis.
    However, metformin can be used to activate AMPK in muscle and other cells in culture or ex vivo
    (PubMed:11602624). Selectively inhibited by compound C
    (6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine. Activated by resveratrol, a
    natural polyphenol present in red wine, and S17834, a synthetic polyphenol. Salicylate/aspirin directly activates
    kinase activity, primarily by inhibiting Thr-172 dephosphorylation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRKAA2:
    protein kinase,cAMP-activated,alpha 2 catalytic subunit,involved in fatty acid and cholesterol
    metabolism,expressed in skeletal muscle,complexing with beta 2 and gamma 1subunits

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11 2 EC 2.7.112 EC 2.7.11.271 EC 2.7.11.311

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/12 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003682chromatin binding ISS--
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity TAS7959015
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS--
    GO:0004679AMP-activated protein kinase activity IDA18439900
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
         
    PRKAA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PRKAA2:
     Decreased cilium length after   Decreased mitotic index  Increased viability with TRAIL 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Prkaa2):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  muscle  nervous system  renal/urinary system 

    PRKAA2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prkaa2tm1.1Vio for PRKAA2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PRKAA2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PRKAA2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRKAA2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRKAA2 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PRKAA2
    8/90 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRKAA2 (see all 90):
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-219-5p hsa-miR-409-5p hsa-miR-29a* hsa-miR-2113 hsa-miR-130b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRKAA2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRKAA2 (NM_006252)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRKAA2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRKAA2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRKAA2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRKAA2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRKAA2 

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PRKAA2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PRKAA2 About   (see all 32)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK
    Energy dependent regulation of mTOR by LKB1-AMPK0.82
    PKB-mediated events0.61
    Regulation of AMPK activity via LKB10.82
    Regulation of Rheb GTPase activity by AMPK0.59
    mTOR signalling0.63
    TOR signaling0.33
    2IRS-related events
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade0.94
    IGF1R signaling cascade0.92
    IRS-related events0.94
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R)0.92
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R0.93
    PI3K Cascade0.86
    IRS-mediated signalling0.92
    Signaling by Insulin receptor0.79
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.34
    4Translation Insulin regulation of translation
    mTOR signaling pathway0.34
    Insulin signaling pathway0.31
    5Membrane Trafficking
    Membrane Trafficking0.32
    Translocation of GLUT4 to the Plasma Membrane0.32

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PRKAA2
        Development Leptin signaling via PI3K-dependent pathway

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for PRKAA2
        Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling

    5 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PRKAA2
        AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway
    eNOS Signaling
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    PGC1Alpha Pathway
    mTOR Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PRKAA2
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 Tocris Bioscience Pathway for PRKAA2
        mTOR Pathway

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PRKAA2
        Development Leptin signaling via PI3K-dependent pathway

    5/6 BioSystems Pathways for PRKAA2 (see all 6)
        TOR signaling
    Insulin Signaling
    AMPK signaling
    BDNF signaling pathway
    Energy Metabolism


    5/22        Reactome Pathways for PRKAA2 (see all 22)
        Membrane Trafficking
    Metabolism
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism
    IRS-related events
    IRS-mediated signalling

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for PRKAA2
        Diuretics Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Metformin Pathway, Pharmacodynamic

    5/8         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRKAA2) (see all 8):
        Regulation of autophagy
    mTOR signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Circadian rhythm
    Insulin signaling pathway


    PRKAA2 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PRKAA2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/457 Interacting proteins for PRKAA2 (P546462, 3 ENSP000003602904) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 457)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000215328P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224501P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231555P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000232804P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/29 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 29):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006112energy reserve metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent IEA--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation TAS7959015
    GO:0006633fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA--

    PRKAA2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PRKAA2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for PRKAA2:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Compounds for PRKAA2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    A 769662Potent AMPK activator[844499-71-4]
    Dorsomorphin dihydrochloridePotent and selective AMPK inhibitor[1219168-18-9]
    Metformin hydrochlorideActivator of LKB1/AMPK; antidiabetic agent[1115-70-4]
    PT 1AMPK activator[331002-70-1]

    4 HMDB Compounds for PRKAA2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--

    10/56 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRKAA2 gene (see all 56)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acetyl-coa 81.7 62 17116771 (2), 20110356 (2), 19710915 (2), 19560442 (2) (see all 36)
    acadesine 79.4 16 14511394 (2), 12654334 (2), 9781330 (1), 11509493 (1) (see all 12)
    metformin 77.5 95 18250273 (8), 15371448 (5), 18256928 (4), 19046439 (4) (see all 34)
    glycogen 73 77 19117544 (4), 19245651 (4), 17597581 (3), 18757479 (2) (see all 43)
    phenformin 71 7 14511394 (2), 17135357 (1), 18387000 (1), 20188727 (1) (see all 6)
    aicar 70.2 14 18723760 (3), 15356065 (2), 19617399 (1), 12869384 (1) (see all 8)
    rapamycin 69.6 24 19245654 (2), 16885148 (1), 17028174 (1), 16763896 (1) (see all 22)
    malonyl-coa 69.5 4 16642960 (2), 12392882 (1)
    glucose 69.1 185 16489105 (6), 15640157 (4), 19570894 (4), 19073152 (4) (see all 91)
    fatty acid 68.7 99 15769985 (5), 19560442 (5), 15356065 (5), 16644805 (5) (see all 45)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PRKAA2 / AAPK2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRKAA2 gene: 
    NM_006252.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PRKAA2:

    Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit
    Hs.437039  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006252
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000371244(uc001cyk.4)

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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK314011.1 BC043195.2 BC069680.1 BC069740.1 BC069823.1 EF056019.1 FJ200485.1 FJ200486.1 
    U06454.1 

    4 DOTS entries:

    DT.409374  DT.100683976  DT.75100717  DT.311595 

    24/33 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 33):

    CK300298 AW341535 AI702885 AI799424 BM683267 AL598071 AI262125 AW511298 
    BM929271 BQ188933 AL600529 NM_006252 BX096772 AL710110 BC069740 U06454 
    AW341602 BE780751 BG433894 BX500298 CF552084 AL596556 AL713117 BC069823 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PRKAA2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PRKAA2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATGCTTAAA
    PRKAA2 Expression
    About this image


    PRKAA2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/4 selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Line H9 (WA09)
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
             vastus lateralis   
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Sertoli cells Seminiferous Tubules
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)

    See PRKAA2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PRKAA2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.437039
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PRKAA2: 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Lipoprotein Signaling & Cholesterol Metabolism in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PRKAA2 gene from 8/22 species (see all 22)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prkaa21 , 5 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit1, 5 90.34(n)1
    97.83(a)1
      4 (49.05 cM)5
    1080791  NM_178143.21  NP_835279.21 
     1050298745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRKAA21 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 79.64(n)
    94.36(a)
      429110  NM_001039605.1  NP_001034694.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRKAA26
    protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic s...
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(103273525-103391105)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prkaa21 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 75.39(n)
    89.82(a)
      572074  XM_695739.4  XP_700831.4 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG31053
    SNF1A1
    protein amino acid phosphorylation
    protein kinase3
    SNF1A/AMP-activated protein kinase1
    30(a)3
    59.97(n)1
    69.4(a)1
      60A163
    439041  NM_206604.11  NP_996327.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea T01C8.1a3
    aak-21
    ser/thr-protein kinase3
    Protein AAK-21
    57(a)
    (best of 5)3
    58.33(n)1
    62.78(a)1
      X(16830550-16833650)3
    1817271  NM_078310.41  NP_510711.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SNF1(YDR477W)4
    SNF11
    AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase found more4
    Snf1p1
    54.91(n)1
    51.56(a)1
      4(1412373-1414274)4
    8520881, 4  NP_010765.31  NP_010765.14 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os08g04846001 hypothetical protein 55.58(n)
    54.19(a)
      4345873  NM_001068618.1  NP_001062083.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PRKAA2 gene
    NUAK12  MARK12  SNRK2  SIK32  SIK22  PRKAA12  NUAK22  MARK22  
    NIM12  SIK12  MARK42  MARK32  
    18/49 SIMAP similar genes for PRKAA2 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     AAPK2_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    PRKAA1    BRSK1    MARK1    MARK4    NUAK1    SIK2
    CAMK1G    KIAA0999    MELK    SIK1    CAMK2A    PNCK
    BRSK2    KIN27    NIM1    Par1b    STK11    STK17A

    PRKAA2 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/1416 SNPs in PRKAA2 are shown (see all 1416)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0403554
    A gastric adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0403552 R Q mis40--------
    VAR_0356234
    Breast cancer samples4--see VAR_0356232 P T mis40--------
    VAR_0356244
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0356242 S G mis40--------
    rs1425104361,2
    --57109038(+) ACAGTC/TAGTCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1867199041,2
    --57109163(+) TCTTTC/TCTTAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs107890371,2
    C,H--57109177(+) CTTGAA/CTACTG 1 -- us2k112Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA WA CSA 256
    rs1509330681,2
    --57109222(+) CAAAAA/GTAACT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1920813361,2
    --57109249(+) TTGCCA/GGCGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1407500141,2
    --57109411(+) TTTGAA/CATTTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1130224841,2
    F--57109439(+) AGAAAG/ACAAAG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRKAA2 (57110990 - 57181008 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for PRKAA2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv520726CNV Loss19592680
    nsv523032CNV Gain19592680


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRKAA2
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRKAA2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 600497    OMIM disorders: --

    20/45 diseases for PRKAA2 (see all 45):    About MalaCards
    wolff-parkinson-white syndrome    ischemia    aromatase deficiency    peutz-jeghers syndrome
    phosphorylase kinase deficiency    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy    familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy    tuberous sclerosis
    hyperglycemia    insulin resistance    glycogen storage disease    cushing's syndrome
    cystic fibrosis    hypoglycemia    metabolic disorders    cholestasis
    polycystic ovary syndrome    obesity    atherosclerosis    hypoxia


    PRKAA2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/28 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRKAA2 gene (see all 28)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    peutz-jeghers syndrome 73.3 1 14511394 (1)
    insulin resistance 61.4 21 16604088 (2), 12546685 (2), 15823720 (2), 15371448 (2) (see all 16)
    insulin sensitivity 57.9 21 19073152 (3), 16046303 (2), 18285556 (2), 14532170 (1) (see all 9)
    wolff-parkinson-white syndrome 54.7 5 14519435 (1), 15611370 (1), 16844922 (1), 11371514 (1)
    metabolic disorder 49.1 11 17429005 (1), 19245659 (1), 15787607 (1), 19245657 (1) (see all 9)
    obesity 49 27 18230904 (2), 15788447 (1), 17429005 (1), 19245659 (1) (see all 19)
    cardiac hypertrophy 44.5 8 20005292 (1), 14614828 (1), 19239414 (1), 14729328 (1) (see all 6)
    tuberous sclerosis 41.5 4 17457036 (1), 17690712 (1)
    hyperglycemia 38.1 5 19643547 (1), 20222801 (1), 15371448 (1), 16497986 (1) (see all 5)
    ischemia 33 36 15507450 (6), 12392881 (2), 18719595 (2), 17332438 (2) (see all 17)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRKAA2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRKAA2 (16 documents)

    Export disorders for PRKAA2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PRKAA2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 544):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRKAA2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human homologue of a rat AMP-activated protein kinase-encoding gene: a major regulator of lipid metabolism in mammals. (PubMed id 7959015)1, 2, 3, 9 Aguan K.... Sarkar N.H. (1994)
    2. AMP-kinase alpha2 subunit gene PRKAA2 variants are associated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in normal women. (PubMed id 16801347)1, 4, 9 Spencer-Jones N.J....O'Dell S.D. (2006)
    3. A polymorphism in the AMPKalpha2 subunit gene is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 16567511)1, 4, 9 Horikoshi M....Kadowaki T. (2006)
    4. The combination of a genome-wide association study of lymphocyte count and analysis of gene expression data reveals novel asthma candi date genes. (PubMed id 22286170)1, 4 Cusanovich D.A....Gilad Y. (2012)
    5. Structural basis for compound C inhibition of the human AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 subunit kinase domain. (PubMed id 21543851)1, 2 Handa N.... Yokoyama S. (2011)
    6. Common variants in 40 genes assessed for diabetes inc idence and response to metformin and lifestyle intervention in the diabetes pre vention program. (PubMed id 20682687)1, 4 Jablonski K.A....Florez J.C. (2010)
    7. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: do main-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PubMed id 20602615)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Wu A.H. (2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of t hiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipr il and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (2010)
    9. Association study of AMP-activated protein kinase sub unit genes in polycystic ovary syndrome. (PubMed id 19574280)1, 4 Sproul K....Goodarzi M.O. (2009)
    10. Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calci fication in atherosclerosis. (PubMed id 19948975)1, 4 McGeachie M....Ramoni M.F. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5563 HGNC: 9377 AceView: PRKAA2 Ensembl:ENSG00000162409 euGenes: HUgn5563
    ECgene: PRKAA2 Kegg: 5563 H-InvDB: PRKAA2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRKAA2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRKAA2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PRKAA2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRKAA2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for PRKAA2
     ThermoFisher Antibody for PRKAA2
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRKAA2
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PRKAA2
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PRKAA2
    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression of PRKAA2
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PRKAA2
     adenovirus for overexpression of PRKAA2
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRKAA2
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
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