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PRKAA2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 71
GCID: GC01P057027

Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit


(Previous symbol: PRKAA)
  See PRKAA2-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit1 2     5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha-22
AMPK2 3 5     5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Catalytic Alpha-2 Chain2
PRKAA1 2     AMPKa22
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Kinase2 3     AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha-2 Subunit Variant 22
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Kinase2 3     AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha-2 Subunit Variant 32
AMPK22 3     AMPK-Alpha-2 Chain2
ACACA Kinase2 3     EC 2.7.11.273
AMPK Subunit Alpha-22 3     EC 2.7.11.313
HMGCR Kinase2 3     EC 2.7.118
EC 2.7.11.13 8     

External Ids:    HGNC: 93771   Entrez Gene: 55632   Ensembl: ENSG000001624097   OMIM: 6004975   UniProtKB: P546463   

Export aliases for PRKAA2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01P056025 GC01P056468 GC01P056480 GC01P056823 GC01P055223


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PRKAA2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a
heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an
important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses,
AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy
beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid
and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body
insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PRKAA2 Gene:
PRKAA2 (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAA2 include wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, and ischemia. GO annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is STK40.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
Function: Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a
key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK
activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and
lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic
enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of
cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid
synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE;
regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and
hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by
phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation
of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of
TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators
involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A,
p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating
CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates
'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and
proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively
regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and
activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating
ATG1/ULK1. AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to
destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also
phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1

summary for PRKAA2 Gene:
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterodimeric protein serine/threonine kinase that is composed of
alpha- (catalytic) and beta/gamma- (regulatory) subunits. AMPK acts as a sensor of the energy status of
cells and ensures survival at times of metabolic stress. AMPK phosphorylates many metabolic enzymes to
stimulate catabolic pathways, such as ketogenesis, and inhibit anabolic pathways, such as protein synthesis.
The long-term activation of AMPK increases the capacity of cells to produce ATP. AMPK is regulated by
phosphorylation at the Thr-172 residue of the alpha-subunit by AMPKK and by phosphorylation by
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CamKKbeta). In addition, the ratio of AMP:ATP mediates
allosteric activation of the enzyme. AMPK is found throughout the body with high concentrations in
metabolically active tissues such as the skeletal muscles and liver.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAA2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_032977.10  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PRKAA2 gene promoter:
         Nkx3-1 v2   Nkx3-1   FOXI1   HFH-3   Nkx3-1 v4   HFH-1   Nkx3-1 v3   Nkx3-1 v1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPRKAA2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PRKAA2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PRKAA2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p31

PRKAA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PRKAA2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P057027:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
57,110,990 bp from pter      End:
57,181,008 bp from pter
Size:
70,019 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2  
Size: 552 amino acids; 62320 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium (By similarity)
Subunit: AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2), a beta (PRKAB1 or PRKAB2) and a
gamma non-catalytic subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3). Interacts with FNIP1 and FNIP2
6 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PRKAA2:
2H6D (3D)        2LTU (3D)        2YZA (3D)        3AQV (3D)        4CFE (3D)        4CFF (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q9H1E8 Q9UD43

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PRKAA2: NX_P54646

Explore proteomics data for PRKAA2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitinated (By similarity)1
  • Phosphorylated at Thr-172 by STK11/LKB1 in complex with STE20-related adapter-alpha (STRADA) pseudo kinase and
    CAB39. Also phosphorylated at Thr-172 by CAMKK2; triggered by a rise in intracellular calcium ions, without
    detectable changes in the AMP/ATP ratio. CAMKK1 can also phosphorylate Thr-172, but at much lower level.
    Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A and 2C (PP2A and PP2C). Phosphorylated by ULK1; leading to negatively
    regulate AMPK activity and suggesting the existence of a regulatory feedback loop between ULK1 and AMPK.
    Dephosphorylated by PPM1A and PPM1B at Thr-172 (mediated by STK11/LKB1)1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PRKAA2 (P54646) (see all 28)
     VVHRDLK  KRATIKD  HPHIIKL  KMSLQLY 


    See PRKAA2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_006243.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000360290  
    Reactome Protein details: P54646

    PRKAA2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant PRKAA2 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PRKAA2
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PRKAA2
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PRKAA2
    Novus Biologicals PRKAA2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PRKAA2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PRKAA2 

    PRKAA2 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PRKAA2
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PRKAA2 (AMPK alpha 2)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PRKAA2  (AMPKA2)
    OriGene Antibodies for PRKAA2
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PRKAA2
    Novus Biologicals PRKAA2 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PRKAA2 (Q13131, P54646)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PRKAA2
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRKAA2

    PRKAA2 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PRKAA2 (AMPK alpha 2)
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    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Sandwich ELISA Kits for PRKAA2 (AMPKA2)
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PRKAA2 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit
    AMPK subfamily
    Selected non-AGC protein kinase activities

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR028783 PRKAA2
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P54646

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P54646

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
    Domain: The AIS (autoinhibitory sequence) region shows some sequence similarity with the ubiquitin-associated
    domains and represses kinase activity
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646
    Function: Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a
    key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK
    activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and
    lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic
    enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of
    cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid
    synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE;
    regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and
    hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by
    phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation
    of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of
    TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators
    involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A,
    p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating
    CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates
    'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and
    proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively
    regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and
    activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating
    ATG1/ULK1. AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to
    destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also
    phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Catalytic activity: ATP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] = ADP + [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
    reductase (NADPH)] phosphate
    Catalytic activity: ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] = ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by phosphorylation on Thr-172. Binding of AMP to non-catalytic gamma subunit (PRKAG1,
    PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) results in allosteric activation, inducing phosphorylation on Thr-172. AMP-binding to gamma
    subunit also sustains activity by preventing dephosphorylation of Thr-172. ADP also stimulates Thr-172
    phosphorylation, without stimulating already phosphorylated AMPK. ATP promotes dephosphorylation of Thr-172,
    rendering the enzyme inactive. Under physiological conditions AMPK mainly exists in its inactive form in complex
    with ATP, which is much more abundant than AMP. AMPK is activated by antihyperglycemic drug metformin, a drug
    prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes: in vivo, metformin seems to mainly inhibit liver gluconeogenesis.
    However, metformin can be used to activate AMPK in muscle and other cells in culture or ex vivo
    (PubMed:11602624). Selectively inhibited by compound C
    (6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine. Activated by resveratrol, a
    natural polyphenol present in red wine, and S17834, a synthetic polyphenol. Salicylate/aspirin directly activates
    kinase activity, primarily by inhibiting Thr-172 dephosphorylation

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PRKAA2:
    protein kinase,cAMP-activated,alpha 2 catalytic subunit,involved in fatty acid and cholesterol
    metabolism,expressed in skeletal muscle,complexing with beta 2 and gamma 1subunits

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.11 2 EC 2.7.112 EC 2.7.11.271 EC 2.7.11.311

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003682chromatin binding ISS--
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity TAS7959015
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS--
    GO:0004679AMP-activated protein kinase activity IDA18439900
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PRKAA2:
     Decreased cilium length after   Decreased mitotic index  Increased viability with TRAIL 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Prkaa2):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  muscle  nervous system  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Prkaa2tm1.1Vio for PRKAA2

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PRKAA2
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PRKAA2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PRKAA2
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PRKAA2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRKAA2:
    hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT052107), hsa-mir-98-5p (MIRT027841), hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026874), hsa-mir-182-5p (MIRT047217)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PRKAA2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PRKAA2 (see all 90):
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-219-5p hsa-miR-409-5p hsa-miR-29a* hsa-miR-2113 hsa-miR-130b
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPRKAA2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PRKAA2
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PRKAA2

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
    Products:
         
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    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PRKAA2 (NM_006252)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PRKAA2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PRKAA2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PRKAA2
    Addgene plasmids for PRKAA2 

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    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12075) for PRKAA2 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    AAPK2_HUMAN, P54646: Cytoplasm (By similarity). Nucleus. Note=In response to stress, recruited by p53/TP53 to
    specific promoters
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    extracellular1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PRKAA2 About   (see all 32)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Insulin receptor signalling cascade
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade0.94
    Signaling by Insulin receptor0.80
    IRS-related events0.94
    PKB-mediated events0.41
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R)0.92
    mTOR signalling0.39
    IRS-mediated signalling0.92
    TOR signaling0.32
    2Metformin Pathway, Pharmacodynamic
    Metformin Pathway, Pharmacodynamic
    AMPK inhibits chREBP transcriptional activation activity0.00
    3Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism0.65
    Import of palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix0.00
    4Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins0.37
    5Translation Insulin regulation of translation
    mTOR signaling pathway0.34
    Insulin signaling pathway0.32


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 R&D Systems Pathway for PRKAA2
        Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling

    5 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PRKAA2
        AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway
    eNOS Signaling
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    PGC1Alpha Pathway
    mTOR Pathway

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PRKAA2
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    1 Tocris Bioscience Pathway for PRKAA2
        mTOR Pathway

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PRKAA2
        Development Leptin signaling via PI3K-dependent pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PRKAA2 (see all 7)
        TOR signaling
    Insulin Signaling
    AMPK signaling
    BDNF signaling pathway
    Energy Metabolism


    Selected Reactome Pathways for PRKAA2 (see all 6)
        AMPK inhibits chREBP transcriptional activation activity
    Activation of PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) by phosphorylation
    Regulation of Rheb GTPase activity by AMPK
    Import of palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix
    Regulation of AMPK activity via LKB1

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for PRKAA2
        Diuretics Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Metformin Pathway, Pharmacodynamic

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PRKAA2) (see all 10):
        FoxO signaling pathway
    Regulation of autophagy
    mTOR signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Circadian rhythm

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRKAA2: 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Lipoprotein Signaling & Cholesterol Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PRKAA2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PRKAA2 (P546462, 3 ENSP000003602904) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 512)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ENSG00000212866P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000215328P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224501P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231555P081073I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000232804P081073I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 30):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006112energy reserve metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation TAS7959015
    GO:0006633fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for PRKAA2 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    A 769662Potent AMPK activator[844499-71-4]
    Dorsomorphin dihydrochloridePotent and selective AMPK inhibitor[1219168-18-9]
    Metformin hydrochlorideActivator of LKB1/AMPK; antidiabetic agent[1115-70-4]
    PT 1AMPK activator[331002-70-1]

    4 HMDB Compounds for PRKAA2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PRKAA2 gene (see all 56)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acetyl-coa 81.7 62 17116771 (2), 20110356 (2), 19710915 (2), 19560442 (2) (see all 36)
    acadesine 79.4 16 14511394 (2), 12654334 (2), 9781330 (1), 11509493 (1) (see all 12)
    metformin 77.5 95 18250273 (8), 15371448 (5), 18256928 (4), 19046439 (4) (see all 34)
    glycogen 73 77 19117544 (4), 19245651 (4), 17597581 (3), 18757479 (2) (see all 43)
    phenformin 71 7 14511394 (2), 17135357 (1), 18387000 (1), 20188727 (1) (see all 6)
    aicar 70.2 14 18723760 (3), 15356065 (2), 19617399 (1), 12869384 (1) (see all 8)
    rapamycin 69.6 24 19245654 (2), 16885148 (1), 17028174 (1), 16763896 (1) (see all 22)
    malonyl-coa 69.5 4 16642960 (2), 12392882 (1)
    glucose 69.1 185 16489105 (6), 15640157 (4), 19570894 (4), 19073152 (4) (see all 91)
    fatty acid 68.7 99 15769985 (5), 19560442 (5), 15356065 (5), 16644805 (5) (see all 45)



    Find genes that share compounds with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PRKAA2 gene: 
    NM_006252.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PRKAA2:

    Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit
    Hs.437039  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006252
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000371244(uc001cyk.4)
    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-3938 hsa-miR-219-5p hsa-miR-409-5p hsa-miR-29a* hsa-miR-2113 hsa-miR-130b
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK314011.1 BC043195.2 BC069680.1 BC069740.1 BC069823.1 EF056019.1 FJ200485.1 FJ200486.1 
    U06454.1 

    4 DOTS entries:

    DT.409374  DT.100683976  DT.75100717  DT.311595 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 33):

    BM929271 AI799424 CK300298 BQ188933 AW341535 BM683267 AL598071 AW511298 
    AL600529 NM_006252 AL710110 AI702885 BX096772 AI262125 AL596556 BE780751 
    BC069823 U06454 CF552084 AL713117 BC069680 AW341602 BC069740 BG433894 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PRKAA2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATGCTTAAA
    PRKAA2 Expression
    About this image


    PRKAA2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Human embryonic stem cells (family)
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Sertoli cells Seminiferous Tubules
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)
    PRKAA2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PRKAA2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.437039
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PRKAA2: 
              mTOR Signaling in human mouse rat
              Fatty Acid Metabolism in human mouse rat
              Lipoprotein Signaling & Cholesterol Metabolism in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PRKAA2 gene from Selected species (see all 23)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Prkaa21 , 5 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit1, 5 90.34(n)1
    97.83(a)1
      4 (49.05 cM)5
    1080791  NM_178143.21  NP_835279.21 
     1050298745 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PRKAA21 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 79.64(n)
    94.36(a)
      429110  NM_001039605.1  NP_001034694.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PRKAA26
    protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic s...
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(103273525-103391105)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia prkaa21 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 81.37(n)
    93.83(a)
      100216099  NM_001142082.1  NP_001135554.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii prkaa21 protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 75.39(n)
    89.82(a)
      572074  XM_695739.5  XP_700831.4 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG31053
    SNF1A1
    protein amino acid phosphorylation
    protein kinase3
    SNF1A/AMP-activated protein kinase1
    30(a)3
    59.86(n)1
    69.07(a)1
      60A163
    439041  NM_057965.31  NP_477313.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea T01C8.1a3
    aak-21
    ser/thr-protein kinase3
    aak-21
    57(a)
    (best of 5)3
    58.33(n)1
    62.78(a)1
      X(16830550-16833650)3
    1817271  NM_078309.41  NP_510710.21 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes SNF1(YDR477W)4
    SNF11
    AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase found more4
    SNF11
    54.91(n)1
    51.56(a)1
      4(1412373-1414274)4
    8520881, 4  NP_010765.31  NP_010765.14 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os08g04846001 Os08g0484600 56.87(n)
    56.53(a)
      4345873  NM_001068618.1  NP_001062083.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PRKAA2 gene
    STK402  TRIB32  NUAK12  HUNK2  TRIB12  NUAK22  PRKAA12  TRIB22  
    MELK2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for PRKAA2 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     AAPK2_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    PRKAA1    BRSK1    MARK1    MARK4    NUAK1    SIK2
    CAMK1G    KIAA0999    MELK    SIK1    CAMK2A    PNCK
    BRSK2    KIN27    NIM1K    Par1b    STK11    STK17A

    Find genes that share paralogs with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PRKAA2 (see all 1416)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0403554
    A gastric adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0403552 R Q mis40--------
    VAR_0356234
    Breast cancer samples4--see VAR_0356232 P T mis40--------
    VAR_0356244
    A breast cancer sample4--see VAR_0356242 S G mis40--------
    rs1425104361,2
    --57109038(+) ACAGTC/TAGTCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1867199041,2
    --57109163(+) TCTTTC/TCTTAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs107890371,2
    C,H--57109177(+) CTTGAA/CTACTG 1 -- us2k112Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA WA CSA 256
    rs1509330681,2
    --57109222(+) CAAAAA/GTAACT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1920813361,2
    --57109249(+) TTGCCA/GGCGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1407500141,2
    --57109411(+) TTTGAA/CATTTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1130224841,2
    F--57109439(+) AGAAAG/ACAAAG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PRKAA2 (57110990 - 57181008 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for PRKAA2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv520726CNV Loss19592680
    nsv523032CNV Gain19592680

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PRKAA2
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PRKAA2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PRKAA2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600497    OMIM disorders: --

    5 diseases for PRKAA2:    
    About MalaCards
    wolff-parkinson-white syndrome    ischemia    aromatase deficiency    peutz-jeghers syndrome
    phosphorylase kinase deficiency


    Find genes that share disorders with PRKAA2           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PRKAA2 gene (see all 28)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    peutz-jeghers syndrome 73.3 1 14511394 (1)
    insulin resistance 61.4 21 16604088 (2), 12546685 (2), 15823720 (2), 15371448 (2) (see all 16)
    insulin sensitivity 57.9 21 19073152 (3), 16046303 (2), 18285556 (2), 14532170 (1) (see all 9)
    wolff-parkinson-white syndrome 54.7 5 14519435 (1), 15611370 (1), 16844922 (1), 11371514 (1)
    metabolic disorder 49.1 11 17429005 (1), 19245659 (1), 15787607 (1), 19245657 (1) (see all 9)
    obesity 49 27 18230904 (2), 15788447 (1), 17429005 (1), 19245659 (1) (see all 19)
    cardiac hypertrophy 44.5 8 20005292 (1), 14614828 (1), 19239414 (1), 14729328 (1) (see all 6)
    tuberous sclerosis 41.5 4 17457036 (1), 17690712 (1)
    hyperglycemia 38.1 5 19643547 (1), 20222801 (1), 15371448 (1), 16497986 (1) (see all 5)
    ischemia 33 36 15507450 (6), 12392881 (2), 18719595 (2), 17332438 (2) (see all 17)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PRKAA2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PRKAA2 (16 documents)

    Export disorders for PRKAA2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PRKAA2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 545):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PRKAA2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human homologue of a rat AMP-activated protein kinase-encoding gene: a major regulator of lipid metabolism in mammals. (PubMed id 7959015)1, 2, 3, 9 Aguan K.... Sarkar N.H. (Gene 1994)
    2. AMP-kinase alpha2 subunit gene PRKAA2 variants are associated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in normal women. (PubMed id 16801347)1, 4, 9 Spencer-Jones N.J....O'Dell S.D. (J. Med. Genet. 2006)
    3. A polymorphism in the AMPKalpha2 subunit gene is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 16567511)1, 4, 9 Horikoshi M....Kadowaki T. (Diabetes 2006)
    4. The combination of a genome-wide association study of lymphocyte count and analysis of gene expression data reveals novel asthma candidate genes. (PubMed id 22286170)1, 4 Cusanovich D.A....Gilad Y. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012)
    5. Structural basis for compound C inhibition of the human AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 subunit kinase domain. (PubMed id 21543851)1, 2 Handa N.... Yokoyama S. (Acta Crystallogr. D 2011)
    6. Common variants in 40 genes assessed for diabetes incidence and response to metformin and lifestyle intervention in the diabetes prevention program. (PubMed id 20682687)1, 4 Jablonski K.A....Florez J.C. (Diabetes 2010)
    7. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PubMed id 20602615)1, 4 RuaA+o G....Wu A.H. (Pharmacogenomics 2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    9. Association study of AMP-activated protein kinase subunit genes in polycystic ovary syndrome. (PubMed id 19574280)1, 4 Sproul K....Goodarzi M.O. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2009)
    10. Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis. (PubMed id 19948975)1, 4 McGeachie M....Ramoni M.F. (Circulation 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5563 HGNC: 9377 AceView: PRKAA2 Ensembl:ENSG00000162409 euGenes: HUgn5563
    ECgene: PRKAA2 Kegg: 5563 H-InvDB: PRKAA2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PRKAA2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PRKAA2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PRKAA2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PRKAA2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PRKAA2
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PRKAA2
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PRKAA2
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
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     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
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     Addgene plasmids for PRKAA2
      Search eBioscience for proteins for PRKAA2
      Search eBioscience for elisas for PRKAA2
      eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014

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