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Aliases for PRH2 Gene

Aliases for PRH2 Gene

  • Proline Rich Protein HaeIII Subfamily 2 2 3 5
  • Acidic Salivary Proline-Rich Protein, HaeIII Type, 2 2 3
  • Parotid Proline-Rich Protein 1/2 3 4
  • Parotid Double-Band Protein 3 4
  • Parotid Acidic Protein 3 4
  • PRP-1/PRP-2 3 4
  • Protein C 3 4
  • Pr1/Pr2 3 4
  • Salivary Acidic Proline-Rich Phosphoprotein 1/2 3
  • Parotid Isoelectric Focusing Variant Protein 4
  • Parotid Proline-Rich Protein 2
  • PRH1 PRH2 4
  • PIF-S 4
  • Db-S 4
  • PA 4
  • PR 3

External Ids for PRH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRH2 Gene

  • GC12U990080
  • GC12P011226
  • GC12P010982
  • GC12P010973
  • GC12P011081
  • GC12P010810

Summaries for PRH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRH2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the heterogeneous family of proline-rich salivary glycoproteins. The encoded preproprotein undergoes proteolytic processing to generate one or more mature isoforms before secretion from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. In western population this locus is commonly biallelic and encodes proline-rich protein (PRP) isoforms, PRP-1 and PRP-2. The reference genome encodes the PRP-1 allele. Certain alleles of this gene are associated with susceptibility to dental caries. This gene is located in a cluster of closely related salivary proline-rich proteins on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PRH2 Gene

PRH2 (Proline Rich Protein HaeIII Subfamily 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion. An important paralog of this gene is PRH1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH2 Gene

  • PRPs act as highly potent inhibitors of crystal growth of calcium phosphates. They provide a protective and reparative environment for dental enamel which is important for the integrity of the teeth.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRH2 Gene

Genomics for PRH2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRH2 Gene

Enhancers for PRH2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12G011894 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 20.3 +965.7 965678 1.6 HDGF ZSCAN4 ZNF195 ZNF776 POLR2A EED ZNF571 ZNF521 ZIK1 NR2F1 TAS2R31 TAS2R14 PRH2 TAS2R19 TAS2R15P LOC100506248 TAS2R20 TAS2R64P DDX47 PIR45971
GH12G010715 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 -209.1 -209141 8.8 FOXA2 MLX WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 KLRA1P TAS2R20 TAS2R43 TAS2R14 MAGOHB TAS2R31 TAS2R50 TAS2R10 TAS2R64P ENSG00000256981
GH12G011663 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.1 +736.2 736221 4.9 GATA3 SMARCA4 ZNF544 POLR2A WRNIP1 PRH2 PIR53480 GC12M011721
GH12G011852 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.1 +924.2 924175 1.1 HDGF NFIA NFIB ZIK1 ZNF195 GATAD2B NFIC ZNF544 ZNF350 FOS TAS2R43 PRH2 PIR45971 GC12M011721
GH12G011307 0.3 FANTOM5 29.8 +378.5 378502 0.1 PRB1 PRB4 PRB3 PRB2 PRH1 PRH2
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PRH2 Gene

10,929,235 bp from pter
10,934,845 bp from pter
5,611 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PRH2 Gene

Genes around PRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRH2 Gene

Proteins for PRH2 Gene

  • Protein details for PRH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoprotein 1/2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2VCM0
    • A3KN66
    • A5D902
    • B2RMW2
    • Q4VBP2
    • Q53XA2
    • Q6P2F6

    Protein attributes for PRH2 Gene

    166 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17016 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAI28193.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=167; Note=Translated as stop.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAI41917.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=167; Note=Translated as stop.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PRH2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRH2 Gene

  • An hexuronic acid was shown to be linked to Ser-33 in about 40% of the polypeptides. Neither the structure of the carbohydrate (whether glucuronic acid or an isomer of), nor the linkage (whether a glycoside or an ester) has been definitely established.
  • Proteolytically cleaved; PRP-2, PRP-1, PIF-S and Db-S yield PRP-4, PRP-3 (protein A), PIF-F and Db-F, respectively.
  • Glycosylation at Ser33 and Ser38
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRH2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRH2 Gene

Domains & Families for PRH2 Gene

Gene Families for PRH2 Gene

Protein Domains for PRH2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH2 Gene

Function for PRH2 Gene

Molecular function for PRH2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
salivary proline-rich protein,acidic,Hae subfamily 2,see PR@ for references
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PRPs act as highly potent inhibitors of crystal growth of calcium phosphates. They provide a protective and reparative environment for dental enamel which is important for the integrity of the teeth.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16203048
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRH2: view

Phenotypes for PRH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRH2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PRH2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRH2

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRH2 Gene

Localization for PRH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 2993301
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRH2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRH2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Salivary secretion
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRH2: view

Pathways by source for PRH2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PRH2 Gene

Interacting Proteins for PRH2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRH2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRH2 Gene


Drugs & Compounds for PRH2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PRH2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRH2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRH2 Gene

Proline-rich protein HaeIII subfamily 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PRH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x30.5) and Testis (x8.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRH2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRH2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRH2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRH2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRH2 Gene

  • Muscle(4.7)
  • Saliva(4.3)
  • Thyroid gland(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRH2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRH2 Gene

Orthologs for PRH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

Orthologs for PRH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRH2 34 35
  • 99.8 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PRH2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PRH2 Gene

Gene Tree for PRH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PRH2 (if available)

Paralogs for PRH2 Gene

Paralogs for PRH2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PRH2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRH2: view

Variants for PRH2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH2 Gene

Sequence shown is that of allele PRH2-2, also known as PR-2; Allele PRH2-1 is also known as PR-1 or protein C, and allele PRH2-3 as PR-1. The PRH1-DB allele (about 16% of the population) has an insertion of 21 repeated amino acids compared to the more frequent PRH1-PIF allele (68%). In contrast to all other PRH1 and PRH2 alleles, the PRH1-PA allele (16%) is not proteolytically cleaved.

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759879 CNV loss 17122850
esv3628550 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1038277 CNV loss 25217958
nsv428272 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv832330 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PRH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 66.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.42; 27.93% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PRH2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRH2 Gene

Disorders for PRH2 Gene

Relevant External Links for PRH2

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for PRH2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRH2 Gene

Publications for PRH2 Gene

  1. Structures of two HaeIII-type genes in the human salivary proline- rich protein multigene family. (PMID: 3009472) Kim H.-S. … Maeda N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1986) 2 3 4 64
  2. A single kinase generates the majority of the secreted phosphoproteome. (PMID: 26091039) Tagliabracci V.S. … Dixon J.E. (Cell 2015) 3 4 64
  3. Finding new posttranslational modifications in salivary proline-rich proteins. (PMID: 20879038) Vitorino R. … Amado F.L. (Proteomics 2010) 3 4 64
  4. Different isoforms and post-translational modifications of human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins. (PMID: 15693058) Inzitari R. … Messana I. (Proteomics 2005) 3 4 64
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64

Products for PRH2 Gene

Sources for PRH2 Gene

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