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Aliases for PRH1 Gene

Aliases for PRH1 Gene

  • Proline-Rich Protein HaeIII Subfamily 1 2 3 5
  • Parotid Isoelectric Focusing Variant Protein 3 4
  • Parotid Proline-Rich Protein 1/2 3 4
  • Parotid Double-Band Protein 3 4
  • Parotid Acidic Protein 3 4
  • PRP-1/PRP-2 3 4
  • Protein C 3 4
  • Pr1/Pr2 3 4
  • PIF-S 3 4
  • Db-S 3 4
  • PA 3 4
  • PRH1 PRH2 4
  • PRH2 3

External Ids for PRH1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRH1 Gene

  • GC12P010785
  • GC12M011177
  • GC12M010898
  • GC12M010924
  • GC12M011033
  • GC12M010762

Summaries for PRH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRH1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the heterogeneous family of proline-rich salivary glycoproteins. The encoded preproprotein undergoes proteolytic processing to generate one or more mature isoforms before secretion from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Multiple distinct alleles of this locus including the parotid isoelectric-focusing variant slow (PIF-s), the parotid acidic protein (Pa), and the double band slow (Db-s) isoforms have been characterized. The reference genome encodes the Db-s allele. Certain alleles of this gene are associated with susceptibility to dental caries. This gene is located in a cluster of closely related salivary proline-rich proteins on chromosome 12. Co-transcription of this gene with adjacent genes has been observed. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PRH1 Gene

PRH1 (Proline-Rich Protein HaeIII Subfamily 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRH1 include Dental Caries. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000275778.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH1 Gene

  • PRPs act as highly potent inhibitors of crystal growth of calcium phosphates. They provide a protective and reparative environment for dental enamel which is important for the integrity of the teeth.

Gene Wiki entry for PRH1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRH1 Gene

Genomics for PRH1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PRH1 Gene

Enhancers for PRH1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PRH1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PRH1 Gene

10,824,960 bp from pter
11,171,623 bp from pter
346,664 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRH1 Gene

Genes around PRH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRH1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRH1 Gene

Proteins for PRH1 Gene

  • Protein details for PRH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Salivary acidic proline-rich phosphoprotein 1/2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2VCM0
    • A3KN66
    • A5D902
    • B2RMW2
    • Q4VBP2
    • Q53XA2
    • Q6P2F6

    Protein attributes for PRH1 Gene

    166 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17016 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAI28193.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=167; Note=Translated as stop.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAI41917.1; Type=Erroneous termination; Positions=167; Note=Translated as stop.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PRH1 Gene

Proteomics data for PRH1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PRH1 Gene

  • An hexuronic acid was shown to be linked to Ser-33 in about 40% of the polypeptides. Neither the structure of the carbohydrate (whether glucuronic acid or an isomer of), nor the linkage (whether a glycoside or an ester) has been definitely established.
  • Proteolytically cleaved; PRP-2, PRP-1, PIF-S and Db-S yield PRP-4, PRP-3 (protein A), PIF-F and Db-F, respectively.
  • Glycosylation at Ser 33 and Ser 38
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRH1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRH1 Gene

Domains & Families for PRH1 Gene

Gene Families for PRH1 Gene

Protein Domains for PRH1 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRH1: view

No data available for Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH1 Gene

Function for PRH1 Gene

Molecular function for PRH1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
salivary proline-rich protein,acidic,Hae III subfamily 1,see PR@ for references
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PRPs act as highly potent inhibitors of crystal growth of calcium phosphates. They provide a protective and reparative environment for dental enamel which is important for the integrity of the teeth.

Phenotypes for PRH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRH1: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRH1 Gene

Localization for PRH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PRH1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRH1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PRH1 Gene

SuperPathways for PRH1 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Salivary secretion
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRH1: view

Pathways by source for PRH1 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PRH1 Gene

Interacting Proteins for PRH1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRH1 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PRH1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PRH1 Gene

(1) Drugs for PRH1 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Nutra 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRH1: view

Transcripts for PRH1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRH1 Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(5) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(6) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PRH1 Gene

Proline-rich protein HaeIII subfamily 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRH1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PRH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PRH1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRH1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PRH1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRH1 Gene Hs.656965

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRH1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRH1 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRH1 Gene

Orthologs for PRH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

Orthologs for PRH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRH1 36
  • 95 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PRH1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PRH1 Gene

Gene Tree for PRH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PRH1 (if available)

Paralogs for PRH1 Gene

Paralogs for PRH1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PRH1 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRH1: view

Variants for PRH1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRH1 Gene

Sequence shown is that of allele PRH2-2, also known as PR-2; Allele PRH2-1 is also known as PR-1 or protein C, and allele PRH2-3 as PR-1. The PRH1-DB allele (about 16% of the population) has an insertion of 21 repeated amino acids compared to the more frequent PRH1-PIF allele (68%). In contrast to all other PRH1 and PRH2 alleles, the PRH1-PA allele (16%) is not proteolytically cleaved.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRH1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_005563 -
VAR_005564 -
VAR_005565 -
VAR_023240 -
VAR_023242 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv475e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv2745543 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1010712 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1361137 CNV Deletion 17803354

Variation tolerance for PRH1 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 1.77; 33.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Relevant External Links for PRH1 Gene

Disorders for PRH1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PRH1 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
dental caries
  • dental caries extending into pulp
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRH1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PRH1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRH1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRH1 Gene

Publications for PRH1 Gene

  1. Structures of two HaeIII-type genes in the human salivary proline- rich protein multigene family. (PMID: 3009472) Kim H.-S. … Maeda N. (J. Biol. Chem. 1986) 2 3 4 67
  2. Different isoforms and post-translational modifications of human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins. (PMID: 15693058) Inzitari R. … Messana I. (Proteomics 2005) 3 23
  3. The intriguing heterogeneity of human salivary proline-rich proteins: Short title: Salivary proline-rich protein species. (PMID: 26375204) Manconi B. … Messana I. (J Proteomics 2016) 3
  4. Full-length transcriptome analysis of human retina-derived cell lines ARPE-19 and Y79 using the vector-capping method. (PMID: 21697133) Oshikawa M. … Kato S. (Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011) 3
  5. Susceptibility to dental caries and the salivary proline-rich proteins. (PMID: 22190937) Levine M. (Int J Dent 2011) 3

Products for PRH1 Gene

Sources for PRH1 Gene