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Aliases for PPARD Gene

Aliases for PPARD Gene

  • Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta 2 3
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta 2 5
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta 3 4
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group C Member 2 3 4
  • Nuclear Hormone Receptor 1 3 4
  • PPAR-Delta 3 4
  • PPAR-Beta 3 4
  • NR1C2 3 4
  • PPARB 3 4
  • NUC1 3 4
  • NUCI 3 4
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor Beta/Delta Variant 2 3
  • Peroxisome Proliferative Activated Receptor, Delta 2
  • NUCII 3
  • FAAR 3

External Ids for PPARD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPARD Gene

  • GC06U990097
  • GC06P035306
  • GC06P035357
  • GC06P035418
  • GC06P035031
  • GC06P035310
  • GC06P035472
  • GC06P035533

Summaries for PPARD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPARD Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GeneCards Summary for PPARD Gene

PPARD (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARD include diabetic cataract and obesity. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and transcription coactivator activity. An important paralog of this gene is NR1D2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPARD Gene

  • Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.

Tocris Summary for PPARD Gene

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta), also known as PPARbeta, is a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X receptor (RXR) to regulate gene expression.

Gene Wiki entry for PPARD Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PPARD Gene

Genomics for PPARD Gene

Regulatory Elements for PPARD Gene

Promoters for PPARD Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PPARD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PPARD Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
35,342,558 bp from pter
End:
35,428,191 bp from pter
Size:
85,634 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PPARD Gene

Genes around PPARD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPARD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPARD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPARD Gene

Proteins for PPARD Gene

  • Protein details for PPARD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q03181-PPARD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
    Protein Accession:
    Q03181
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K6J6
    • B4E3V3
    • B6ZGS1
    • B7Z3W1
    • E9PE18
    • Q5D1P0
    • Q7Z5K0
    • Q9BUD4

    Protein attributes for PPARD Gene

    Size:
    441 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49903 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PPARD Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PPARD Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PPARD Gene

Proteomics data for PPARD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PPARD Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PPARD (PPAR delta/NR1C2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PPARD Gene

Domains & Families for PPARD Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q03181

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PPARD_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPARD: view

Function for PPARD Gene

Molecular function for PPARD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta,heterodimerizing with RXR*,steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily,expressed in preadipocyte and expressed at low level in colorectal mucosa,highly expressed in CR carcinomal,down- regulated by APC through beta-catenin/TCF4 inactivation,target of nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPARD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity IEA --
GO:0004879 RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 12955147
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23455924
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPARD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPARD: view

Animal Models for PPARD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PPARD:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PPARD Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPARD Gene

Localization for PPARD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPARD Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PPARD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPARD gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
peroxisome 3
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPARD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PPARD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPARD: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PPARD Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPARD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001890 placenta development IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process NAS 15793256
GO:0006029 proteoglycan metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006091 generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS 1333051
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPARD: view

Drugs & Compounds for PPARD Gene

(64) Drugs for PPARD Gene - From: Novoseek, DGIdb, IUPHAR, ApexBio, DrugBank, HMDB, Tocris, and PharmGKB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Bezafibrate Approved Pharma Agonist, Target, agonist 12
Sulindac Approved Pharma Target, negative modulator Anti-inflammatory agent;COX inhibitor 35
Treprostinil Approved, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Target, agonist 77
Icosapent Approved Nutra Target, agonist 0
Tretinoin Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, binder 210

(63) Additional Compounds for PPARD Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
acetyl-coa
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
72-89-9
GW 0742
317318-84-6
(2E)-Decenoyl-CoA
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate CoA
  • (E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A
  • (E)-S-2-decenoic acid
  • 2-trans-Decenoyl-CoA
10018-95-8
(2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Dodec-2-enoyl-Coenzyme A
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-CoA
  • 2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A
1066-12-2
(2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA
  • trans-2-Hexadecenoyl-Coenzyme A
4460-95-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPARD: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PPARD Gene

Unigene Clusters for PPARD Gene

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPARD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - -
SP15: -
SP16:

ExUns: 15c · 15d ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:

Relevant External Links for PPARD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PPARD
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PPARD

Expression for PPARD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PPARD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPARD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PPARD Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPARD Gene Hs.696032

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PPARD Gene

Q03181-PPARD_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous with maximal levels in placenta and skeletal muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPARD: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPARD Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PPARD Gene

Orthologs for PPARD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PPARD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPARD 35
  • 99.32 (n)
  • 99.77 (a)
PPARD 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPARD 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
PPARD 35
  • 91.93 (n)
  • 96.13 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPARD 35
  • 91.69 (n)
  • 95.92 (a)
PPARD 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppard 16
Ppard 35
  • 89.51 (n)
  • 93.22 (a)
Ppard 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPARD 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PPARD 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ppard 35
  • 88.78 (n)
  • 92.25 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PPARD 35
  • 83.05 (n)
  • 88.56 (a)
PPARD 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PPARD 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ppard 35
  • 69 (n)
  • 71.16 (a)
Str.16577 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.12140 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pparda 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
ppardb 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
ppardb 35
  • 74.45 (n)
  • 81.89 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 25 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PPARD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PPARD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)

Paralogs for PPARD Gene

Paralogs for PPARD Gene

(14) SIMAP similar genes for PPARD Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPARD: view

Variants for PPARD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PPARD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs9794 -- 35,428,018(+) GCCCC(A/C/G)ACCCG utr-variant-3-prime
rs760783 -- 35,428,227(-) CCTGT(A/C)AGCCC downstream-variant-500B
rs1053041 -- 35,427,415(+) CCTGC(G/T)CCCAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1053046 -- 35,427,801(+) ATTCT(A/G)TGTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1040436 -- 35,400,132(-) GAGAC(C/T)TCTCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPARD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830641 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv885798 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2661487 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv462907 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv470812 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv528351 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv885799 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv519370 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv885800 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PPARD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 5.76% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.35; 7.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PPARD Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PPARD
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PPARD

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPARD Gene

Disorders for PPARD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PPARD Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
diabetic cataract
  • cataract - diabetic
obesity
  • obesity, association with
atherosclerosis
  • arteriosclerosis
colorectal cancer
  • colorectal cancer, somatic
diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent
  • diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPARD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PPARD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PPARD
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PPARD
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PPARD
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPARD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PPARD Gene

Publications for PPARD Gene

  1. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta influence sulindac sulfide-mediated p21WAF1/CIP1 upregulation in a human prostate epithelial cell line. (PMID: 16091736) Jarvis M.C. … Palmer C.N. (Oncogene 2005) 3 23 25 26
  2. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors. (PMID: 10198642) Xu H.E. … Milburn M.V. (Mol. Cell 1999) 3 23 25 26
  3. PPARdelta is an APC-regulated target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (PMID: 10555149) He T.C. … Kinzler K.W. (Cell 1999) 3 23 25 26
  4. Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids. (PMID: 1333051) Schmidt A. … Rodan G.A. (Mol. Endocrinol. 1992) 2 3 4 67
  5. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce colorectal cancer cell apoptosis by suppressing 14-3-3epsilon. (PMID: 17409426) Liou J.Y. … Wu K.K. (Cancer Res. 2007) 23 25 26

Products for PPARD Gene

Sources for PPARD Gene

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