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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PPARD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC06P035310

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta

(Previous names: peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, delta)
Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta1 2     PPAR-beta2 3
NUC12 3 5     PPAR-delta2 3
Nuclear Hormone Receptor 12 3     PPARB2 3
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group C Member 22 3     Peroxisome Proliferative Activated Receptor, Delta1
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta2 3     FAAR2
NR1C22 3     NUCII2
NUCI2 3     Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor Beta/Delta Variant 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 92351   Entrez Gene: 54672   Ensembl: ENSG000001120337   OMIM: 6004095   UniProtKB: Q031813   

Export aliases for PPARD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06U990097 GC06P035306 GC06P035357 GC06P035418 GC06P035031


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PPARD Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PPARs are nuclear
hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by
cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic
diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of
ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of
transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in
colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor
suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of
this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate
splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PPARD Gene: 
PPARD (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARD include inverted papilloma, and colorectal cancer, and among its related super-pathways are Nuclear Receptors and Gene Expression. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is RORC.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as
hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic
acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target
genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for
the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand

summary for PPARD Gene:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta), also known as PPARbeta, is a member of the
nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X
receptor (RXR) to regulate gene expression. PPARdelta display a ubiquitous expression pattern and is thought
to regulate placental and gut development, fatty acid oxidation, adaptive thermogenesis, control of cell
proliferation and differentiation and tissue repair. The human gene encoding PPARdelta has been localized to
chromosome 6 (6p21.2).

Gene Wiki entry for PPARD (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000006.11  NT_007592.15  NC_018917.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PPARD gene promoter:
         TBP   AP-1   ATF-2   c-Rel   PPAR-gamma1   TFIID   c-Jun   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PPARD

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PPARD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.2

PPARD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PPARD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P035310:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
35,310,335 bp from pter      End:
35,395,968 bp from pter
Size:
85,634 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta  
Size: 441 amino acids; 49903 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor
Subcellular location: Nucleus
6/23 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PPARD (see all 23):
1GWX (3D)        1Y0S (3D)        2AWH (3D)        2B50 (3D)        2BAW (3D)        2ENV (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K6J6 B4E3V3 B6ZGS1 B7Z3W1 E9PE18 Q5D1P0 Q7Z5K0 Q9BUD4
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q03181-1   Q03181-2   Q03181-3   Q03181-4   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PPARD: NX_Q03181

Explore proteomics data for PPARD at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q03181

  • PPARD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PPARD Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001165289.1  NP_001165290.1  NP_001165291.1  NP_006229.1  NP_803184.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000337063   ENSP00000310928   ENSP00000414372   ENSP00000353916   ENSP00000413314  
     ENSP00000410837   ENSP00000443759  
    Reactome Protein details: Q03181
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PPARD: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for PPARD
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PPARD
    OriGene MassSpec for PPARD 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PPARD
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PPARD
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus NAS11551955
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--

    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PPARD Antibody Products: 
    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PPARD (PPAR delta/NR1C2)
    OriGene Antibodies for PPARD
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PPARD
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PPARD
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PPARD
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PPARD
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PPARD 

    Assay Products for PPARD: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PPARD
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PPARD
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    NR: Nuclear hormone receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/&delta 
    1C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    5/7 InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR008946 Nucl_hormone_rcpt_ligand-bd
     IPR003075 1Cnucl_rcpt_B
     IPR001723 Str_hrmn_rcpt
     IPR003074 1Cnucl_rcpt
     IPR013088 Znf_NHR/GATA

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q03181

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q03181

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001723 Steroid hormone receptor signature
    IPB003074 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (1C nuclear receptor) signature
    IPB003075 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Similarity: Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain


    PPARD for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as
    hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic
    acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target
    genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for
    the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PPARD:
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta,heterodimerizing with RXR*,steroid/thyroid hormone receptor
    superfamily,expressed in preadipocyte and expressed at low level in colorectal mucosa,highly expressed in CR
    carcinomal,down- regulated by APC through beta-catenin/TCF4 inactivation,target of nonsteroidal inflammatory
    drugs

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/11 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding ISS--
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity NAS11551955
    GO:0003707steroid hormone receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0004879ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity IDA12955147
    GO:0005504fatty acid binding NAS--
         
    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         14 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Ppard):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis 
     growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  reproductive system  tumorigenesis 

    PPARD for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PPARD: Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm2Rev

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PPARD 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PPARD

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PPARD 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PPARD 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PPARD
    8/37 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARD (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-877* hsa-miR-9 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-548am
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PPARD
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PPARD

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PPARD
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PPARD

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PPARD (see all 24)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PPARD
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): PPARD (NM_177435)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PPARD
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PPARD
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PPARD 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PPARD 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PPARD
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PPARD
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PPARD


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PPARD About   (see all 15)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway0.68
    Nuclear Receptors0.68
    2Generic Transcription Pathway
    Gene Expression0.47
    Generic Transcription Pathway0.47
    3Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    PPAR Pathway0.66
    4Wnt Signaling Pathway
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency0.55
    5Wnt signaling pathway
    Wnt signaling pathway0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for PPARD
        Transcription PPAR Pathway
    Transcription factors in neurogenesis

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PPARD
        WNT Signaling
    PPAR Pathway

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PPARD
        Transcription PPAR Pathway

    5/6 BioSystems Pathways for PPARD (see all 6)
        Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency
    Adipogenesis
    Nuclear Receptors
    Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity
    Energy Metabolism

    3        Reactome Pathways for PPARD
        Generic Transcription Pathway
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Gene Expression


    4         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PPARD):
        PPAR signaling pathway
    Wnt signaling pathway
    Pathways in cancer
    Acute myeloid leukemia


    PPARD for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PPARD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/77 Interacting proteins for PPARD (Q031812, 3 ENSP000003109284) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 77)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SMAD9O151982, 3MINT-62125 I2D: score=3 
    ENSG00000227322P287023, ENSP000004025904I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000402590
    ENSG00000206289P287023I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000228333P287023I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000231321P287023I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/36 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 36):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ISS--
    GO:0001890placenta development ----
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process NAS15793256
    GO:0006091generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS1333051
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent ----

    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PPARD for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for PPARD:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PPARD

    Compounds for PPARD available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GSK 0660Selective PPARdelta antagonist[1014691-61-2]
    L-165,041 Potent PPARdelta agonist[79558-09-1]
    GW 0742 Highly selective, potent PPARdelta agonist [317318-84-6]
    GSK 3787Potent and selective PPARdelta antagonist[188591-46-0]

    10/32 HMDB Compounds for PPARD (see all 32)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A (see all 15)10018-95-8--
    (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 4)1066-12-2--
    (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoAtrans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA (see all 4)4460-95-1--
    (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A (see all 16)10018-94-7--
    (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA(2E)-Tetradecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 8)38795-33-4--
    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA2-methylbutanoyl-CoA (see all 11)6712-02-3--
    2-Methylhexanoyl-CoA2-Methylhexanoyl-CoEnzyme A (see all 5)----
    3Z-dodecenoyl-CoAS-[2-[3-[[(2R)-4-[[[(2R,3R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]amino]propanoylamino]ethyl] (Z)-dodec-3-enethioate (see all 4)2152-91-2--
    Acetyl-CoAS-Acetyl coenzyme A (see all 13)72-89-9--
    Acrylyl-CoAAcryloyl coenzyme A (see all 14)5776-58-9--

    10 DrugBank Compounds for PPARD    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    IcosapentEicosapentaenoic acid (see all 4)10417-94-4targetagonist11552681 10198642 17632107 16507691 9610365
    Sulindac-- 38194-50-2targetnegative modulator16091736 17409426 16418176 14506281 10555149
    Heptyl-Beta-D-Glucopyranoside-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    (2S)-2-{3-[({[2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbonyl}amino)methyl]-4-methoxybenzyl}butanoic acid-- --target--10592235
    2-({[3-(3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-ylsulfonyl)phenyl]carbonyl}amino)benzoic acid-- --target--10592235
    3-{5-methoxy-1-[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}propanoic acid-- --target--10592235
    BezafibrateBezafibrat (see all 3)41859-67-0targetagonist16168052
    Treprostinil-- 81846-19-7targetagonist16239641
    {4-[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propoxy]phenoxy}acetic acid-- --target--10592235
    (11E)-OCTADEC-11-ENOIC ACID-- --target----

    9 IUPHAR Ligands for PPARD (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/&delta)    About this table 
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    GW0742X
    Agonist915939051 12699745
    L-783483
    AgonistFull agonist910037770
    GW501516
    AgonistFull agonist8.9611309497 12699745
    L-796449
    AgonistFull agonist8.710037770 15293980
    L-165041
    AgonistFull agonist8.2210037770 10691680
    all-trans-retinoic acid
    AgonistFull agonist7.7712963727
    GW2433
    AgonistFull agonist6.5710691680 9427656
    GSK0660
    AntagonistAntagonist6.5217975020
    GW9578
    AgonistFull agonist5.911354382

    10/64 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PPARD gene (see all 64)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gw501516 97.6 92 17500064 (5), 17461989 (4), 18684227 (3), 16896941 (3) (see all 38)
    gw 0742 93.1 19 18048767 (3), 18627005 (3), 16239641 (1), 20066433 (1) (see all 9)
    gw2433 83 2 16546385 (1), 10198642 (1)
    carbacyclin 75.8 3 11087869 (1), 11093153 (1)
    rosiglitazone 74.1 10 19067734 (1), 18162399 (1), 15764152 (1), 15821150 (1) (see all 10)
    gw 7647 73.2 2 18003597 (1), 11354382 (1)
    fatty acid 70.5 106 10991946 (4), 15589693 (3), 16713711 (3), 20185762 (3) (see all 52)
    gw9662 70.1 4 12022867 (2), 16038868 (1), 18347139 (1)
    wy14643 68.8 3 10479651 (1), 19667161 (1), 16193754 (1)
    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j2 67.2 3 15821150 (1), 12852255 (1), 11950812 (1)

    2 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PPARD gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    docetaxelCA  
    thalidomideCA  

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PPARD

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PPARD gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001171818.1  NM_001171819.1  NM_001171820.1  NM_006238.4  NM_177435.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PPARD:

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
    Hs.696032  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001171818
    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000337400 ENST00000311565(uc003okn.3) ENST00000448077(uc011dtb.2)
    ENST00000360694(uc003okm.3) ENST00000418635(uc011dtc.2) ENST00000444397(uc003okl.3 uc010jvv.1)
    ENST00000540939

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PPARD
    8/37 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARD (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-877* hsa-miR-9 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-548am
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD 3' UTR sequence
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB099507.1 AB307691.1 AK122614.1 AK291661.1 AK296425.1 AK304482.1 AK304878.1 AY919140.1 
    AY927506.1 AY927592.1 BC002715.2 BC007578.1 BC127809.1 HQ692865.1 XR_108638.2 XR_133424.1 
    XR_171568.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.100843661  DT.95174839  DT.40313999  DT.95244219  DT.412234  DT.91831275  DT.100698132  DT.401767 
    DT.40284287  DT.91693783  DT.91822276  DT.121312188  DT.121312232  DT.91750054  DT.92028775  DT.92427495 
    DT.95174837  DT.121312174  DT.91747575 

    24/153 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 153):

    AK122614 BG033921 AI189844 NM_177435 BM915390 BI051277 BF507717 CB152644 
    AI351364 AU131142 AL134655 BG425091 BX505518 CB155475 NM_006238 BM047291 
    AI799447 BM906047 H41951 BG676969 AA368600 BF222989 BG744546 BQ441091 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/16 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPARD (see all 16)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ·
    SP1:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                             
    SP2:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                             
    SP3:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                             
    SP4:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -     -     -     -     -     -               
    SP5:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               

    ExUns: 15c · 15d ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:        -                           
    SP2:        -                           
    SP3:                                    
    SP4:        -                           
    SP5:                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PPARD

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PPARD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCGCGTCCCT
    PPARD Expression
    About this image


    See PPARD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PPARD

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.696032

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous with maximal levels in placenta and skeletal muscle

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PPARD (see all 11): 
              WNT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for PPARD gene from 6/14 species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ppard1 , 5 peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta1, 5 89.32(n)1
    92.5(a)1
      17 (14.64 cM)5
    190151  NM_011145.31  NP_035275.11 
     282327545 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PPARD1 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta 82.95(n)
    87.5(a)
      395479  NM_204728.1  NP_990059.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PPARD6
    Uncharacterized protein
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(120478307-120542623)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.165772 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 79.08(n)    BX719635.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AF342937.12   -- 79.32(n)   30750  AF342937.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Eip75B6
    Ecdysone-induced protein 75B
    9(a)
    1 → many
    3L(17944053-18057796)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PPARD gene
    RORC2  NR1D22  RORA2  PPARA2  NR1D12  RORB2  PPARG2  
    13 SIMAP similar genes for PPARD using alignment to 3 protein entries:     PPARD_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NR1C2    NR1C1    PPARA    PPARG    NR1C3    PFKM
    RARB    NR1B2    BCOR-RARA    NR1B3    RARG    RARA
    NR1B1

    PPARD for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/1834 SNPs in PPARD are shown (see all 1834)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1852044921,2
    --35223039(+) CCGTCC/TGGGAG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1905835541,2
    --35223051(+) GAGGTA/GGGGGG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1485754171,2
    C--35223148(+) TCTGCC/TCGGCC 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1125420181,2
    C,F--35223253(+) GAAAAC/GATTGA 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00WA 2
    rs1932114841,2
    --35223329(+) GCACTA/GAGAAA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1412465451,2
    --35223345(+) TTCTGC/TCTTGG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1165361261,2
    C,F--35223380(+) GAGGGG/CTGAGT 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1843537671,2
    C--35223453(+) TACTCA/GTCAAT 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1380286021,2
    C--35223613(+) ATGTT-/AAGG  
            
    GAGGG
    5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1112415671,2
    C,F--35223715(+) AAAAAG/ATAGGG 5 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.05WA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PPARD (35310335 - 35395968 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for PPARD:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2661487CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv528351CNV Loss19592680
    nsv470812CNV Loss18288195
    nsv830641CNV Loss17160897
    nsv462907CNV Loss19166990
    nsv885798CNV Loss21882294
    nsv885800CNV Loss21882294
    nsv885799CNV Loss21882294
    nsv519370CNV Loss19592680


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PPARD
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 600409    OMIM disorders: --

    20/60 diseases for PPARD (see all 60):    About MalaCards
    inverted papilloma    colorectal cancer    atherosclerosis    down syndrome critical region
    familial combined hyperlipidemia    biliary tract cancer    obesity    familial adenomatous polyposis
    hypertriglyceridemia    papilloma    coronary heart disease    lipodystrophy
    gestational diabetes    insulin resistance    endometrial adenocarcinoma    skin disease
    metabolic disorders    macular degeneration    colon cancer    vasculitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PPARD:
    Diabetes mellitus

    PPARD for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/42 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PPARD gene (see all 42)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    insulin sensitivity 67.1 20 16306381 (3), 17869249 (2), 16187688 (1), 16804087 (1) (see all 15)
    dyslipidemia 63.6 16 16187688 (1), 16239641 (1), 19636418 (1), 16168052 (1) (see all 12)
    metabolic disorder 60.3 19 17148604 (2), 20200337 (2), 17431579 (1), 18036566 (1) (see all 10)
    insulin resistance 56.4 26 20185762 (3), 18684227 (2), 18220606 (2), 15733729 (1) (see all 15)
    obesity 49.9 40 14988273 (3), 16053787 (3), 16187688 (2), 18657264 (2) (see all 20)
    atherosclerosis 47.5 15 19061437 (2), 18337495 (2), 17512197 (1), 18048767 (1) (see all 12)
    inflammation 43.8 30 19874267 (2), 19061437 (2), 16698033 (2), 12970571 (2) (see all 18)
    colorectal cancer 39.1 20 18720000 (3), 11087869 (2), 18214615 (2), 16361076 (1) (see all 11)
    familial adenomatous polyposis 38.9 4 20481327 (1), 12489852 (1), 11226285 (1)
    colon cancer 33.8 18 12009300 (2), 19723884 (2), 20481327 (1), 10947870 (1) (see all 10)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PPARD
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PPARD (67 documents)

    Export disorders for PPARD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PPARD gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 524):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PPARD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. (PubMed id 10198642)1, 2, 7, 9 Xu H.E....Milburn M.V. (1999)
    2. Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids. (PubMed id 1333051)1, 2, 3 Schmidt A.... Rodan G.A. (1992)
    3. A single nucleotide polymorphism on exon-4 of the gene encoding PPAR{delta} is associated with reduced height in adults and children. (PubMed id 19383774)1, 4, 9 Burch L.R....Palmer C.N. (2009)
    4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PPARD in combination with the Gly482Ser substitution of PGC-1A and the Pro12Ala substitution of PPARG2 predict the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes: the STOP-NIDDM trial. (PubMed id 16804087)1, 4, 9 Andrulionyte L....Laakso M. (2006)
    5. Variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene in relation to common metabolic traits in 7,495 middle-aged white people. (PubMed id 17431579)1, 4, 9 Grarup N....Pedersen O. (2007)
    6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with skeletal muscle glucose uptake. (PubMed id 16306381)1, 4, 9 Vanttinen M....Laakso M. (2005)
    7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta geno type influences metabolic phenotype and may influence lipid response to statin therapy in humans: a genetics of diabetes audit and research Tayside study. (PubMed id 20200337)1, 4, 9 Burch L.R....Palmer C.N. (2010)
    8. PPARD haplotype influences cholesterol metabolism but is no risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 16979821)1, 4, 9 Holzapfel J....Kolsch H. (2006)
    9. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T/C with body mass index and interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha L162V. (PubMed id 16652134)1, 4, 9 Aberle J....Seedorf U. (2006)
    10. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study. (PubMed id 18379566)1, 4, 9 Lagou V....Pitsiladis Y.P. (2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5467 HGNC: 9235 AceView: PPARD Ensembl:ENSG00000112033 euGenes: HUgn5467
    ECgene: PPARD Kegg: 5467 H-InvDB: PPARD

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PPARD Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PPARD Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/ppard/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxisome_proliferator-activated_receptor

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PPARD gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PPARD

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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