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PPARD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 65
GCID: GC06P035310

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta

(Previous names: peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, delta)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta1 2     PPAR-beta2 3
NUC12 3 5     PPAR-delta2 3
Nuclear Hormone Receptor 12 3     PPARB2 3
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group C Member 22 3     Peroxisome Proliferative Activated Receptor, Delta1
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta2 3     FAAR2
NR1C22 3     NUCII2
NUCI2 3     Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor Beta/Delta Variant 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 92351   Entrez Gene: 54672   Ensembl: ENSG000001120337   OMIM: 6004095   UniProtKB: Q031813   

Export aliases for PPARD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06U990097 GC06P035306 GC06P035357 GC06P035418 GC06P035031


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PPARD Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PPARs are nuclear
hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by
cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic
diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of
ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of
transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in
colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor
suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of
this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate
splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PPARD Gene:
PPARD (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARD include inverted papilloma, and diabetic cataract. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is VDR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as
hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic
acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target
genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for
the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand

summary for PPARD Gene:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta), also known as PPARbeta, is a member of the
nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X
receptor (RXR) to regulate gene expression. PPARdelta display a ubiquitous expression pattern and is thought
to regulate placental and gut development, fatty acid oxidation, adaptive thermogenesis, control of cell
proliferation and differentiation and tissue repair. The human gene encoding PPARdelta has been localized to
chromosome 6 (6p21.2).

Gene Wiki entry for PPARD (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PPARD gene promoter:
         TBP   AP-1   ATF-2   c-Rel   PPAR-gamma1   TFIID   c-Jun   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PPARD

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PPARD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.2

PPARD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PPARD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P035310:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
35,310,335 bp from pter      End:
35,395,968 bp from pter
Size:
85,634 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta  
Size: 441 amino acids; 49903 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PPARD (see all 23):
1GWX (3D)        1Y0S (3D)        2AWH (3D)        2B50 (3D)        2BAW (3D)        2ENV (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K6J6 B4E3V3 B6ZGS1 B7Z3W1 E9PE18 Q5D1P0 Q7Z5K0 Q9BUD4
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q03181-1   Q03181-2   Q03181-3   Q03181-4   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PPARD: NX_Q03181

Explore proteomics data for PPARD at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PPARD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001165289.1  NP_001165290.1  NP_001165291.1  NP_006229.1  NP_803184.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000337063   ENSP00000310928   ENSP00000414372   ENSP00000353916   ENSP00000413314  
     ENSP00000410837   ENSP00000443759  
    Reactome Protein details: Q03181

    PPARD Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for PPARD
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PPARD
    OriGene MassSpec for PPARD
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PPARD
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PPARD
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    PPARD Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PPARD (PPAR delta/NR1C2)
    OriGene Antibodies for PPARD
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PPARD
    Novus Biologicals PPARD Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PPARD
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PPARD
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PPARD

    PPARD Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PPARD
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PPARD
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NR: Nuclear hormone receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta
    1C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR008946 Nucl_hormone_rcpt_ligand-bd
     IPR003075 1Cnucl_rcpt_B
     IPR001723 Str_hrmn_rcpt
     IPR003074 1Cnucl_rcpt
     IPR013088 Znf_NHR/GATA

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q03181

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q03181

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001723 Steroid hormone receptor signature
    IPB003074 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (1C nuclear receptor) signature
    IPB003075 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Similarity: Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain


    PPARD for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as
    hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic
    acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target
    genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for
    the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PPARD:
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta,heterodimerizing with RXR*,steroid/thyroid hormone receptor
    superfamily,expressed in preadipocyte and expressed at low level in colorectal mucosa,highly expressed in CR
    carcinomal,down- regulated by APC through beta-catenin/TCF4 inactivation,target of nonsteroidal inflammatory
    drugs

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding ISS--
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity NAS11551955
    GO:0003707steroid hormone receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0003713transcription coactivator activity IEA--
    GO:0004879ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity IDA12955147
         
    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         14 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 9 alleles(MGI details for Ppard):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis 
     growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  reproductive system  tumorigenesis 

    PPARD for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PPARD: Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm2Rev

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PPARD
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PPARD

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PPARD
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PPARD

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PPARD:
    hsa-mir-331-3p (MIRT043275), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049777)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PPARD using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARD (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-877* hsa-miR-9 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-548am
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PPARD
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PPARD

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PPARD

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PPARD (see all 24)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PPARD
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): PPARD (NM_177435)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PPARD
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PPARD

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PPARD
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PPARD 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PPARD


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181: Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    peroxisome4
    extracellular1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus NAS11551955
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--

    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PPARD About   (see all 15)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway0.67
    Nuclear Receptors0.67
    2Gene Expression
    Generic Transcription Pathway0.40
    Gene Expression0.40
    3Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    PPAR Pathway0.66
    4Wnt Signaling Pathway (WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency0.55
    5Wnt signaling pathway (KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway0.40

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PPARD
        WNT Signaling
    PPAR Pathway

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PPARD
        Transcription PPAR Pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PPARD (see all 6)
        Adipogenesis
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency
    Nuclear Receptors
    Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity
    Energy Metabolism

    1 Reactome Pathway for PPARD
        Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway


    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PPARD):
        PPAR signaling pathway
    Wnt signaling pathway
    Pathways in cancer
    Acute myeloid leukemia


    PPARD for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PPARD (see all 11): 
              WNT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PPARD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PPARD (Q031811, 2, 3 ENSP000003109284) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 81)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SMAD9O151982, 3MINT-62125 I2D: score=3 
    ENSG00000227322P287023, ENSP000004025904I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000402590
    ENSG00000206289P287023I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000228333P287023I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000231321P287023I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 55):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ISS--
    GO:0001890placenta development ----
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process NAS15793256
    GO:0006029proteoglycan metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006091generation of precursor metabolites and energy TAS1333051

    PPARD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PPARD
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for PPARD available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    GSK 0660Selective PPARdelta antagonist[1014691-61-2]
    L-165,041 Potent PPARdelta agonist[79558-09-1]
    GW 0742 Highly selective, potent PPARdelta agonist [317318-84-6]
    GSK 3787Potent and selective PPARdelta antagonist[188591-46-0]

    Selected HMDB Compounds for PPARD (see all 32)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A (see all 15)10018-95-8--
    (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 4)1066-12-2--
    (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoAtrans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA (see all 4)4460-95-1--
    (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A (see all 16)10018-94-7--
    (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA(2E)-Tetradecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 8)38795-33-4--
    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA2-methylbutanoyl-CoA (see all 11)6712-02-3--
    2-Methylhexanoyl-CoA2-Methylhexanoyl-CoEnzyme A (see all 5)----
    3Z-dodecenoyl-CoAS-[2-[3-[[(2R)-4-[[[(2R,3R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]amino]propanoylamino]ethyl] (Z)-dodec-3-enethioate (see all 4)2152-91-2--
    Acetyl-CoAS-Acetyl coenzyme A (see all 13)72-89-9--
    Acrylyl-CoAAcryloyl coenzyme A (see all 14)5776-58-9--

    10 DrugBank Compounds for PPARD    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    IcosapentEicosapentaenoic acid (see all 4)10417-94-4targetagonist11552681 10198642 17632107 16507691 9610365
    Sulindac-- 38194-50-2targetnegative modulator16091736 17409426 16418176 14506281 10555149
    Heptyl-Beta-D-Glucopyranoside-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    (2S)-2-{3-[({[2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbonyl}amino)methyl]-4-methoxybenzyl}butanoic acid-- --target--10592235
    2-({[3-(3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-ylsulfonyl)phenyl]carbonyl}amino)benzoic acid-- --target--10592235
    3-{5-methoxy-1-[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}propanoic acid-- --target--10592235
    BezafibrateBezafibrat (see all 3)41859-67-0targetagonist16168052
    Treprostinil-- 81846-19-7targetagonist16239641
    {4-[3-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)propoxy]phenoxy}acetic acid-- --target--10592235
    (11E)-OCTADEC-11-ENOIC ACID-- --target----

    9 IUPHAR Ligands for PPARD (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    GW0742X
    AgonistFull agonist915939051 12699745
    L-783483
    AgonistFull agonist910037770
    GW501516
    AgonistFull agonist8.9611309497 12699745
    L-796449
    AgonistFull agonist8.710037770 15293980
    L-165041
    AgonistFull agonist8.2210037770 10691680
    all-trans-retinoic acid
    AgonistFull agonist7.7712963727
    GW2433
    AgonistFull agonist6.5710691680 9427656
    GSK0660
    AntagonistAntagonist6.5217975020
    GW9578
    AgonistFull agonist5.911354382

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PPARD gene (see all 64)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    gw501516 97.6 92 17500064 (5), 17461989 (4), 18684227 (3), 16896941 (3) (see all 38)
    gw 0742 93.1 19 18048767 (3), 18627005 (3), 16239641 (1), 20066433 (1) (see all 9)
    gw2433 83 2 16546385 (1), 10198642 (1)
    carbacyclin 75.8 3 11087869 (1), 11093153 (1)
    rosiglitazone 74.1 10 19067734 (1), 18162399 (1), 15764152 (1), 15821150 (1) (see all 10)
    gw 7647 73.2 2 18003597 (1), 11354382 (1)
    fatty acid 70.5 106 10991946 (4), 15589693 (3), 16713711 (3), 20185762 (3) (see all 52)
    gw9662 70.1 4 12022867 (2), 16038868 (1), 18347139 (1)
    wy14643 68.8 3 10479651 (1), 19667161 (1), 16193754 (1)
    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j2 67.2 3 15821150 (1), 12852255 (1), 11950812 (1)

    2 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PPARD gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    docetaxelCA  
    thalidomideCA  



    PPARD for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PPARD gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001171818.1  NM_001171819.1  NM_001171820.1  NM_006238.4  NM_177435.2  

    7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000337400 ENST00000311565(uc003okn.3) ENST00000448077(uc011dtb.2)
    ENST00000360694(uc003okm.3) ENST00000418635(uc011dtc.2) ENST00000444397(uc003okl.3 uc010jvv.1)
    ENST00000540939

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PPARD using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARD (see all 37):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-877* hsa-miR-9 hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-526b* hsa-miR-548am
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPPARD 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PPARD
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PPARD
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PPARD (see all 24)
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    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 153):

    AK122614 BX505518 NM_006238 BF507717 BM915390 CB155475 BG033921 NM_177435 
    BG425091 AL134655 BM047291 CB152644 AI351364 BI051277 AI189844 AU131142 
    AI365335 BP336904 AA410962 BC007578 BG676969 H41951 BQ011317 BG743857 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPARD (see all 16)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ·
    SP1:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                             
    SP2:                                -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                             
    SP3:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                       -                                             
    SP4:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                 -     -     -     -     -     -               
    SP5:                    -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               

    ExUns: 15c · 15d ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:        -                           
    SP2:        -                           
    SP3:                                    
    SP4:        -                           
    SP5:                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PPARD

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PPARD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CCGCGTCCCT
    PPARD Expression
    About this image


    PPARD expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Retina
     
     Thyroid (Endocrine System)
    PPARD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PPARD Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARD_HUMAN, Q03181
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous with maximal levels in placenta and skeletal muscle

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PPARD (see all 11): 
              WNT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat
              Stem Cells in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PPARD gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ppard1 , 5 peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta1, 5 89.51(n)1
    93.22(a)1
      17 (14.64 cM)5
    190151  NM_011145.31  NP_035275.11 
     282327545 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PPARD1 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta 83.05(n)
    88.56(a)
      395479  NM_204728.1  NP_990059.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PPARD6
    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
    77(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(120478307-120542623)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.165772 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 79.08(n)    BX719635.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii AF342937.12   -- 79.32(n)   30750  AF342937.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PPARD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PPARD gene
    VDR2  RARG2  NR1I22  PPARA2  THRB2  RARA2  NR1H42  NR1D22  
    RARB2  RORA2  RORB2  RORC2  NR1D12  NR1I32  PPARG2  NR1H22  
    THRA2  NR1H32  
    14 SIMAP similar genes for PPARD using alignment to 3 protein entries:     PPARD_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NR1C2    NR1C1    PPARA    PPARG    NR1C3    VDR
    PFKM    RARB    NR1B2    BCOR-RARA    NR1B3    RARG
    RARA    NR1B1

    PPARD for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PPARD (see all 1834)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1852044921,2
    --35223039(+) CCGTCC/TGGGAG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1905835541,2
    --35223051(+) GAGGTA/GGGGGG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1485754171,2
    C--35223148(+) TCTGCC/TCGGCC 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1125420181,2
    C,F--35223253(+) GAAAAC/GATTGA 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00WA 2
    rs1932114841,2
    --35223329(+) GCACTA/GAGAAA 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1412465451,2
    --35223345(+) TTCTGC/TCTTGG 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1165361261,2
    C,F--35223380(+) GAGGGG/CTGAGT 5 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1843537671,2
    C--35223453(+) TACTCA/GTCAAT 5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1380286021,2
    C--35223613(+) ATGTT-/AAGG  
            
    GAGGG
    5 -- us2k10--------
    rs1112415671,2
    C,F--35223715(+) AAAAAG/ATAGGG 5 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.05WA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PPARD (35310335 - 35395968 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 9 variations for PPARD:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2661487CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv528351CNV Loss19592680
    nsv470812CNV Loss18288195
    nsv830641CNV Loss17160897
    nsv462907CNV Loss19166990
    nsv885798CNV Loss21882294
    nsv885800CNV Loss21882294
    nsv885799CNV Loss21882294
    nsv519370CNV Loss19592680

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PPARD
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PPARD
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PPARD

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 600409    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for PPARD (see all 59):    
    About MalaCards
    inverted papilloma    diabetic cataract    colorectal cancer    atherosclerosis
    familial combined hyperlipidemia    hypertriglyceridemia    obesity    familial adenomatous polyposis
    gestational diabetes    papilloma    coronary heart disease    lipodystrophy
    down syndrome    insulin resistance    endometrial adenocarcinoma    skin disease
    burns    age related macular degeneration    polycystic ovary syndrome    hepatoblastoma

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PPARD:
    Diabetes mellitus

    PPARD for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PPARD gene (see all 42)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    insulin sensitivity 67.1 20 16306381 (3), 17869249 (2), 16187688 (1), 16804087 (1) (see all 15)
    dyslipidemia 63.6 16 16187688 (1), 16239641 (1), 19636418 (1), 16168052 (1) (see all 12)
    metabolic disorder 60.3 19 17148604 (2), 20200337 (2), 17431579 (1), 18036566 (1) (see all 10)
    insulin resistance 56.4 26 20185762 (3), 18684227 (2), 18220606 (2), 15733729 (1) (see all 15)
    obesity 49.9 40 14988273 (3), 16053787 (3), 16187688 (2), 18657264 (2) (see all 20)
    atherosclerosis 47.5 15 19061437 (2), 18337495 (2), 17512197 (1), 18048767 (1) (see all 12)
    inflammation 43.8 30 19874267 (2), 19061437 (2), 16698033 (2), 12970571 (2) (see all 18)
    colorectal cancer 39.1 20 18720000 (3), 11087869 (2), 18214615 (2), 16361076 (1) (see all 11)
    familial adenomatous polyposis 38.9 4 20481327 (1), 12489852 (1), 11226285 (1)
    colon cancer 33.8 18 12009300 (2), 19723884 (2), 20481327 (1), 10947870 (1) (see all 10)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PPARD
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PPARD (67 documents)

    Export disorders for PPARD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PPARD gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 535):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PPARD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors. (PubMed id 10198642)1, 2, 7, 9 Xu H.E.... Milburn M.V. (Mol. Cell 1999)
    2. Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids. (PubMed id 1333051)1, 2, 3 Schmidt A.... Rodan G.A. (Mol. Endocrinol. 1992)
    3. A single nucleotide polymorphism on exon-4 of the gene encoding PPARdelta is associated with reduced height in adults and children. (PubMed id 19383774)1, 4, 9 Burch L.R....Palmer C.N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PPARD in combination with the Gly482Ser substitution of PGC-1A and the Pro12Ala substitution of PPARG2 predict the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes: the STOP-NIDDM trial. (PubMed id 16804087)1, 4, 9 Andrulionyte L....Laakso M. (Diabetes 2006)
    5. Variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene in relation to common metabolic traits in 7,495 middle-aged white people. (PubMed id 17431579)1, 4, 9 Grarup N....Pedersen O. (Diabetologia 2007)
    6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with skeletal muscle glucose uptake. (PubMed id 16306381)1, 4, 9 VAonttinen M....Laakso M. (Diabetes 2005)
    7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genotype influences metabolic phenotype and may influence lipid response to statin therapy in humans: a genetics of diabetes audit and research Tayside study. (PubMed id 20200337)1, 4, 9 Burch L.R....Palmer C.N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010)
    8. PPARD haplotype influences cholesterol metabolism but is no risk factor of Alzheimer's disease. (PubMed id 16979821)1, 4, 9 Holzapfel J....KAPlsch H. (Neurosci. Lett. 2006)
    9. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T/C with body mass index and interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha L162V. (PubMed id 16652134)1, 4, 9 Aberle J....Seedorf U. (Int J Obes (Lond) 2006)
    10. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study. (PubMed id 18379566)1, 4, 9 Lagou V....Pitsiladis Y.P. (Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5467 HGNC: 9235 AceView: PPARD Ensembl:ENSG00000112033 euGenes: HUgn5467
    ECgene: PPARD Kegg: 5467 H-InvDB: PPARD

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PPARD Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PPARD Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/ppard/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxisome_proliferator-activated_receptor

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PPARD gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PPARD

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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