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PPARA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC22P046546

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha

(Previous names: peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, alpha)
(Previous symbol: PPAR)
  See PPARA-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha1 2     PPAR-alpha2 3
PPAR1 2 3 5     PPARalpha2
Peroxisome Proliferative Activated Receptor, Alpha1 2     hPPAR2
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group C Member 12 3     Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor Alpha Variant 32
NR1C12 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 92321   Entrez Gene: 54652   Ensembl: ENSG000001869517   OMIM: 1709985   UniProtKB: Q078693   

Export aliases for PPARA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC22P043114 GC22P044760 GC22P044868 GC22P044954 GC22P029490


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PPARA Gene:
Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this
term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular
organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid
metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called
PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes
involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely
related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha,
which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described
for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PPARA Gene:
PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARA include hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, and tularemia. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity and protein domain specific binding. An important paralog of this gene is VDR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869
Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous
ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a
naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety (By similarity). Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as
hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions
as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization
with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2

summary for PPARA Gene:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of
ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X receptor (RXR) to regulate
gene expression. PPARalpha is located primarily in the liver, adipose tissue, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle
and large intestine where it is thought to regulate fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, gluconeogenesis,
ketogenesis and lipoprotein assembly. The human gene encoding PPARalpha has been localized to chromosome 22
(22q12-13.1).

Gene Wiki entry for PPARA (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000022.10  NT_011520.13  NC_018933.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PPARA gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-1   AP-2alpha isoform 4   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): PPARA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PPARA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PPARA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 22q13.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  22q13.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 22q12-q13.1

PPARA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PPARA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 22         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC22P046546:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
46,546,424 bp from pter      End:
46,639,653 bp from pter
Size:
93,230 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha  
Size: 468 amino acids; 52225 Da
Subunit: Heterodimer; with RXRA. This heterodimerization is required for DNA binding and transactivation activity.
Interacts with AKAP13, LPIN1 and PRDM16. Also interacts with PPARBP coactivator in vitro. Interacts with CITED2;
the interaction stimulates its transcriptional activity (By similarity). Interacts with NCOA3 and NCOA6
coactivators. Interacts with ASXL1 AND ASXL2
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PPARA (see all 15):
1I7G (3D)        1K7L (3D)        1KKQ (3D)        2NPA (3D)        2P54 (3D)        2REW (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B0G0X3 Q16241 Q6I9S0 Q92486 Q92689 Q9Y3N1
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q07869-1   Q07869-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PPARA: NX_Q07869

Explore proteomics data for PPARA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PPARA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001001928.1  NP_005027.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000397291   ENSP00000411677   ENSP00000414752   ENSP00000385523   ENSP00000385246  
     ENSP00000379322   ENSP00000262735   ENSP00000408149  
    Reactome Protein details: Q07869

    PPARA Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PPARA
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PPARA
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PPARA
    Novus Biologicals PPARA Protein
    Novus Biologicals PPARA Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PPARA 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for PPARA (8 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PPARA

    PPARA Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PPARA
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PPARA (PPAR alpha/NR1C1)
    OriGene Antibodies for PPARA
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PPARA
    Novus Biologicals PPARA Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PPARA (Q07869, Q6I9S0)
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PPARA
    antibodies-online antibodies for PPARA (125 products) 

    PPARA Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PPARA
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PPARA
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PPARA 
    antibodies-online kits for PPARA (32 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NR: Nuclear hormone receptors

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha
    1C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR008946 Nucl_hormone_rcpt_ligand-bd
     IPR001723 Str_hrmn_rcpt
     IPR003074 1Cnucl_rcpt
     IPR013088 Znf_NHR/GATA
     IPR003076 1Cnucl_rcpt_A

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q07869

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q07869

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001723 Steroid hormone receptor signature
    IPB003074 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (1C nuclear receptor) signature
    IPB003076 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869
    Similarity: Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain


    Find genes that share domains with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869
    Function: Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous
    ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a
    naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety (By similarity). Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as
    hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions
    as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization
    with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PPARA:
    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor,alpha isoform,steroid/thyroid hormone receptor
    superfamily,heterodimerizing with RXR*,highly expressed in liver,involved in the control of fatty acid
    synthesis,oxidation and ketogenesis,plyaing a critical role in the cellular fasting response

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 17):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001103RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IPI19955185
    GO:0003677DNA binding TAS10860941
    GO:0003700sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity ISS--
    GO:0003707steroid hormone receptor activity IDA19955185
    GO:0004872receptor activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PPARA:
     Decreased cell number  Decreased influenza A virus in 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Ppara):
     adipose tissue  cardiovascular system  cellular  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pparatm1Gonz for PPARA

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PPARA

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for PPARA (see all 602):
    A2ML1,  ABCG8,  ABHD14B,  ABRA,  ABTB2,  ACMSD,  ACOT1,  ACOT4,  ACOT6,  ACOT8

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PPARA:
    hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022715), hsa-mir-21-5p (MIRT006422), hsa-mir-22-3p (MIRT002473), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017974), hsa-mir-141-3p (MIRT006709), hsa-mir-519d-3p (MIRT000630), hsa-mir-10b-5p (MIRT005068)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PPARA using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARA (see all 109):
    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-219-5p hsa-miR-550a* hsa-miR-409-5p hsa-miR-93
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPPARA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PPARA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PPARA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PPARA

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PPARA (see all 13)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PPARA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PPARA (NM_005036)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PPARA
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PPARA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PPARA
    Addgene plasmids for PPARA 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PPARA
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PPARA 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PPARA


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869: Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    peroxisome4
    cytosol2
    extracellular2
    mitochondrion2
    cytoskeleton1
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS16271724
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PPARA About   (see all 20)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway0.67
    Nuclear Receptors0.67
    2Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism0.65
    PPARA Activates Gene Expression0.63
    Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)0.65
    Transcriptional Regulation of White Adipocyte Differentiation0.38
    3Circadian Repression of Expression by REV-ERBA
    Circadian Repression of Expression by REV-ERBA0.88
    YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression0.40
    RORA Activates Circadian Expression0.88
    4Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis by SREBP (SREBF)
    Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis by SREBP (SREBF)0.75
    Activation of Gene Expression by SREBP (SREBF)0.75
    5Circadian Clock
    Circadian Clock0.66
    BMAL1-CLOCK/NPAS2 Activates Circadian Expression0.66


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PPARA
        PGC1Alpha Pathway
    PPAR Pathway

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PPARA
        Transcription Sin3 and NuRD in transcription regulation
    Transcription PPAR Pathway

    5 BioSystems Pathways for PPARA
        Adipogenesis
    Nuclear Receptors
    SREBF and miR33 in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis
    Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity
    Energy Metabolism


    Selected Reactome Pathways for PPARA (see all 11)
        Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation
    Circadian Clock
    Nuclear Receptor transcription pathway
    Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis
    YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression


    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PPARA):
        PPAR signaling pathway
    Adipocytokine signaling pathway
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
    Hepatitis C

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PPARA (see all 15): 
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat
              Hepatotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Diabetes in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PPARA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PPARA (Q078691, 2, 3 ENSP000002627354) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 185)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NCOR2Q9Y6182, 3, ENSP000003485514MINT-15842 MINT-15843 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000348551
    FABP1P071483, ENSP000002958344I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000295834
    MED1Q156483, ENSP000003006514I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000300651
    PPARGC1AQ9UBK23, ENSP000002648674I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000264867
    DUTP333163, ENSP000003703764I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000370376
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 38):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA12700342
    GO:0001666response to hypoxia IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0006367transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS--
    GO:0006629lipid metabolic process TAS7684926

    Find genes that share ontologies with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PPARA
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for PPARA available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    CP 775146 Selective, high affinity PPARalpha agonist [702680-17-9]
    WY 14643Selective PPARalpha agonist[50892-23-4]
    GW 7647 Highly selective, potent PPARalpha agonist. Orally active [265129-71-3]
    GW 6471PPARalpha antagonist[880635-03-0]
    PalmitoylethanolamideSelective GPR55 agonist. FAAH and PAA substrate[544-31-0]

    Selected HMDB Compounds for PPARA (see all 34)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-decenoate Coenzyme A (see all 15)10018-95-8--
    (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA2-trans-Dodecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 4)1066-12-2--
    (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoAtrans-2-Hexadecenoyl-CoA (see all 4)4460-95-1--
    (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA(E)-S-2-octenoate Coenzyme A (see all 16)10018-94-7--
    (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA(2E)-Tetradecenoyl-Coenzyme A (see all 8)38795-33-4--
    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA2-methylbutanoyl-CoA (see all 11)6712-02-3--
    2-Methylhexanoyl-CoA2-Methylhexanoyl-CoEnzyme A (see all 5)----
    3Z-dodecenoyl-CoAS-[2-[3-[[(2R)-4-[[[(2R,3R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-phosphonooxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanoyl]amino]propanoylamino]ethyl] (Z)-dodec-3-enethioate (see all 4)2152-91-2--
    Acetyl-CoAS-Acetyl coenzyme A (see all 13)72-89-9--
    Acrylyl-CoAAcryloyl coenzyme A (see all 14)5776-58-9--

    8 DrugBank Compounds for PPARA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    BezafibrateBezafibrat (see all 3)41859-67-0targetagonist11519881 10909982 11422732 11752352 11172467 10933891 18629356 16511610
    ClofibrateChlorfenisate (see all 11)637-07-0targetagonist20637823 20671072 10753628 10454501 10922459 10951268 10787442
    FenofibrateFenofibrato [INN-Spanish] (see all 5)49562-28-9targetagonist11018525 10799317 10828060 11752352 11474486 10494028 11342537
    Gemfibrozil-- 25812-30-0targetagonist12244038 12172398 12834305 12935323 10494028
    ALEGLITAZAR R-1439 (see all 2)475479-34-6targetagonist20653327 10592235
    Deoxy-Bigchap-- --target--17139284 17016423
    2-METHYL-2-(4-{[({4-METHYL-2-[4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]-1,3-THIAZOL-5-YL}CARBONYL)AMINO]METHYL}PHENOXY)PROPANOIC ACID-- --target--10592235
    3-{5-methoxy-1-[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}propanoic acid-- --target--10592235

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for PPARA (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha) (see all 25)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    GW409544
    AgonistAgonist8.711698662 15293980
    GW7647
    AgonistAgonist8.2210389847 11354382
    MK-0767
    AgonistAgonist6.8 - 7.6410403814 15120604 9836514
    TZD18
    AgonistAgonist7.614701675
    LY-518674
    AgonistAgonist7.614613314
    LY-510929
    AgonistAgonist7.5515115385
    GW9578
    AgonistAgonist7.310389847 10508427 11354382
    imiglitazar
    AgonistAgonist7.1711095972
    8S-HETE
    AgonistAgonist77592593 9113986
    oleoylethanolamide
    AgonistAgonist6.9212955147 15910890

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PPARA gene (see all 141)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    fenofibrate 92.5 208 15618549 (4), 17184146 (4), 20511708 (3), 19150877 (3) (see all 99)
    wy14643 92.1 103 17610302 (4), 10744771 (3), 15183193 (2), 12191966 (2) (see all 65)
    rosiglitazone 87.5 76 19067734 (2), 10393202 (2), 15821150 (2), 18985998 (2) (see all 61)
    ciglitazone 86.6 28 12191966 (2), 12195700 (2), 12352144 (1), 12860474 (1) (see all 24)
    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j2 85.9 37 11840453 (2), 11971025 (1), 12860474 (1), 19429239 (1) (see all 24)
    gw 7647 85.4 26 20110263 (4), 11354382 (2), 19887568 (2), 17683485 (1) (see all 14)
    ragaglitazar 85 15 16240504 (3), 14551179 (2), 17014868 (2), 16822823 (2) (see all 9)
    fenofibric acid 84.9 24 15169608 (1), 17533223 (1), 15201343 (1), 19661212 (1) (see all 15)
    gw501516 84.3 8 17461989 (1), 16038868 (1), 19667161 (1), 15612696 (1) (see all 7)
    fatty acid 83.6 352 11071880 (3), 17007889 (3), 15614817 (3), 18460914 (3) (see all 99)

    4 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PPARA gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation
    Beta Blocking AgentsCA  
    fenofibrateCA  
    simvastatinCA  
    tacrolimusCA  



    Find genes that share compounds with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PPARA gene (5 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001001928.2  NM_005036.4  NM_001001929.2  NM_001001930.2  NM_032644.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PPARA:

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
    Hs.103110  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005036
    13 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000440343 ENST00000415785 ENST00000420804 ENST00000460086 ENST00000407236(uc003bgw.1 uc010hab.1 uc003bhb.1)
    ENST00000496865 ENST00000484619(uc003bgy.1) ENST00000481567(uc003bgz.1)
    ENST00000402126 ENST00000493286(uc003bha.3) ENST00000396000 ENST00000262735(uc003bgx.1 uc010hac.1)
    ENST00000434345
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PPARA (see all 109):
    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-200a hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-219-5p hsa-miR-550a* hsa-miR-409-5p hsa-miR-93
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PPARA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB073605.1 AB307690.1 AF018254.1 AF270490.1 AK024738.1 AK027101.1 AK091885.1 AK127072.1 
    AK289821.1 AK311946.1 AY258328.1 AY258329.1 AY258330.1 AY258331.1 BC004162.2 BC009069.1 
    BC071932.1 CR456547.1 CR457435.1 EU395809.1 EU650667.1 HQ692862.1 L02932.1 S74349.1 
    Y07619.1 Y16186.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.407609  DT.75189634  DT.75100475  DT.70104478  DT.100755573  DT.120629902  DT.100743056  DT.315850 
    DT.91712491  DT.95368145 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 200):

    AU099251 BQ022129 AA352097 CA395302 AY258326 BQ184814 AI679311 AI828429 
    NM_032644 NM_001001928 BU584566 AY258328 AI911455 S74349 BQ683117 BQ924716 
    BU622522 NM_005036 AW192330 BE019481 BE280369 AI421579 BM272649 AA702773 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPARA (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b
    SP1:                                      -                       -                             -                     
    SP2:                                      -                       -                             -                     
    SP3:                                                              -                                                   
    SP4:                          -     -     -                       -                                                   
    SP5:                          -     -     -                       -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PPARA

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PPARA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCTGTTAGAT
    PPARA Expression
    About this image


    PPARA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             Lumbar Brown Adipocyte Cells Lumbar Brown Adipose Depot
             Thoracic Perivascular Adipose
             Brown adipocyte-like cells
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Epidermis (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Intermediate Keratinocytes Embryonic Epidermis
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Adult Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Adult Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
    PPARA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PPARA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.103110

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PPARA_HUMAN, Q07869
    Tissue specificity: Skeletal muscle, liver, heart and kidney

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PPARA (see all 15): 
              Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Nuclear Receptors & Coregulators in human mouse rat
              Hepatotoxicity in human mouse rat
              Diabetes in human mouse rat
              Adipogenesis in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PPARA gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ppara1 , 5 peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha1, 5 85.54(n)1
    92.31(a)1
      15 (40.42 cM)5
    190131  NM_001113418.11  NP_001106889.11 
     857349835 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PPARA1 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha 79.2(n)
    88.89(a)
      374120  NM_001001464.1  NP_001001464.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PPARA6
    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
    84(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(83451781-83461047)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC685372 hypothetical protein MGC68537 75.58(n)    M84161.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1005348181 peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-like 72.67(n)
    79.44(a)
      100534818  XM_003201374.2  XP_003201422.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PPARA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PPARA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PPARA gene
    VDR2  PPARD2  RARG2  NR1I22  THRB2  RARA2  NR1H42  NR1D22  
    RARB2  RORA2  RORB2  RORC2  NR1D12  NR1I32  PPARG2  NR1H22  
    THRA2  NR1H32  
    13 SIMAP similar genes for PPARA using alignment to 5 protein entries:     PPARA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NR1C1    PPARD    NR1C2    HNF4G    NR1C3    PPARG
    VDR    NR1B2    NR1B3    RARB    RARG    RARA
    PML-RAR

    Find genes that share paralogs with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PPARA (see all 2186)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 22 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs18002061,2,,4
    C,F,Hother130531127(+) AGTGCC/GTTTCT 4 L V mis119Minor allele frequency- G:0.04NS MN EA NA EU 7580
    rs96267091,2
    C,F--30461399(+) CCCCCG/AGGAAG 2 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- A:0.24WA CSA 122
    rs738867511,2
    C,F--30461403(+) CGGGAG/AGCATG 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50WA 2
    rs1419051691,2
    --30461555(+) TTTCTC/TTCCCT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1472397901,2
    --30461584(+) AAAAAC/TCCAAG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1916080521,2
    --30461613(+) CTGCTA/GAGTGT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1390737511,2
    --30461620(+) GTGTAC/GGTGAC 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1428839611,2
    --30461751(+) TGAGAG/TTCTGG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs57673201,2
    C--30461754(+) GAGTCT/AGGGAT 2 -- us2k1 tfbs34Minor allele frequency- A:0.12NA WA EA 360
    rs1839088021,2
    --30461790(+) AGCCCA/GGAGGT 2 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PPARA (46546424 - 46639653 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for PPARA (see all 14):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2667871CNV Deletion23128226
    dgv5012n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv834224CNV Loss17160897
    dgv5008n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv915340CNV Loss21882294
    nsv915336CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5006n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5013n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv191496CNV Loss16902084
    nsv915346CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PPARA
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PPARA
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PPARA

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 170998    OMIM disorders: --

    8 diseases for PPARA:    
    About MalaCards
    hyperapobetalipoproteinemia    tularemia    alcoholic cardiomyopathy    hypertensive heart disease
    hypoalphalipoproteinemia    fatty acid oxidation disorders    insulin resistance    obesity

    6 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PPARA:
    Diabetes mellitus     Atherosclerosis     Fatty liver disease     Hyperglycemia
    Hypertension     Heart disease

    Find genes that share disorders with PPARA           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PPARA gene (see all 94)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    dyslipidemia 79.9 86 19454308 (2), 17896982 (2), 16101410 (2), 10327283 (1) (see all 66)
    insulin resistance 77.1 77 16731822 (3), 16868225 (3), 18212024 (3), 17611904 (3) (see all 57)
    insulin sensitivity 74.7 69 17184146 (4), 15910175 (4), 14519597 (3), 17904198 (3) (see all 39)
    atherosclerosis 73.8 127 17631413 (6), 11914252 (3), 10327283 (2), 16503871 (2) (see all 87)
    fatty liver 71.4 33 16762007 (2), 17022944 (2), 15118095 (1), 15382158 (1) (see all 21)
    metabolic disorder 69.8 41 18566691 (3), 14683520 (2), 10327283 (1), 15283041 (1) (see all 28)
    obesity 69.2 79 19646654 (3), 19700678 (2), 14704738 (2), 11590995 (2) (see all 57)
    inflammation 68 211 17935055 (3), 17981503 (3), 16091136 (3), 10327283 (2) (see all 99)
    cardiovascular diseases 63.2 67 18034623 (3), 18288280 (2), 15503647 (2), 16316298 (2) (see all 49)
    hypertriglyceridemia 60.3 16 16497336 (1), 20021445 (1), 9209702 (1), 15828840 (1) (see all 16)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PPARA
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PPARA (125 documents)

    Export disorders for PPARA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PPARA gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1858):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PPARA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PubMed id 10591208)1, 2, 3 Dunham I.... Wright H. (Nature 1999)
    2. cDNA cloning, chromosomal mapping, and functional characterization of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor. (PubMed id 7684926)1, 2, 3 Sher T.... Gonzales F.J. (Biochemistry 1993)
    3. Optimization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to screen ligand of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. (PubMed id 19263263)1, 2, 9 Cho M.-C....Yoon D.-Y. (Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2009)
    4. Structure of the PPARalpha and -gamma ligand binding domain in complex with AZ 242; ligand selectivity and agonist activation in the PPAR family. (PubMed id 11587644)1, 2, 9 Cronet P.... Bamberg K. (Structure 2001)
    5. Interaction between PPARA genotype and beta-blocker treatment influences clinical outcomes following acute coronary syndromes. (PubMed id 18855529)1, 4, 9 Cresci S....Spertus J.A. (Pharmacogenomics 2008)
    6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARA) genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a Long Island ancillary study. (PubMed id 18586686)1, 4, 9 Golembesky A.K....Santella R.M. (Carcinogenesis 2008)
    7. Mutation screening of the PPARalpha gene in type 2 diabetes associated with coronary heart disease. (PubMed id 11119019)1, 4, 9 Lacquemant C....Froguel P. (amp 2000)
    8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [alpha] genetic variation interacts with n-6 and long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake to affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. (PubMed id 18541586)1, 4, 9 Volcik K.A....Boerwinkle E. (Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008)
    9. Variations in the genes encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in psoriasis. (PubMed id 15083308)1, 4, 9 MAPssner R....Reich K. (Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2004)
    10. [Clinical genetic determinants of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances in patients with hypertension and excessive weight]. (PubMed id 15940190)1, 4, 9 Kobalava Z.h.D....Moiseev V.S. (Kardiologiia 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5465 HGNC: 9232 AceView: PPARA Ensembl:ENSG00000186951 euGenes: HUgn5465
    ECgene: PPARA Kegg: 5465 H-InvDB: PPARA

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PPARA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PPARA Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peroxisome_proliferator-activated_receptor
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/ppara/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PPARA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PPARA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PPARA
     Browse compounds at ApexBio
     Addgene plasmids for PPARA
      Search eBioscience for proteins for PPARA
      Search eBioscience for elisas for PPARA
      eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets
     genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PPARA
     antibodies-online antibodies for PPARA (125 products)
     antibodies-online kits for PPARA (32 products)
     antibodies-online peptides for PPARA
     antibodies-online proteins for PPARA (8 products)
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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