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Aliases for PPA1 Gene

Aliases for PPA1 Gene

  • Pyrophosphatase (Inorganic) 1 2 3 5
  • Pyrophosphate Phospho-Hydrolase 2 3 4
  • Cytosolic Inorganic Pyrophosphatase 2 3
  • Inorganic Pyrophosphatase 1 2 3
  • Inorganic Diphosphatase 1 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • IOPPP 3 4
  • PPase 3 4
  • PP 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 66p 3
  • Diphosphate Phosphohydrolase 3
  • Pyrophosphatase (Inorganic) 2
  • Inorganic Pyrophosphatase 3
  • Inorganic Diphosphatase 3
  • Pyrophosphatase 1 3
  • HEL-S-66p 3
  • SID6-8061 3
  • PP1 3

External Ids for PPA1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PPA1 Gene

  • PP

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPA1 Gene

  • GC10M071633
  • GC10M071962
  • GC10M065955

Summaries for PPA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPA1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) family. PPases catalyze the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to inorganic phosphate, which is important for the phosphate metabolism of cells. Studies of a similar protein in bovine suggested a cytoplasmic localization of this enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PPA1 Gene

PPA1 (Pyrophosphatase (Inorganic) 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPA1 include Baylisascariasis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and inorganic diphosphatase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PPA2.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PPA1 Gene

Genomics for PPA1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PPA1 Gene

Enhancers for PPA1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH10F070231 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 62.3 +0.2 180 4.1 PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 PPA1 AIFM2 SAR1A NPFFR1 GC10M070217
GH10F070221 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 58.7 +11.6 11586 2.2 ELF3 HDGF ARID4B ZNF2 RAD21 ZNF48 RFX5 KAT2B ZNF121 SCRT2 PPA1 SAR1A CEP57L1P1 LRRC20 CALM2P2 NPFFR1 TYSND1 GC10M070217
GH10F070190 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 62.4 +41.5 41511 4.8 HDAC1 CBX3 CEBPG ZNF101 ZNF121 ZNF316 GATA3 SCRT2 FOS MAFK PPA1 AIFM2 SAR1A CALM2P2 TYSND1 RPS25P9
GH10F070266 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 19.8 -33.4 -33448 1.8 INSM2 KLF17 FEZF1 RAD21 ZNF2 ZEB1 RFX5 ZNF335 ZNF121 GLIS2 PPA1 LRRC20 CEP57L1P1 AIFM2 NPFFR1
GH10F070255 0.7 ENCODE 39.1 -22.2 -22176 1.0 SOX5 SOX13 ZMYM3 CEBPB ZNF384 CEBPG ZIC2 EP300 ZNF7 OSR2 PPA1 AIFM2 NPFFR1
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PPA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PPA1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for PPA1 Gene

70,202,830 bp from pter
70,233,911 bp from pter
31,082 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PPA1 Gene

Genes around PPA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPA1 Gene

Proteins for PPA1 Gene

  • Protein details for PPA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Inorganic pyrophosphatase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M348
    • Q5SQT7
    • Q6P7P4
    • Q9UQJ5
    • Q9Y5B1

    Protein attributes for PPA1 Gene

    289 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    32660 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for PPA1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PPA1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for PPA1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 25, Lys 70, Lys 128, Lys 176, Lys 179, Lys 238, and Lys 253
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PPA1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PPA1 (Inorganic Pyrophosphatase/PPA1)
  • Abcam antibodies for PPA1

Domains & Families for PPA1 Gene

Protein Domains for PPA1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PPA1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the PPase family.
  • Belongs to the PPase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPA1: view

No data available for Gene Families for PPA1 Gene

Function for PPA1 Gene

Molecular function for PPA1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Diphosphate + H(2)O = 2 phosphate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PPA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004427 inorganic diphosphatase activity EXP,IEA 656444
GO:0016462 pyrophosphatase activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPA1: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PPA1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPA1 Gene

Localization for PPA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,TAS 16130169
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPA1: view

Pathways & Interactions for PPA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPA1: view

Pathways by source for PPA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006796 phosphate-containing compound metabolic process IEA --
GO:0071344 diphosphate metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PPA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PPA1 Gene

(26) Drugs for PPA1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Magnesium Nutra 0

(18) Additional Compounds for PPA1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
  • NFB Orthophosphate
  • O-Phosphoric acid
  • Ortho-phosphate
  • Orthophosphate (PO43-)
  • Orthophosphate(3-)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPA1: view

Transcripts for PPA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PPA1 Gene

Pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPA1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for PPA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PPA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PPA1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (9.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PPA1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPA1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PPA1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPA1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PPA1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed ubiquitously.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPA1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PPA1 Gene

Orthologs for PPA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PPA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPA1 34 35
  • 99.65 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPA1 34 35
  • 92.27 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPA1 34 35
  • 92.16 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppa1 34 16 35
  • 88.24 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ppa1 34
  • 87.89 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PPA1 35
  • 80 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPA1 35
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PPA1 34 35
  • 75 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PPA1 35
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ppa2 34
  • 72.49 (n)
Str.15980 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10406 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ppa1b 34 35
  • 69.82 (n)
ppa1a 35
  • 64 (a)
zgc73156 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10308 34
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003398 34
  • 56.12 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Nurf-38 34 35
  • 54.82 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pyp-1 34 35
  • 60.93 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes IPP1 34 35 37
  • 58.67 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E17667g 34
  • 58 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER015C 34
  • 53.31 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PPa6 34
  • 57.86 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0768600 34
  • 53.39 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10318 35
  • 58 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC23C11.05 34
  • 54.92 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00951 34
  • 54.15 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PPA1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PPA1 Gene

Gene Tree for PPA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PPA1 (if available)

Paralogs for PPA1 Gene

Paralogs for PPA1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PPA1 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins: Pseudogenes for PPA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPA1: view

Variants for PPA1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PPA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_036358 A breast cancer sample
rs10509321 -- 70,225,977(+) TGACC(A/G)AAGTT intron-variant
rs10686040 -- 70,223,236(+) AGAGA(-/GAGA)CGGGG intron-variant
rs10733858 -- 70,226,296(+) CTGGC(C/T)GGGTG intron-variant
rs10740330 -- 70,211,035(+) TGGGA(G/T)TACAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv32737 CNV gain+loss 17666407
nsv831908 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PPA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 36.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.55; 11.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PPA1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPA1 Gene

Disorders for PPA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PPA1 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • infection by baylisascaris
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PPA1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPA1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PPA1 Gene

Publications for PPA1 Gene

  1. Cloning and expression profile of human inorganic pyrophosphatase. (PMID: 10542310) Fairchild T.A. … Patejunas G. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. (PMID: 15164054) Deloukas P. … Rogers J. (Nature 2004) 3 4 64
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  4. Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning. (PMID: 10931946) Hu R.-M. … Chen J.-L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000) 3 4 64
  5. Assignment of the inorganic pyrophosphatase gene locus (PP) to chromosome 10 in man. (PMID: 975879) McAlpine P.J. … Hamerton J.L. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1976) 2 3 64

Products for PPA1 Gene

Sources for PPA1 Gene

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