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POR Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC07P075528

P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase

  See POR-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase1 2     EC 8
CPR2 3     NADPH--Cytochrome P450 Reductase2
CYPOR2 3     NADPH-Dependent Cytochrome P450 Reductase2
P450R2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 92081   Entrez Gene: 54472   Ensembl: ENSG000001279487   OMIM: 1240155   UniProtKB: P164353   

Export aliases for POR gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC07P074118 GC07P075181 GC07P075195 GC07P075156 GC07P075189 GC07P075227 GC07P075382 GC07P070631

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for POR Gene:
This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum membrane oxidoreductase with an FAD-binding domain and a
flavodoxin-like domain. The protein binds two cofactors, FAD and FMN, which allow it to donate electrons directly
from NADPH to all microsomal P450 enzymes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with various diseases,
including apparent combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency, amenorrhea and disordered steroidogenesis, congenital
adrenal hyperplasia and Antley-Bixler syndrome. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for POR Gene:
POR (P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with POR include disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, and antley-bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is NOS3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NCPR_HUMAN, P16435
Function: This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also
provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5

Gene Wiki entry for POR (Cytochrome P450 reductase) Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000007.13  NC_018918.2  NT_007933.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the POR gene promoter:
         GR   PPAR-alpha   Pbx1a   GR-beta   GR-alpha   HNF-4alpha2   HNF-4alpha1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): POR promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for POR

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat POR

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7q11.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7q11.23   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7q11.2

POR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
POR gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07P075528:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

75,528,518 bp from pter      End:
75,616,173 bp from pter
87,656 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7+,CRA_TCAG 74,877,484-74,949,237     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NCPR_HUMAN, P16435 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: NADPH--cytochrome P450 reductase  
Size: 677 amino acids; 76690 Da
Cofactor: FAD
Cofactor: FMN
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAH34277.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for POR (see all 7):
1B1C (3D)        3FJO (3D)        3QE2 (3D)        3QFC (3D)        3QFR (3D)        3QFS (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q16455 Q197M5 Q8N181 Q9H3M8 Q9UDT3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for POR: NX_P16435

Explore proteomics data for POR at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys56, Lys487
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for POR (P16435) (see all 20)

    See POR Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000932.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000395813   ENSP00000390540   ENSP00000419970   ENSP00000399409   ENSP00000409881  
     ENSP00000378355   ENSP00000409238   ENSP00000399327   ENSP00000389409   ENSP00000399556  
     ENSP00000389719   ENSP00000404731   ENSP00000414263   ENSP00000393527   ENSP00000400964  
     ENSP00000403494   ENSP00000412490   ENSP00000446149   ENSP00000416572   ENSP00000414244  

    POR Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for POR (POR/Cytochrome P450 Reductase)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for POR
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for POR
    OriGene MassSpec for POR
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for POR
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for POR
    Novus Biologicals POR Protein
    Novus Biologicals POR Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for POR 

    antibodies-online proteins for POR (5 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for POR

    Search GeneTex for Proteins for POR 

    POR Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    R&D Systems Antibodies for POR (POR/Cytochrome P450 Reductase)
    OriGene Antibodies for POR
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for POR
    Novus Biologicals POR Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for POR
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for POR
    antibodies-online antibodies for POR (46 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for POR:  
                        POR Antibodies

    POR Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for POR
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for POR
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for POR 
    antibodies-online kits for POR (22 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR017927 Fd_Rdtase_FAD-bd
     IPR001094 Flavdoxin
     IPR008254 Flavodoxin/NO_synth
     IPR001433 OxRdtase_FAD/NAD-bd
     IPR003097 FAD-binding_1

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P16435

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P16435

    5 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001094 Flavodoxin signature
    IPB001433 Oxidoreductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding
    IPB001709 Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductase signature
    IPB003097 FAD-binding
    IPB008254 Flavodoxin/nitric oxide synthase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NCPR_HUMAN, P16435
    Similarity: In the C-terminal section; belongs to the flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 FAD-binding FR-type domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 flavodoxin-like domain

    Find genes that share domains with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NCPR_HUMAN, P16435
    Function: This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also
    provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5
    Catalytic activity: NADPH + n oxidized hemoprotein = NADP(+) + n reduced hemoprotein

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for POR:
    P-450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003958NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity TAS10048323
    GO:0004128cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H IEA--
    GO:0005506iron ion binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0008941nitric oxide dioxygenase activity IEA--
    Find genes that share ontologies with POR           About GenesLikeMe

         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for POR:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 6 alleles(MGI details for Por) (see all 16):
     behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis 
     growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism  limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging 
     muscle  nervous system  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  respiratory system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for POR: Portm2Wolf Portm1Cbk Portm2Ding

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for POR

        Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for POR:  
                        TF1311 - Por

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for POR

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target POR:
    hsa-mir-671-5p (MIRT039293), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017903), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049130)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat POR using miScript Target Protectors
    4 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate POR:
    hsa-miR-944 hsa-miR-4282 hsa-miR-570 hsa-miR-4267
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPOR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for POR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat POR

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for POR (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for POR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: POR (NM_000121)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for POR
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat POR

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for POR
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for POR 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for POR

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    NCPR_HUMAN, P16435: Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Anchored to the ER
    membrane by its N-terminal hydrophobic region
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    endoplasmic reticulum5
    plasma membrane2
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005783endoplasmic reticulum ----
    GO:0005789endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0043231intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA9618440

    Find genes that share ontologies with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for POR About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type
    cytochrome P4500.74
    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 biosynthesis0.00
    2tryptophan utilization II
    tryptophan utilization I0.71
    melatonin degradation I0.00
    superpathway of melatonin degradation0.00
    3Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts
    bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway0.48
    4Doxorubicin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Doxorubicin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics0.43
    5Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics
    Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for POR (see all 6)
        cytochrome P450
    melatonin degradation I
    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 biosynthesis
    bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway
    superpathway of melatonin degradation

    2 PharmGKB Pathways for POR
        Doxorubicin Pathway, Pharmacokinetics
    Zidovudine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including POR: 
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for POR

    Selected Interacting proteins for POR (P164351, 2, 3) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 46)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    XRCC6P129562, 3MINT-63487 I2D: score=4 
    RABEPKQ7Z6M12, 3MINT-8267830 I2D: score=2 
    CDIPTO147353I2D: score=4 
    CYP51A1Q168503I2D: score=4 
    ZMPSTE24O758443I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 24):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003420regulation of growth plate cartilage chondrocyte proliferation IEA--
    GO:0007584response to nutrient IEA--
    GO:0009437carnitine metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0009812flavonoid metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0018393internal peptidyl-lysine acetylation IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for POR (NCPR)

    9 HMDB Compounds for POR    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    FAD1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide (see all 21)146-14-5--
    Ferricytochrome553-12-8 (FREE ACID) (see all 21)1818-68-4--
    Ferrocytochrome553-12-8 (FREE ACID) (see all 21)1818-68-4--
    Flavin MononucleotideFMN (see all 19)146-17-8--
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--
    Lipoic acid(+)-alpha-Lipoate (see all 92)1077-28-7--
    MenadioneVitamin K3: 1,4-Dihydro-1,4-dioxo-2-methylnaphthalene (see all 49)58-27-5--
    NADPAdenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (see all 18)53-59-8--
    NADPH2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide (see all 23)53-57-6--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for POR (see all 11)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    BenzphetamineBenzfetamine (see all 3)156-08-1enzymesubstrate3148724 1416971 2434473 3125159 3924914
    2'-Monophosphoadenosine 5'-Diphosphoribose-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide-- 146-14-5target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Lipoic Acid1,2-Dithiolane-3R-pentanoic acid (see all 4)62-46-4enzymeinhibitor18838505 16391466 19548358
    Daunorubicin-- 20830-81-3enzymesubstrate10543722 34156
    Mitomycin7-Amino-9α-methoxymitosane (see all 3)50-07-7enzymesubstrate2122607 2123741
    DoxorubicinAdria (see all 4)23214-92-8enzymesubstrate6305277
    Nilutamide-- 63612-50-0enzymesubstrate1311586
    Nitrofurantoin-- 67-20-9enzymesubstrate18206659
    Riboflavin Monophosphate-- 146-17-8target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for POR gene (see all 130)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    nadph 90.2 410 8593536 (7), 1312930 (5), 15516695 (4), 12787027 (4) (see all 99)
    semiquinone 81.3 21 19055322 (3), 17015278 (2), 12631275 (2), 16009330 (2) (see all 11)
    benzphetamine 80.6 1 1708254 (1)
    tirapazamine 78.7 7 2117504 (2), 9271329 (1), 19772319 (1), 10584872 (1) (see all 6)
    flavin 78 31 16249336 (2), 19908820 (2), 12787027 (2), 15703263 (2) (see all 21)
    biliverdin 76.2 17 12626517 (2), 11853459 (1), 16115609 (1), 15226268 (1) (see all 13)
    ethoxyresorufin 73.4 5 1537466 (1), 15486049 (1), 16276964 (1), 17455110 (1) (see all 5)
    cypermethrin 71.5 94 8971136 (7), 20027147 (6), 16249336 (5), 10864447 (5) (see all 18)
    2',5'-adp 71.2 7 12787027 (2), 16445284 (1), 17580970 (1), 8218222 (1)
    2-aminoanthracene 71.1 1 19884324 (1)

    2 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for POR gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation

    Find genes that share compounds with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for POR gene: 

    Unigene Cluster for POR:

    P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase
    Hs.354056  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CD014011
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 27):
    ENST00000453773 ENST00000439963 ENST00000461988(uc003udy.3 uc011kgc.2)
    ENST00000448410 ENST00000421059 ENST00000471238 ENST00000394893 ENST00000412521
    ENST00000414186 ENST00000432753 ENST00000449920 ENST00000418341 ENST00000412064
    ENST00000454934 ENST00000447222 ENST00000426184 ENST00000439297 ENST00000475509(uc011kgb.2)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat POR using miScript Target Protectors
    4 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate POR:
    hsa-miR-944 hsa-miR-4282 hsa-miR-570 hsa-miR-4267
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPOR 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for POR
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat POR
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for POR (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for POR
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: POR (NM_000121)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat POR
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for POR
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for POR
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat POR
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat POR
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat POR

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB051763.1 AB209874.1 AF258341.1 AK129978.1 AK290529.1 AK293194.1 AK296096.1 AK296639.1 
    AK304511.1 AK312543.1 BC034277.1 BX648619.1 S90469.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 31):

    DT.454059  DT.100670935  DT.95348106  DT.100670950  DT.97860576  DT.121058987  DT.97804833  DT.100670931 
    DT.100670932  DT.121058884  DT.100858239  DT.121059045  DT.121059011  DT.121058927  DT.100642580  DT.100670938 
    DT.97837884  DT.100037952  DT.101985353  DT.121058946  DT.40307422  DT.404401  DT.97860574  DT.100864295 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 498):

    BQ644488 CR610590 BP367783 CR590488 CA441934 AL525045 AI660469 AL528223 
    BX483095 BM742635 BM126953 AA410787 AI660549 BM682541 CR613407 AW263435 
    T29293 BI819768 R75800 CB117678 BM726108 CD671670 BX324829 BQ690874 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for POR (see all 16)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ·
    SP1:                                                                    -     -           -                 -                 -                       -     -   
    SP2:                                                                    -     -           -                 -                 -                       -     -   
    SP3:                                                                    -     -           -                 -                 -     -                 -     -   
    SP4:                    -     -     -     -     -     -                 -     -           -                 -                 -                                 
    SP5:                                      -     -     -                 -     -           -                 -                                                   

    ExUns: 15c ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20a · 20b ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b
    SP1:                                      -                                             
    SP2:                                      -                                             
    SP3:                                      -                                             

    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for POR

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    POR expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    POR Expression
    About this image

    POR expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 12) fully expand
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     Adrenal Gland (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             adrenal gland ; glandular cells   
             gland/adrenal gland/medulla   
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
    POR Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    POR Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.354056
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including POR: 
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for POR
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for POR
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat POR
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat POR
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat POR
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for POR

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for POR gene from Selected species (see all 26)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Por1 , 5 P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase1, 5 86.41(n)1
      5 (75.34 cM)5
    189841  NM_008898.11  NP_032924.11 
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves POR1 P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase 78.86(n)
      417520  NM_001195796.1  NP_001182725.1 
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia POR6
    P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase
    1 ↔ 1
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC690292 hypothetical protein MGC69029 77.17(n)    BC059318.1 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC056767.12   -- 77.89(n)   327556  BC056767.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Cpr1 , 3 electron transport
    NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase3
    Cytochrome P450 reductase1
      2 26C33
    338831  NM_001273199.11  NP_001260128.11 
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K10D2.63
    NADPH-cytochrome P4503
    1757101  NM_065702.51  NP_498103.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes NCP11 NCP1 48.57(n)
      856438   NP_011908.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons ATR21 ATR2 48.23(n)
      829144  NM_179141.2  NP_849472.2 
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.276822 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 71.23(n)    AK068915.1 

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for POR (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for POR (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for POR gene
    NOS32  NOS22  MTRR2  NOS12  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for POR using alignment to 10 protein entries:     NCPR_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp686G04235    NOS3    NDOR1

    Find genes that share paralogs with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Selected SNPs for POR (see all 1875)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD)4--see VAR_0211582 C Y mis40--------
    Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD)4--see VAR_0211602 V F mis40--------
    Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD)4--see VAR_0211552 A P mis40--------
    Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD)4--see VAR_0211542 Y D mis40--------
    Antley-Bixler syndrome, with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis (ABS1)4--see VAR_0211592 Y C mis40--------
    Antley-Bixler syndrome, with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis (ABS1)4--see VAR_0211572 V E mis40--------
    Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD)4--see VAR_0211562 R H mis40--------
    Cpathogenic178917537(+) AGACCG/TACGAG 2 D Y mis10--------
    Cpathogenic178920012(+) TCCTGC/GCTGCA 2 P A mis10--------
    C,Fpathogenic178921644(+) GGCCCG/ACTACT 2 /H /R mis1 ese37Minor allele frequency- A:0.00MN NA 1112

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for POR (75528518 - 75616173 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 8 variations for POR:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv120n16CNV Deletion17901297
    esv2674423CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv528969CNV Gain19592680
    nsv428173CNV Gain18775914
    nsv824168CNV Gain20364138
    essv14753CNV CNV17122850
    dgv2103e1CNV Complex17122850
    dgv2104e1CNV Complex17122850

    The Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database: POR 
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): POR
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): POR

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing POR

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 124015   
    OMIM disorders: 201750  613571  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NCPR_HUMAN, P16435
  • Antley-Bixler syndrome, with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis (ABS1) [MIM:201750]: A
    disease characterized by the association of Antley-Bixler syndrome with steroidogenesis defects and abnormal
    genitalia. Antley-Bixler syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis, radiohumeral synostosis present from the
    perinatal period, midface hypoplasia, choanal stenosis or atresia, femoral bowing and multiple joint
    contractures. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry
  • Disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (DISPORD) [MIM:613571]: A
    disorder resulting in a rare variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with apparent combined P450C17 and
    P450C21 deficiency and accumulation of steroid metabolites. Affected girls are born with ambiguous genitalia, but
    their circulating androgens are low and virilization does not progress. Conversely, affected boys are sometimes
    born undermasculinized. Boys and girls can present with bone malformations, in some cases resembling the pattern
    seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene
    represented in this entry

  • 6 diseases for POR:    
    About MalaCards
    disordered steroidogenesis due to cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase    antley-bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis    cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase deficiency    antley-bixler syndrome
    amenorrhea    congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    1 inferred disease relationship from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for POR:
    Antley-Bixler syndrome

    Find genes that share disorders with POR           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for POR gene (see all 24)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    antley-bixler syndrome 92.1 22 16998238 (2), 15793702 (2), 18630181 (2), 16467261 (1) (see all 13)
    adrenal hyperplasia congenital 67.4 14 15666853 (2), 16915000 (2), 18493134 (1), 18493133 (1) (see all 10)
    virilization 55.7 2 19258400 (1), 15316970 (1)
    lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia 46.8 1 15817507 (1)
    craniosynostosis 40.7 5 16467261 (2), 18493134 (1)
    skeletal dysplasia 31.2 2 19258400 (1), 16103714 (1)
    adenoma adrenocortical 30.6 1 8496319 (1)
    colon carcinoma 20.8 1 8162587 (1)
    polycystic ovary syndrome 18.4 2 16103714 (1), 16915000 (1)
    addisons disease 8.25 1 15817507 (1)

    GeneTests: POR
    GeneReviews: POR
    Genetic Association Database (GAD): POR
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: POR (51 documents)

    Export disorders for POR gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for POR gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 580) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with POR)

    1. Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: effect of sequence variants on activities of CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. (PubMed id 18551037)1, 4, 9 Agrawal V....Miller W.L. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008)
    2. Pharmacogenomics of human liver cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase: multifactorial analysis and impact on microsomal drug oxidation. (PubMed id 19374516)1, 4, 9 Gomes A.M....Zanger U.M. (Pharmacogenomics 2009)
    3. Compound heterozygous mutations of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene (POR) in two patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome. (PubMed id 15264278)1, 2, 9 Adachi M.... Oka A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2004)
    4. The common P450 oxidoreductase variant A503V is not a modifier gene for 21-hydroxylase deficiency. (PubMed id 18397975)1, 4, 9 Gomes L.G....Miller W.L. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008)
    5. Mutant P450 oxidoreductase causes disordered steroidogenesis with and without Antley-Bixler syndrome. (PubMed id 14758361)1, 2, 9 Flueck C.E.... Miller W.L. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    6. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: identification and characterization of biallelic mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in 35 Japanese patients. (PubMed id 19258400)1, 4, 9 Fukami M....Ogata T. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    7. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene mutations and Antley-Bixler syndrome with abnormal genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis: molecular and clinical studies in 10 patients. (PubMed id 15483095)1, 2, 9 Fukami M.... Ogata T. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005)
    8. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutant P450 oxidoreductase and human androgen synthesis: analytical study. (PubMed id 15220035)1, 2, 9 Arlt W.... Shackleton C.H.L. (Lancet 2004)
    9. Crystal structure of the FMN-binding domain of human cytochrome P450 reductase at 1.93 A resolution. (PubMed id 10048323)1, 2, 9 Zhao Q.... Driessen H.P. (Protein Sci. 1999)
    10. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    11. Genes related to sex steroids, neural growth, and social-emotional behavior are associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger syndrome. (PubMed id 19598235)1, 4 Chakrabarti B....Baron-Cohen S. (Autism Res 2009)
    12. A variant in the cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase gene is associated with breast cancer risk in African Americans. (PubMed id 17440066)1, 4 Haiman C.A....Henderson B.E. (Cancer Res. 2007)
    13. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    14. Quantification of cytochrome P450 reductase gene expression in human tissues. (PubMed id 1550342)1, 2 Shephard E.A.... Phillips I.R. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1992)
    15. Isolation of a human cytochrome P-450 reductase cDNA clone and localization of the corresponding gene to chromosome 7q11.2. (PubMed id 2516426)1, 3 Shephard E.A....Povey S. (Ann. Hum. Genet. 1989)
    16. Structural and functional analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase from human liver: complete sequence of human enzyme and NADPH-binding sites. (PubMed id 2513880)1, 2 Haniu M.... Shively J.E. (Biochemistry 1989)
    17. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis. (PubMed id 16467261)1, 9 Miller W.L....Agrawal V. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2005)
    18. Modulation of human CYP19A1 activity by mutant NADPH P450 oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 17595315)1, 9 Pandey A.V....FlA1ck C.E. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2007)
    19. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase influence microsomal P450-catalyzed drug metabolism. (PubMed id 18216718)1, 9 Hart S.N....Zhong X.B. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008)
    20. Clinical, structural and functional implications of mutations and polymorphisms in human NADPH P450 oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 17635179)1, 9 FlA1ck C.E....Pandey A.V. (amp 2007)
    21. Diversity and function of mutations in p450 oxidoreductase in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome and disordered steroidogenesis. (PubMed id 15793702)1, 9 Huang N....Miller W.L. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2005)
    22. Modeling of human P450 oxidoreductase structure by in silico mutagenesis and MD simulation. (PubMed id 19744540)1, 9 FlA1ck C.E....Pandey A.V. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2009)
    23. Clinical, genetic, and enzymatic characterization of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency in four patients. (PubMed id 19837910)1, 9 Sahakitrungruang T....Miller W.L. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009)
    24. Interflavin electron transfer in human cytochrome P450 reductase is enhanced by coenzyme binding. Relaxation kinetic studies with coenzyme analogues. (PubMed id 12787027)1, 9 Gutierrez A....Roberts G.C. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2003)
    25. Role of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome-b5/NADH-b5 reductase in variability of CYP3A activity in human liver microsomes. (PubMed id 18838505)7, 9 Gan L....Court M.H. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2009)
    26. [Antley-Bixler syndrome or POR deficiency?]. (PubMed id 18630181)1, 9 TomkovA! M....MartA!sek P. (Cas. Lek. Cesk. 2008)
    27. Genetic and clinical features of p450 oxidoreductase deficiency. (PubMed id 18259105)1, 9 Scott R.R. and Miller W.L. (Horm. Res. 2008)
    28. Differential inhibition of CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activities by the P450 oxidoreductase mutant A287P. (PubMed id 17505056)1, 9 Dhir V....Arlt W. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2007)
    29. Decrease in NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity of the human heart, Liver and lungs in the presence of alpha-lipoic acid. (PubMed id 16391466)7, 9 Dudka J. (amp 2006)
    30. Global effects of the energetics of coenzyme binding: NADPH controls the protein interaction properties of human cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 16445284)1, 9 Grunau A....Gutierrez A. (Biochemistry 2006)
    31. Inter-flavin electron transfer in cytochrome P450 reductase - effects of solvent and pH identify hidden complexity in mechanism. (PubMed id 18681889)1, 9 Brenner S....Scrutton N.S. (FEBS J. 2008)
    32. Diminished FAD binding in the Y459H and V492E Antley-Bixler syndrome mutants of human cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 16998238)1, 9 Marohnic C.C....Masters B.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    33. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis affecting all microsomal P450 enzymes. (PubMed id 15666840)1, 9 Pandey A.V....Miller W.L. (Endocr. Res. 2004)
    34. Domain motion in cytochrome P450 reductase: conformational equilibria revealed by NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering. (PubMed id 19858215)1, 9 Ellis J....Roberts G.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    35. Homozygous mutation G539R in the gene for P450 oxidoreductase in a family previously diagnosed as having 17,20-lyase deficiency. (PubMed id 18559916)1, 9 Hershkovitz E....Miller W.L. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008)
    36. Combined use of mass spectrometry and heterologous expression for identification of membrane-interacting peptides in cytochrome P450 46A1 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 19161969)1, 9 Mast N....Turko I.V. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2009)
    37. Conformational dynamics and the energetics of protein--ligand interactions: role of interdomain loop in human cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 17580970)1, 9 Grunau A....Gutierrez A. (Biochemistry 2007)
    38. Distinct mechanisms of site-specific oxidative DNA damage by doxorubicin in the presence of copper(II) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 12901793)1, 9 Mizutani H....Kawanishi S. (Cancer Sci. 2003)
    39. Cyclic conversion of the novel Src kinase inhibitor [7-(2,6-dichloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-benzo[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl]-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-amine (TG100435) and Its N-oxide metabolite by flavin-containing monoxygenases and cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 17881660)1, 9 Kousba A....Martin M. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2007)
    40. Determination of the redox properties of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 11329262)1, 9 Munro A.W....Chapman S.K. (Biochemistry 2001)
    41. Organization of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in sex steroid synthesis: PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIPID MEMBRANES. (PubMed id 19805543)1, 9 Praporski S....Martin L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    42. Comparison of in vitro bioactivation of flutamide and its cyano analogue: evidence for reductive activation by human NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 19548358)7, 9 Wen B....Nelson S.D. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2008)
    43. Bioreductive activation of mitoxantrone by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. Implications for increasing its ability to inhibit the growth of sensitive and multidrug resistant leukaemia HL60 cells. (PubMed id 16574318)1, 9 Kostrzewa-Nowak D....Tarasiuk J. (Cancer Lett. 2007)
    44. Immunohistochemical analysis of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase in human superficial bladder tumours: relationship between tumour enzymology and clinical outcome following intravesical mitomycin C therapy. (PubMed id 14999778)1, 9 Basu S....Phillips R.M. (Int. J. Cancer 2004)
    45. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase. (PubMed id 12626517)1, 9 Wang J. and de Montellano P.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    46. Expression of DT-diaphorase and cytochrome P450 reductase correlates with mitomycin C activity in human bladder tumors. (PubMed id 11350900)1, 9 Gan Y....Au J.L. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2001)
    47. Carbonyl reductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activities in human tumoral versus normal tissues. (PubMed id 10448278)1, 9 LA^pez de Cerain A....Bello J. (Eur. J. Cancer 1999)
    48. Generation of free radicals during the reductive metabolism of nilutamide by lung microsomes: possible role in the development of lung lesions in patients treated with this anti-androgen. (PubMed id 1311586)7, 9 Berger V....Pessayre D. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1992)
    49. Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by the Y181D mutation: molecular consequences and rescue of defect. (PubMed id 19884324)1, 9 Marohnic C.C....Kranendonk M. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2010)
    50. CYP2D6-CYP2C9 protein-protein interactions and isoform-selective effects on substrate binding and catalysis. (PubMed id 19448135)1, 9 Subramanian M....Tracy T.S. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2009)
    51. Motexafin gadolinium-induced cell death correlates with heme oxygenase-1 expression and inhibition of P450 reductase-dependent activities. (PubMed id 17018578)1, 9 Evans Montellano P.R. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2007)
    52. Organization of multiple cytochrome P450s with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in membranes. (PubMed id 12725870)1, 9 Backes W.L. and Kelley R.W. (amp 2003)
    53. Human enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone: evidence for reductive activation by human NADPH:cytochrome p450 reductase. (PubMed id 12782579)1, 9 Arlt V.M....Phillips D.H. (Cancer Res. 2003)
    54. Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. (PubMed id 12688675)1, 9 PawA8owska J....Borowski E. (Oncol. Res. 2003)
    55. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of a human cytochrome P450 CYP2D6-NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein. (PubMed id 11716457)1, 9 Deeni Y.Y....Wolf C.R. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2001)
    56. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of flavin reduction in human cytochrome P450 reductase and its component domains. (PubMed id 11329263)1, 9 Gutierrez A....Roberts G.C. (Biochemistry 2001)
    57. Cytochrome P450 reductase-mediated anaerobic biotransformation of ethanol to 1-hydroxyethyl-free radicals and acetaldehyde. (PubMed id 11118675)1, 9 DA-az GA^mez M.I....Castro J.A. (Toxicology 2000)
    58. Trp-676 facilitates nicotinamide coenzyme exchange in the reductive half-reaction of human cytochrome P450 reductase: properties of the soluble W676H and W676A mutant reductases. (PubMed id 11123926)1, 9 Gutierrez A....Roberts G.C. (Biochemistry 2000)
    59. The molecular basis of isolated 17,20 lyase deficiency. (PubMed id 9888582)1, 9 Miller W.L....Auchus R.J. (Endocr. Res. 1998)
    60. Purification of multiple forms of cytochrome P450 from a human brain and reconstitution of catalytic activities. (PubMed id 8460938)1, 9 Bhamre S....Ravindranath V. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1993)
    61. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence. (PubMed id 24196959)1 Su J....Wilson W.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    62. Redox-linked domain movements in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome p450 reductase. (PubMed id 23911089)1 Huang W.C....Roberts G.C. (Structure 2013)
    63. NADPH P450 oxidoreductase: structure, function, and pathology of diseases. (PubMed id 23353702)1 Pandey A.V. and FlA1ck C.E. (amp 2013)
    64. Heme oxygenase isoforms differ in their subcellular trafficking during hypoxia and are differentially modulated by cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 22545110)1 Linnenbaum M....Behrends S. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    65. The proteomic analysis of endogenous FAT10 substrates identifies p62/SQSTM1 as a substrate of FAT10ylation. (PubMed id 22797925)1 Aichem A....Groettrup M. (J. Cell. Sci. 2012)
    66. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    67. Gating mechanisms for biological electron transfer: integrating structure with biophysics reveals the nature of redox control in cytochrome P450 reductase and copper-dependent nitrite reductase. (PubMed id 21762695)1 Leferink N.G....Scrutton N.S. (FEBS Lett. 2012)
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    73. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase substrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (Cell 2011)
    74. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
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    79. The P450 oxidoreductase *28 SNP is associated with low initial tacrolimus exposure and increased dose requirements in CYP3A5-expressing renal recipients. (PubMed id 21770725)1 de Jonge H....Kuypers D.R. (Pharmacogenomics 2011)
    80. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 inhibits the activity of drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 and binds to cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 21081644)1 Szczesna-Skorupa E. and Kemper B. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2011)
    81. Biochemical comparison of Anopheles gambiae and human NADPH P450 reductases reveals different 2'-5'-ADP and FMN binding traits. (PubMed id 21655236)1 Lian L.Y....Paine M.J. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    82. Deletion of P399_E401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency. (PubMed id 21843508)1 FlA1ck C.E....Pandey A.V. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011)
    83. Mutations of human cytochrome P450 reductase differentially modulate heme oxygenase-1 activity and oligomerization. (PubMed id 21741353)1 Marohnic C.C....Masters B.S. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2011)
    84. Transcriptional regulation of the human P450 oxidoreductase gene: hormonal regulation and influence of promoter polymorphisms. (PubMed id 21393444)1 Tee M.K....Miller W.L. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2011)
    85. Purification and identification of endogenous polySUMO conjugates. (PubMed id 21252943)1 Bruderer R....Hay R.T. (EMBO Rep. 2011)
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    90. Effects of transient overexpression or knockdown of cytochrome P450 reductase on reactive oxygen species generation and hypoxia reoxygenation injury in liver cells. (PubMed id 21973081)1 Pillai V.C....Mehvar R. (amp 2011)
    91. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population. (PubMed id 21084761)1 Saito Y....Tamura T. (Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2011)
    92. Effects of genetic variants of human P450 oxidoreductase on catalysis by CYP2D6 in vitro. (PubMed id 20940534)1 Sandee D....Miller W.L. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2010)
    93. Substrate-specific modulation of CYP3A4 activity by genetic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 20697309)1 Agrawal V....Miller W.L. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2010)
    94. Kinetics of electron transfer between NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450 3A4. (PubMed id 20879989)1 Farooq Y. and Roberts G.C. (Biochem. J. 2010)
    95. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism. (PubMed id 20849814)1 FlA1ck C.E....Pandey A.V. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010)
    96. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 20732302)1 Pandey A.V....Mullis P.E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010)
    97. Co-expression of recombinant human CYP2C9 with human cytochrome P450 reductase in protease deficient S. cerevisiae strain at a higher scale yields an enzyme of higher specific activity. (PubMed id 20722625)1 Rao K.N....Soni R. (Drug Metab Lett 2010)
    98. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, acute rejection, and severity of tubulitis in kidney transplantation, accounting for center-to-center variation. (PubMed id 21085059)4 Israni A....Oetting W.S. (Transplantation 2010)
    99. Impaired hepatic drug and steroid metabolism in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. (PubMed id 20844025)1 Tomalik-Scharte D....Arlt W. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2010)
    100. Cross-linking of human cytochrome P450 2B6 to NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase: Identification of a potential site of interaction. (PubMed id 20096935)1 Bumpus N.N. and Hollenberg P.F. (J. Inorg. Biochem. 2010)
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    102. Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip. (PubMed id 19913121)1 Talmud P.J.... . (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2009)
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    119. Variables in human liver microsome preparation: impact on the kinetics of l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) n-demethylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation. (PubMed id 11181502)1 Nelson A.C....Moody D.E. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2001)
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    172. Minireview: regulation of steroidogenesis by electron transfer. (PubMed id 15774560)9 Miller W.L. (Endocrinology 2005)
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    175. Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s. (PubMed id 17188650)9 Pechurskaya T.A....Usanov S.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007)
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    177. A novel class of cytochrome P450 reductase redox cyclers: cationic manganoporphyrins. (PubMed id 15703263)9 Day B.J. and Kariya C. (Toxicol. Sci. 2005)
    178. The ability of new sugar-modified derivatives of antitumor anthracycline, daunorubicin, to stimulate NAD(P)H oxidation in different cellular oxidoreductase systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. (PubMed id 15559760)9 PawA8owska J....Tarasiuk J. (Oncol. Res. 2004)
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    208. Human placental estrogen synthetase (aromatase). Effect of environment on the kinetics of protein-protein and substrate-protein interactions and the production of 19-oxygenated androgen intermediates in the purified reconstituted cytochrome P450 enzyme system. (PubMed id 1911429)9 Sethumadhavan K. and Bellino F.L. (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 1991)
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    212. Functional and structural consequences of a novel point mutation in the CYP21A2 gene causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia: potential relevance of helix C for P450 oxidoreductase-21-hydroxylase interaction. (PubMed id 18445671)9 Riepe F.G....Holterhus P.M. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008)
    213. Influence of electron transport proteins on the reactions catalyzed by Fusarium fujikuroi gibberellin monooxygenases. (PubMed id 17920091)9 Troncoso C....Rojas M.C. (Phytochemistry 2008)
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    217. The reductive activation of the antitumor drug RH1 to its semiquinone free radical by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and by HCT116 human colon cancer cells. (PubMed id 17015278)9 Hasinoff B.B. and Begleiter A. (Free Radic. Res. 2006)
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    222. Oxidative aldehyde deformylation catalyzed by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and the flavoprotein domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. (PubMed id 16226717)9 Vatsis K.P. and Coon M.J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    223. Molecular mechanism of genotoxicity of the environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone. (PubMed id 16601755)9 StiborovA! M....Phillips D.H. (Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2005)
    224. Nitric oxide metabolism in mammalian cells: substrate and inhibitor profiles of a NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase-coupled microsomal nitric oxide dioxygenase. (PubMed id 15203193)9 Hallstrom C.K....Gardner P.R. (amp 2004)
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    226. DNA adduct formation by the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in V79 cells expressing human cytochrome P450 enzymes. (PubMed id 14550947)9 Bieler C.A....Schmeiser H.H. (Cancer Lett. 2003)
    227. Cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 support the CYP2E1-mediated activation of nitrosamines in a recombinant Ames test. (PubMed id 12646278)9 Mokashi V....Porter T.D. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2003)
    228. Conformational heterogeneity of cytochrome P450 3A4 revealed by high pressure spectroscopy. (PubMed id 14630029)9 Davydov D.R....Hui Bon Hoa G. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    229. Human NADPH-cytochrome p450 reductase overexpression does not enhance the aerobic cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in human breast cancer cell lines. (PubMed id 14583491)9 Ramji S....Riddick D.S. (Cancer Res. 2003)
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    320. Association of cytochrome P450 enzymes is a determining factor in their catalytic activity. (PubMed id 16163453)9 Hazai E....Kupfer D. (J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des. 2005)
    321. Identification of a functionally impaired allele of human novel oxidoreductase 1 (NDOR1), NDOR1*1. (PubMed id 15900210)9 Finn R.D.... Paine M.J. (Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2005)
    322. Effects of ionic strength on the functional interactions between CYP2B4 and CYP1A2. (PubMed id 15709776)9 Kelley R.W....Backes W.L. (Biochemistry 2005)
    323. Molecular basis of adrenal insufficiency. (PubMed id 15817507)9 Fujieda K. and Tajima T. (Pediatr. Res. 2005)
    324. Large-scale analysis of genes that alter sensitivity to the anticancer drug tirapazamine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (PubMed id 16061773)9 Hellauer K....Turcotte B. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2005)
    325. Escherichia coli BTC, a human cytochrome P450 competent tester strain with a high sensitivity towards alkylating agents: involvement of alkyltransferases in the repair of DNA damage induced by aromatic amines. (PubMed id 15843388)9 Duarte M.P....Kranendonk M. (Mutagenesis 2005)
    326. Reduction of cytochrome b5 by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 16055078)9 Guengerich F.P. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2005)
    327. The stimulatory role of human cytochrome b5 in the bioactivation activities of human CYP1A2, 2A6 and 2E1: a new cell expression system to study cytochrome P450 mediated biotransformation. (PubMed id 15728263)9 Duarte M.P....Kranendonk M. (Mutagenesis 2005)
    328. Regulation of cytochrome b5 gene transcription by Sp3, GATA-6, and steroidogenic factor 1 in human adrenal NCI-H295A cells. (PubMed id 15831526)9 Huang N....Miller W.L. (Mol. Endocrinol. 2005)
    329. Disorders of androgen synthesis--from cholesterol to dehydroepiandrosterone. (PubMed id 16103714)9 Miller W.L. (Med Princ Pract 2005)
    330. Mechanism of inhibition of cytochrome P450 C21 enzyme activity by autoantibodies from patients with Addison's disease. (PubMed id 15762192)9 Nikfarjam L....Furmaniak J. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2005)
    331. Unusual dehydroxylation of antimicrobial amidoxime prodrugs by cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase. (PubMed id 16131524)9 Saulter J.Y....Hall J.E. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2005)
    332. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by zinc(II) ion. (PubMed id 15763633)9 Kim J.S. and Yun C.H. (Toxicol. Lett. 2005)
    333. A virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) strategy for lung cancer using a CYP2B6/NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein. (PubMed id 15746946)9 Tychopoulos Waziers I. (Cancer Gene Ther. 2005)
    334. Use of directed evolution of mammalian cytochromes P450 for investigating the molecular basis of enzyme function and generating novel biocatalysts. (PubMed id 16126165)9 Kumar S. and Halpert J.R. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    335. Profiling cytochrome P450 expression in ovarian cancer: identification of prognostic markers. (PubMed id 16243809)9 Downie D....Murray G.I. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2005)
    336. The role of bioreductive activation of doxorubicin in cytotoxic activity against leukaemia HL60-sensitive cell line and its multidrug-resistant sublines. (PubMed id 15942634)9 Kostrzewa-Nowak D....Tarasiuk J. (Br. J. Cancer 2005)
    337. A design of fluorescent probes for superoxide based on a nonredox mechanism. (PubMed id 15631452)9 Maeda H....Itoh N. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005)
    338. Human hepatic and renal microsomes, cytochromes P450 1A1/2, NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase and prostaglandin H synthase mediate the formation of aristolochic acid-DNA adducts found in patients with urothelial cancer. (PubMed id 15386410)9 StiborovA! M....Schmeiser H.H. (Int. J. Cancer 2005)
    339. Proteasomal degradation of human CYP1B1: effect of the Asn453Ser polymorphism on the post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 expression. (PubMed id 15486049)9 Bandiera S....Friedberg T. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2005)
    340. Effects of hydroxyl group numbers on the B-ring of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones on the differential inhibition of human CYP 1A and CYP1B1 enzymes. (PubMed id 16276964)9 Kim H.J....Dong M.S. (Arch. Pharm. Res. 2005)
    341. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of the isolated FAD domain of rat neuronal nitric oxide synthase altered in the region of the FAD shielding residue Phe1395. (PubMed id 15182370)9 Dunford A.J....Scrutton N.S. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2004)
    342. Hypoxia targeted gene therapy to increase the efficacy of tirapazamine as an adjuvant to radiotherapy: reversing tumor radioresistance and effecting cure. (PubMed id 14973055)9 Cowen R.L....Stratford I.J. (Cancer Res. 2004)
    343. Identification of plastid envelope proteins required for import of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A into the chloroplast of barley. (PubMed id 14769934)9 Reinbothe S....Reinbothe C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004)
    344. Atomic force microscopy revelation of molecular complexes in the multiprotein cytochrome P450 2B4-containing system. (PubMed id 15274134)9 Kuznetsov V.Y....Archakov A.I. (Proteomics 2004)
    345. Generation of bile pigments by haem oxygenase: a refined cellular strategy in response to stressful insults. (PubMed id 15777021)9 Foresti R....Motterlini R. (Biochem. Soc. Symp. 2004)
    346. Variations in adrenal androgen production among (nonhuman) primates. (PubMed id 15635499)9 Conley A.J....Bird I.M. (Semin. Reprod. Med. 2004)
    347. Cell specificity and properties of the C-3 epimerization of Vitamin D3 metabolites. (PubMed id 15225744)9 Kamao M....Okano T. (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2004)
    348. Development of a new isogenic cell-xenograft system for evaluation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-directed antitumor quinones: evaluation of the activity of RH1. (PubMed id 15131056)9 Dehn D.L....Ross D. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2004)
    349. Redundancy or flexibility: molecular diversity of the electron transfer components for P450 monooxygenases in higher plants. (PubMed id 14977570)9 Ohta D. and Mizutani M. (Front. Biosci. 2004)
    350. Undetectable maternal serum uE3 and postnatal abnormal sterol and steroid metabolism in Antley-Bixler syndrome. (PubMed id 15266606)9 Cragun D.L....Hopkin R.J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2004)
    351. Oxidative DNA damage induced by a melatonin metabolite, 6-hydroxymelatonin, via a unique non-o-quinone type of redox cycle. (PubMed id 15450952)9 Sakano K....Kawanishi S. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2004)
    352. Epirubicin HCl toxicity in human-liver derived hepatoma G2 cells. (PubMed id 15520498)9 Ozkan A. and FiA9kin K. (Pol J Pharmacol 2004)
    353. Biochemical diagnosis of Antley-Bixler syndrome by steroid analysis. (PubMed id 15216541)9 Shackleton C....Arlt W. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2004)
    354. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 activity in renal cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 15280921)9 McFadyen M.C....Murray G.I. (Br. J. Cancer 2004)
    355. Differentiation-associated staining with anti-pimonidazole antibodies in head and neck tumors. (PubMed id 15036858)9 Janssen H.L....Begg A.C. (Radiother Oncol 2004)
    356. Identification and characterization of the product release steps within the catalytic cycle of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 15209523)9 Heyes D.J. and Hunter C.N. (Biochemistry 2004)
    357. Biphasic effects of the flavonoids quercetin and naringenin on the metabolic activation of 2-amino-3,5-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline by Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 co-expressing human cytochrome P450 1A2, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. (PubMed id 14698415)9 Kang I.H....Dong M.S. (Mutat. Res. 2004)
    358. Prenatal diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD): a disorder causing low pregnancy estriol, maternal and fetal virilization, and the Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype. (PubMed id 15316970)9 Shackleton C....Hauffa B.P. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2004)
    359. High levels of autoantibodies against drug-metabolizing enzymes in SLA/LP-positive AIH-1 sera. (PubMed id 15621574)9 Shinoda M....Mizutani T. (Autoimmunity 2004)
    360. Enzyme-catalyzed activation of anticancer prodrugs. (PubMed id 15001663)9 Rooseboom M....Vermeulen N.P. (Pharmacol. Rev. 2004)
    361. Effects of chronic exposure to cadmium on renal cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase system in rats. (PubMed id 14595535)9 Plewka A....Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. (Arch. Toxicol. 2004)
    362. Use of replication-conditional adenovirus as a helper system to enhance delivery of P450 prodrug-activation genes for cancer therapy. (PubMed id 14729637)9 Jounaidi Y. and Waxman D.J. (Cancer Res. 2004)
    363. Establishment of ten strains of genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 each co-expressing a form of human cytochrome P450 with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase sensitive to various promutagens. (PubMed id 15279838)9 Yamazaki Y....Kamataki T. (Mutat. Res. 2004)
    364. CYP51 from Trypanosoma brucei is obtusifoliol-specific. (PubMed id 15311940)9 Lepesheva G.I....Waterman M.R. (Biochemistry 2004)
    365. Optimizing bacterial expression of catalytically active human cytochromes P450: comparison of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. (PubMed id 14742136)9 Boye S.L....Birkett D.J. ( the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems 2004)
    366. Enzymatic redox properties of novel nitrotriazole explosives implications for their toxicity. (PubMed id 18998409)9 Sarlauskas J....Cenas N. (Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. 2004)
    367. Protein kinase Akt/PKB phosphorylates heme oxygenase-1 in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed id 15581622)9 Salinas M....Cuadrado A. (FEBS Lett. 2004)
    368. Caveolae compartmentalization of heme oxygenase-1 in endothelial cells. (PubMed id 15226268)9 Kim H.P....Choi A.M. (FASEB J. 2004)
    369. Non-specific inhibition of human cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions by hemin. (PubMed id 15451555)9 Kim E.Y....Yun C.H. (Toxicol. Lett. 2004)
    370. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant properties of manganese(III) beta-octabromo-meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin. (PubMed id 12818794)9 Kachadourian R....Day B.J. (J. Inorg. Biochem. 2003)
    371. In vitro assessment of inhibition by natural polyphenols of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human CYP1A1. (PubMed id 12670496)9 Schwarz D. and Roots I. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    372. Oxidative DNA damage induced by benz[a]anthracene metabolites via redox cycles of quinone and unique non-quinone. (PubMed id 14615974)9 Seike K....Kawanishi S. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2003)
    373. Superoxide generation mediated by 8-nitroguanosine, a highly redox-active nucleic acid derivative. (PubMed id 14592413)9 Sawa T....Maeda H. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    374. St. John's wort extracts and some of their constituents potently inhibit ultimate carcinogen formation from benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol by human CYP1A1. (PubMed id 14633740)9 Schwarz D....Roots I. (Cancer Res. 2003)
    375. Kinetic, spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adrenodoxin reductase homologue FprA. (PubMed id 12614197)9 McLean K.J....Munro A.W. (Biochem. J. 2003)
    376. Dicumarol inhibition of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase induces growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer via a superoxide-mediated mechanism. (PubMed id 14500388)9 Cullen J.J....Oberley L.W. (Cancer Res. 2003)
    377. Assessment of porcine and human 16-ene-synthase, a third activity of P450c17, in the formation of an androstenol precursor. Role of recombinant cytochrome b5 and P450 reductase. (PubMed id 12631293)9 Soucy P....Luu-The V. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2003)
    378. Coordinate expression of NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, Fre-1, and Hint-related 7meGMP-directed hydrolase, DCS-1. (PubMed id 12871939)9 Kwasnicka D.A.... Vincent S.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    379. Benznidazole-induced ultrastructural and biochemical alterations in rat esophagus. (PubMed id 12965122)9 de Castro C.R....Castro J.A. (Toxicology 2003)
    380. Viral delivery of P450 reductase recapitulates the ability of constitutive overexpression of reductase enzymes to potentiate the activity of mitomycin C in human breast cancer xenografts. (PubMed id 14555709)9 Cowen R.L....Williams K.J. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2003)
    381. Protective role of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on arsenic-induced microsomal dysfunctions. (PubMed id 12723893)9 Ramanathan K....Panneerselvam C. (amp 2003)
    382. Molecular dissection of human methionine synthase reductase: determination of the flavin redox potentials in full-length enzyme and isolated flavin-binding domains. (PubMed id 12667082)9 Wolthers K.R....Scrutton N.S. (Biochemistry 2003)
    383. Kinetic isotope effects on the rate-limiting step of heme oxygenase catalysis indicate concerted proton transfer/heme hydroxylation. (PubMed id 14692760)9 Davydov R....Hoffman B.M. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003)
    384. Effects of cytochrome b(5) on drug oxidation activities of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As: similarity of CYP3A5 with CYP3A4 but not CYP3A7. (PubMed id 14637191)9 Yamaori S....Kamataki T. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2003)
    385. Large-scale production of genetically engineered CYP3A4 in E. coli: application of a jarfermenter. (PubMed id 15618718)9 Kanamori Y....Kamataki T. (Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2003)
    386. Genetically engineered bacterial cells co-expressing human cytochrome P450 with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase: prediction of metabolism and toxicity of drugs in humans. (PubMed id 15618648)9 Fujita K. and Kamataki T. (Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2002)
    387. Cytotoxicity of natural hydroxyanthraquinones: role of oxidative stress. (PubMed id 12440719)9 Nemeikaite-Ceniene A....Cenas N. (Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. 2002)
    388. Catalytic mechanism of heme oxygenase through EPR and ENDOR of cryoreduced oxy-heme oxygenase and its Asp 140 mutants. (PubMed id 11853459)9 Davydov R....Hoffman B.M. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002)
    389. Enzymology below 200 K: the kinetics and thermodynamics of the photochemistry catalyzed by protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 12177453)9 Heyes D.J....Hunter C.N. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    390. Metabolic activation of adriamycin by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase; overview of its biological and biochemical effects. (PubMed id 12362973)9 Bartoszek A. (Acta Biochim. Pol. 2002)
    391. Cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated oxidative conversion of a cyano to an amide group in the metabolism of pinacidil. (PubMed id 11851418)9 Zhang Z....Tang W. (Biochemistry 2002)
    392. The reactivity of alpha-hydroxyhaem and verdohaem bound to haem oxygenase-1 to dioxygen and sodium dithionite. (PubMed id 12392555)9 Sakamoto H....Noguchi M. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2002)
    393. Role of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the metabolic activation of nitrosamine derivatives: application of genetically engineered Salmonella expressing human CYP. (PubMed id 12214673)9 Kamataki T....Ariyoshi N. (Drug Metab. Rev. 2002)
    394. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol: evidence for heme destruction and covalent binding to protein. (PubMed id 11907170)9 Lin H.L....Hollenberg P.F. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2002)
    395. Modifying rates of reductive elimination of leaving groups from indolequinone prodrugs: a key factor in controlling hypoxia-selective drug release. (PubMed id 12007566)9 Everett S.A....Wardman P. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2002)
    396. The effect of functional groups on reduction and activation of quinone bioreductive agents by DT-diaphorase. (PubMed id 11862423)9 Fourie J....Begleiter A. (Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 2002)
    397. Modification of the nucleotide cofactor-binding site of cytochrome P-450 reductase to enhance turnover with NADH in Vivo. (PubMed id 12381719)9 Elmore C.L. and Porter T.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    398. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1B1, 1A1 and 1A2 by antigenotoxic compounds, purpurin and alizarin. (PubMed id 12379470)9 Takahashi E....Negishi T. (Mutat. Res. 2002)
    399. Characterization of dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation catalyzed by highly purified recombinant human CYP2D6. (PubMed id 11602510)9 Yu A....Haining R.L. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2001)
    400. Metabolic activation of heterocyclic amines and other procarcinogens in Salmonella typhimurium umu tester strains expressing human cytochrome P4501A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 and human NADPH-P450 reductase and bacterial O-acetyltransferase. (PubMed id 11377247)9 Oda Y....Shimada T. (Mutat. Res. 2001)
    401. Engineering of a functional human NADH-dependent cytochrome P450 system. (PubMed id 11136248)9 DAPhr O....Wolf C.R. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2001)
    402. Predicting the mutagenicity of tobacco-related N-nitrosamines in humans using 11 strains of Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, each coexpressing a form of human cytochrome P450 along with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 11774366)9 Fujita K. and Kamataki T. (Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2001)
    403. Enzyme activity of the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system in the presence of single chain lipid molecules. (PubMed id 11837661)9 MA1ller-Enoch D....Gruler H. (Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. 2001)
    404. Allosteric phenomena in cytochrome P450-catalyzed monooxygenations. (PubMed id 11559350)9 Hlavica P. and Lewis D.F. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2001)
    405. Cytochrome b(5) coexpression increases the CYP2E1-dependent mutagenicity of dialkylnitrosamines in methyltransferase-deficient strains of Salmonella typhimurium. (PubMed id 11733072)9 Cooper M.T. and Porter T.D. (Mutat. Res. 2001)
    406. Effect of selenolipoic acid on peroxynitrite-dependent inactivation of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 11767407)9 Sergeeva S.V....Khramtsov V.V. (Free Radic. Res. 2001)
    407. Sequence-specific DNA damage induced by carcinogenic danthron and anthraquinone in the presence of Cu(II), cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. (PubMed id 11697035)9 Ohkuma Y....Kawanishi S. (Free Radic. Res. 2001)
    408. The potential for CYP2D6 inhibition screening using a novel scintillation proximity assay-based approach. (PubMed id 11689122)9 Delaporte E....Rodrigues A.D. (J Biomol Screen 2001)
    409. Screening of organosulfur compounds as inhibitors of human CYP2A6. (PubMed id 11408364)9 Fujita K. and Kamataki T. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2001)
    410. Expression, purification and characterization of cytochrome P450 Biol: a novel P450 involved in biotin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. (PubMed id 11472016)9 Green A.J....Munro A.W. (J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2001)
    411. Pitfalls in characterizing P450c17 mutations associated with isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. (PubMed id 11549685)9 Gupta M.K.... Auchus R.J. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001)
    412. Temporal and spatial distribution of corticosteroidogenic enzymes immunoreactivity in developing human adrenal. (PubMed id 11306177)9 Narasaka T....Sasano H. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2001)
    413. Human sterol 14alpha-demethylase activity is enhanced by the membrane-bound state of cytochrome b(5). (PubMed id 11673868)9 Lamb D.C....Kaderbhai M.A. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2001)
    414. Human methionine synthase reductase, a soluble P-450 reductase-like dual flavoprotein, is sufficient for NADPH-dependent methionine synthase activation. (PubMed id 11466310)9 Olteanu H. and Banerjee R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    415. Construction of Salmonella typhimurium YG7108 strains, each coexpressing a form of human cytochrome P450 with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 11774365)9 Fujita K....Kamataki T. (Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2001)
    416. Cytochrome P450 CYP2J9, a new mouse arachidonic acid omega-1 hydroxylase predominantly expressed in brain. (PubMed id 11328810)9 Qu W....Zeldin D.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    417. Predicting drug pharmacokinetics in humans from in vitro metabolism studies. (PubMed id 11356141)9 McGinnity D.F. and Riley R.J. (Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2001)
    418. Complexation of membrane-bound enzyme systems. (PubMed id 11098825)9 MA1ller-Enoch D. and Gruler H. (Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci. 2000)
    419. Heterologous expression of CYP2K1 and identification of the expressed protein (BV-CYP2K1) as lauric acid (omega-1)-hydroxylase and aflatoxin B1 exo-epoxidase. (PubMed id 11038153)9 Yang Y.H....Buhler D.R. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2000)
    420. Mechanisms of action of quinone-containing alkylating agents: DNA alkylation by aziridinylquinones. (PubMed id 11056081)9 Hargreaves R.H....Butler J. (Front. Biosci. 2000)
    421. Residue 285 in cytochrome P450 2B4 lacking the NH(2)-terminal hydrophobic sequence has a role in the functional association of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 10772901)9 Schulze J....Hlavica P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000)
    422. Replacement of the distal glycine 139 transforms human heme oxygenase-1 into a peroxidase. (PubMed id 10942763)9 Liu Y....Ortiz de Montellano P.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    423. Degradation of heme in gram-negative bacteria: the product of the hemO gene of Neisseriae is a heme oxygenase. (PubMed id 11073924)9 Zhu W....Stojiljkovic I. (J. Bacteriol. 2000)
    424. Studies on the interactions between drugs and estrogen: analytical method for prediction system of gynecomastia induced by drugs on the inhibitory metabolism of estradiol using Escherichia coli coexpressing human CYP3A4 with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 11067738)9 Satoh T....Yoshizawa I. (Anal. Biochem. 2000)
    425. Intestinal cytochrome P450 and response to rifampicin in rabbits. (PubMed id 10887954)9 Nakamura T....Yamazoe Y. (Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 2000)
    426. Drug-metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms and functions. (PubMed id 11465078)9 Sheweita S.A. (Curr. Drug Metab. 2000)
    427. Relative contribution of cytochromes P-450 and flavin-containing monoxygenases to the metabolism of albendazole by human liver microsomes. (PubMed id 10759686)9 Rawden H.C....Edwards G. (Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000)
    428. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochromes P450 2B1 and P450 2B6 by 2-phenyl-2-(1-piperidinyl)propane. (PubMed id 10901699)9 Chun J....Hollenberg P.F. (Drug Metab. Dispos. 2000)
    429. The C termini of constitutive nitric-oxide synthases control electron flow through the flavin and heme domains and affect modulation by calmodulin. (PubMed id 10871625)9 Roman L.J....Masters B.S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    430. Conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA by human 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17). Evidence that DHEA is produced from the released intermediate, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone. (PubMed id 10824109)9 Soucy P. and Luu-The V. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2000)
    431. Reduction of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene by rat hepatic microsomes, by cecal microflora, and in rats generates the phenyl radical metabolite: nn ESR spin-trapping investigation. (PubMed id 11087429)9 Kadiiska M.B....Mathews J.M. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2000)
    432. Developmental changes in steroidogenic enzymes in human postnatal adrenal cortex: immunohistochemical studies. (PubMed id 11155097)9 Suzuki T....Rainey W.E. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2000)
    433. Anticancer derivative of butyric acid (Pivalyloxymethyl butyrate) specifically potentiates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and daunorubicin through the suppression of microsomal glycosidic activity. (PubMed id 10860924)9 Niitsu N....Honma Y. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2000)
    434. Mitomycin C and diepoxybutane action mechanisms and FANCC protein functions: further insights into the role for oxidative stress in Fanconi's anaemia phenotype. (PubMed id 10783335)9 Pagano G. (Carcinogenesis 2000)
    435. Trace detection of hydroxyl radicals during the redox cycling of low concentrations of diaziquone: a new approach. (PubMed id 11025198)9 Li B....Gutierrez P.L. (amp 2000)
    436. Expression of biotransformation enzymes in human fetal olfactory mucosa: potential roles in developmental toxicity. (PubMed id 10828211)9 Gu J....Ding X. (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2000)
    437. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase is the target of germander-induced autoantibodies on the surface of human hepatocytes. (PubMed id 10953047)9 De Berardinis V....Loeper J. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2000)
    438. Use of genetically engineered Salmonella typhimurium OY1002/1A2 strain coexpressing human cytochrome P450 1A2 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and bacterial O-acetyltransferase in SOS/umu assay. (PubMed id 11013410)9 Aryal P....Oda Y. (Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2000)
    439. Resveratrol, a red wine constituent, is a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 3A4. (PubMed id 11125847)9 Chan W.K. and Delucchi A.B. (Life Sci. 2000)
    440. Free radical generation from heterocyclic amines by cytochrome b5 reductase in the presence of NADH. (PubMed id 10503889)9 Maeda H....Akaike T. (Cancer Lett. 1999)
    441. Heme and apoprotein modification of cytochrome P450 2B4 during its oxidative inactivation in monooxygenase reconstituted system. (PubMed id 10218650)9 Karuzina I.I....Archakov A.I. (amp 1999)
    442. Regulatory network of mitomycin C action in human colon cancer cells. (PubMed id 10391098)9 Suzuki K....Nishiyama M. (Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 1999)
    443. Investigations on the role of cytochrome b5 and divalent cations in the maximal nifedipine oxidase activity of human liver. (PubMed id 10367111)9 MA1ller-Enoch D. (Arzneimittelforschung 1999)
    444. Replacement of the proximal histidine iron ligand by a cysteine or tyrosine converts heme oxygenase to an oxidase. (PubMed id 10090762)9 Liu Y....Ortiz de Montellano P.R. (Biochemistry 1999)
    445. Escherichia coli MTC, a human NADPH P450 reductase competent mutagenicity tester strain for the expression of human cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 3A4, or 3A5: catalytic activities and mutagenicity studies. (PubMed id 10224324)9 Kranendonk M....Vermeulen N.P. (Mutat. Res. 1999)
    446. The optical biosensor studies on the role of hydrophobic tails of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochromes P450 2B4 and b5 upon productive complex formation within a monomeric reconstituted system. (PubMed id 9917332)9 Ivanov Y.D....Archakov A.I. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1999)
    447. Antitumour prodrug development using cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated activation. (PubMed id 10834269)9 Patterson L.H....Orr S. (Anticancer Drug Des. 1999)
    448. Inhibition of DT-diaphorase (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, EC by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) and flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA): implications for bioreductive drug development. (PubMed id 10423172)9 Phillips R.M. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1999)
    449. Calmodulin activates intramolecular electron transfer between the two flavins of neuronal nitric oxide synthase flavin domain. (PubMed id 10594372)9 Matsuda H. and Iyanagi T. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999)
    450. The primate adrenal zona reticularis is defined by expression of cytochrome b5, 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (reductase) but not 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-4 isomerase (3beta-HSD). (PubMed id 10487714)9 Mapes S....Conley A. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1999)
    451. Formation of indigo by recombinant mammalian cytochrome P450. (PubMed id 10558891)9 Gillam E.M....Guengerich F.P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999)
    452. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic production of free radicals from the carcinogens 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and 4-hydroxylaminoquinoline N-oxide. (PubMed id 10328756)9 Fann Y.C....Mason R.P. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1999)
    453. Protection against the bacterial mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines by purpurin, a natural anthraquinone pigment. (PubMed id 10521685)9 Marczylo T.H....Hayatsu H. (Mutat. Res. 1999)
    454. Does reductive metabolism predict response to tirapazamine (SR 4233) in human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines? (PubMed id 10584872)9 Chinje E.C....Stratford I.J. (Br. J. Cancer 1999)
    455. Molecular diversity of sterol 14alpha-demethylase substrates in plants, fungi and humans. (PubMed id 9559662)9 Lamb D.C....Kelly S.L. (FEBS Lett. 1998)
    456. Pharmacological and biochemical determinants of the antitumour activity of the indoloquinone EO9. (PubMed id 9484790)9 Cummings J....Smyth J.F. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1998)
    457. Metabolic activation of dopamine o-quinones to o-semiquinones by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase may play an important role in oxidative stress and apoptotic effects. (PubMed id 9659366)9 Segura-Aguilar J....Welch C.J. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998)
    458. The catalytic site of cytochrome P4504A11 (CYP4A11) and its L131F mutant. (PubMed id 9722531)9 Dierks Montellano P.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    459. Genetically engineered cells stably expressing cytochrome P450 and their application to mutagen assays. (PubMed id 9675235)9 Sawada M. and Kamataki T. (Mutat. Res. 1998)
    460. Current issues in the enzymology of mitomycin C metabolic activation. (PubMed id 9792212)9 Spanswick V.J....Smyth J.F. (Gen. Pharmacol. 1998)
    461. Enzymology of mitomycin C metabolic activation in tumour tissue: implications for enzyme-directed bioreductive drug development. (PubMed id 9763215)9 Cummings J....Smyth J.F. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1998)
    462. Influence of mutation of the amino-terminal signal anchor sequence of cytochrome P450 2B4 on the enzyme structure and electron transfer processes. (PubMed id 9685732)9 Lehnerer M....Hlavica P. (J. Biochem. 1998)
    463. Functional co-expression of CYP2D6 and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. (PubMed id 9511179)9 Pritchard M.P....Friedberg T. (Pharmacogenetics 1998)
    464. Crystallization of recombinant human heme oxygenase-1. (PubMed id 10082382)9 Schuller D.J....Poulos T.L. (Protein Sci. 1998)
    465. Cytotoxic mechanisms of FK317, a new class of bioreductive agent with potent antitumor activity. (PubMed id 9703365)9 Naoe Y....Shimomura K. (Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 1998)
    466. Cytochrome b5 augments the 17,20-lyase activity of human P450c17 without direct electron transfer. (PubMed id 9452426)9 Auchus R.J....Miller W.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    467. Steroid hydroxylation by human fetal CYP3A7 and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase coexpressed in insect cells using baculovirus. (PubMed id 9644715)9 Ohmori S....Kitada M. (Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1998)
    468. Inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by bergamottin, a component of grapefruit juice. (PubMed id 9548795)9 He K....Hollenberg P.F. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1998)
    469. Detection of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) in human hepatic stellate cells. (PubMed id 9299524)9 Parola M....Albano E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997)
    470. Expression of enzymatically active CYP3A4 by Caco-2 cells grown on extracellular matrix-coated permeable supports in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (PubMed id 9145912)9 Schmiedlin-Ren P....Watkins P.B. (Mol. Pharmacol. 1997)
    471. Functional properties of CYP2D6 1 (wild-type) and CYP2D6 7 (His324Pro) expressed by recombinant baculovirus in insect cells. (PubMed id 9089660)9 Evert B....Zanger U.M. (Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 1997)
    472. Role of oncogenes in resistance and killing by cancer therapeutic agents. (PubMed id 9090498)9 el-Deiry W.S. (Curr Opin Oncol 1997)
    473. An optical biosensor study of the interaction parameters and role of hydrophobic tails of cytochrome P450 2B4, b5 and NADPH-flavoprotein in complex formation. (PubMed id 19856290)9 Ivanov Y.D....Archakov A.I. (Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1997)
    474. Expression, purification, and characterization of a catalytically active human cytochrome P450 1A2:rat NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase fusion protein. (PubMed id 9126606)9 Parikh A. and Guengerich F.P. (Protein Expr. Purif. 1997)
    475. Reconstitution premixes for assays using purified recombinant human cytochrome P450, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. (PubMed id 9390180)9 Shaw P.M....Guengerich F.P. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1997)
    476. [Self-inactivation of cytochrome P-450 2B4 during catalytic cycle in the monooxygenase reconstituted system]. (PubMed id 9312936)9 Zgoda V.G....Archakov A.I. (Vopr. Med. Khim. 1997)
    477. Molecular targeting of mitomycin C chemotherapy. (PubMed id 9259406)9 Nishiyama M....Kurisu K. (Int. J. Cancer 1997)
    478. The regulation of 17,20 lyase activity. (PubMed id 9029728)9 Miller W.L....Geller D.H. (Steroids 1997)
    479. Role of cytochromes P450 in the metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether in human livers. (PubMed id 9101044)9 Hong J.Y....Bondoc F.Y. (Arch. Toxicol. 1997)
    480. The R144C change in the CYP2C9*2 allele alters interaction of the cytochrome P450 with NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (PubMed id 9241660)9 Crespi C.L. and Miller V.P. (Pharmacogenetics 1997)
    481. The genetic and functional basis of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. (PubMed id 9326943)9 Geller D.H....Miller W.L. (Nat. Genet. 1997)
    482. Characterization of a BMS-181174-resistant human bladder cancer cell line. (PubMed id 9275022)9 Xia H....Singh S.V. (Br. J. Cancer 1997)
    483. Cytochrome P-4502E1: its physiological and pathological role. (PubMed id 9114822)9 Lieber C.S. (Physiol. Rev. 1997)
    484. [DT-diaphorase]. (PubMed id 9309161)9 Mikami K....Tsuruo T. (amp 1997)
    485. Identification of the polymorphically expressed CYP2C19 and the wild-type CYP2C9-ILE359 allele as low-Km catalysts of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide activation. (PubMed id 9241661)9 Chang T.K....Waxman D.J. (Pharmacogenetics 1997)
    486. Posttranscriptional elevation of cytochrome P450 3A expression. (PubMed id 9070249)9 Zangar R.C....Novak R.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997)
    487. Human class Mu glutathione transferases, in particular isoenzyme M2-2, catalyze detoxication of the dopamine metabolite aminochrome. (PubMed id 9038184)9 Segura-Aguilar J....Mannervik B. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    488. Tumor-specific synergistic therapy of mitomycin C: modulation of bioreductive activation. (PubMed id 9232934)9 Sakamoto N....Nishiyama M. (Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. 1997)
    489. Metabolic activation of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a toxic product of membrane lipid peroxidation and inhibitor of P450 cytochromes. (PubMed id 9278417)9 Kuo C.L....Coon M.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    490. Hepatic enzyme induction and mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter from Santiago, Chile in the nourished and malnourished rat. (PubMed id 9179992)9 Adonis M....Gibson G. ( the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems 1997)
    491. Adaptation of human tumor cells to tirapazamine under aerobic conditions: implications of increased antioxidant enzyme activity to mechanism of aerobic cytotoxicity. (PubMed id 9271329)9 Elwell J.H....Brown J.M. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1997)
    492. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent superoxide generation from adriamycin. (PubMed id 9333325)9 VA!squez-Vivar J....Kalyanaraman B. (Biochemistry 1997)
    493. The autoxidation of the reduced forms of EO9. (PubMed id 8885332)9 Butler J....Cummings J. (Free Radic. Res. 1996)
    494. Recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 and an N-terminal-truncated form: construction, purification, aggregation properties, and interactions with flavodoxin, ferredoxin, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 8615680)9 Dong M.S....Guengerich F.P. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1996)
    495. Increased DT-diaphorase expression and cross-resistance to mitomycin C in a series of cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines. (PubMed id 8678904)9 O'Dwyer P.J....Hamilton T.C. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1996)
    496. Lack of electron transfer from cytochrome b5 in stimulation of catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4. Characterization of a reconstituted cytochrome P450 3A4/NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system and studies with apo-cytochrome b5. (PubMed id 8910324)9 Yamazaki H....Guengerich F.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    497. Coexpression of mammalian cytochrome P450 and reductase in Escherichia coli. (PubMed id 8619611)9 Dong J. and Porter T.D. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1996)
    498. CYP enzymes catalyze the formation of a terminal olefin from 2-ethylhexanoic acid in rat and human liver. (PubMed id 8735469)9 Pennanen S....Komulainen H. (amp 1996)
    499. Stable expression of human CYP2E1 in Chinese hamster cells: high sensitivity to N,N-dimethylnitrosamine in cytotoxicity testing. (PubMed id 8692217)9 Nakagawa T....Kamataki T. (Mutat. Res. 1996)
    500. Quantitation of FAD-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase activity by photoreduction. (PubMed id 8954538)9 Hodgson A.V. and Strobel H.W. (Anal. Biochem. 1996)
    501. Active site structure and substrate specificity of cytochrome P450 4A1: steric control of ligand approach perpendicular to heme plane. (PubMed id 8605007)9 Bambal R.B. and Hanzlik R.P. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996)
    502. Oxidation of the meso-methylmesoheme regioisomers by heme oxygenase. Electronic control of the reaction regiospecificity. (PubMed id 8824248)9 Torpey J. and Ortiz de Montellano P.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    503. Non-enzymatic and enzymatic activation of mitomycin C: identification of a unique cytosolic activity. (PubMed id 8567127)9 Joseph P....Jaiswal A.K. (Int. J. Cancer 1996)
    504. Biochemical characterization of a mitomycin C-resistant human bladder cancer cell line. (PubMed id 8631603)9 Singh S.V....Zaren H.A. (Int. J. Cancer 1996)
    505. Studies on the conversion of haloperidol and its tetrahydropyridine dehydration product to potentially neurotoxic pyridinium metabolites by human liver microsomes. (PubMed id 8831826)9 Usuki E....Castagnol N. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1996)
    506. Flavin-binding and protein structural integrity studies on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase are consistent with the presence of distinct domains. (PubMed id 7840627)9 Narayanasami R....Masters B.S. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    507. Simultaneous expression of human CYP3A7 and N-acetyltransferase in Chinese hamster CHL cells results in high cytotoxicity for carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. (PubMed id 7625840)9 Hashimoto H....Kamataki T. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    508. [Mechanism of resistance to mitomycin C in a human bladder cancer cell line]. (PubMed id 8697971)9 Xu B....Singh S.V. (Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 1995)
    509. DT-diaphorase activity in normal and neoplastic human tissues; an indicator for sensitivity to bioreductive agents? (PubMed id 7547240)9 Smitskamp-Wilms E....Peters G.J. (Br. J. Cancer 1995)
    510. Oxygen radical formation during cytochrome P450-catalyzed cyclosporine metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes at varying hydrogen ion concentrations. (PubMed id 8569758)9 Ahmed S.S....Strobel H.W. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1995)
    511. Cross-resistance studies on two K562 sublines resistant to diaziridinylbenzoquinones. (PubMed id 7646550)9 Ward T.H....Butler J. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1995)
    512. Effects of natural polyphenols on aflatoxin B1 activation in a reconstituted microsomal monooxygenase system. (PubMed id 7595929)9 Firozi P.F. and Bhattacharya R.K. (J. Biochem. Toxicol. 1995)
    513. Characterization of a human bladder cancer cell line selected for resistance to BMY 25067, a novel analogue of mitomycin C. (PubMed id 7656243)9 Singh S.V....Jani J.P. (Cancer Lett. 1995)
    514. Oxidative cleavage of esters and amides to carbonyl products by cytochrome P450. (PubMed id 7733661)9 Peng H.M....Coon M.J. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    515. Inactivation of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 and other microsomal P450 isozymes by trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a major product of membrane lipid peroxidation. (PubMed id 7731980)9 Bestervelt L.L....Coon M.J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995)
    516. Superoxide radical generation from heterocyclic amines. (PubMed id 8844801)9 Maeda H....Akaike T. (Int. Symp. Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res. Fund 1995)
    517. Cytochrome P450 2A1, 2E1, and 2C9 cDNA-expression by insect cells and partial purification using hydrophobic chromatography. (PubMed id 7503803)9 Grogan J....Korzekwa K.R. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1995)
    518. Reduction of antitumour mitosenes in non-aqueous and aqueous environment. An electron spin resonance and cyclic voltammetry study. (PubMed id 7704182)9 Maliepaard M....Reinhoudt D.N. (Free Radic. Res. 1995)
    519. Substrate-dependent competition of different P450 isozymes for limiting NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 7827074)9 Cawley G.F....Backes W.L. (Biochemistry 1995)
    520. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of an endogenous human cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase isoform. (PubMed id 7574697)9 Zeldin D.C.... Capdevila J.H. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    521. The proximal pathway of metabolism of the chlorinated signal molecule differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium. (PubMed id 7702568)9 Morandini P....Kay R.R. (Biochem. J. 1995)
    522. Metabolism of Zidovudine. (PubMed id 8690233)9 Veal G.J. and Back D.J. (Gen. Pharmacol. 1995)
    523. Efficient complementary DNA directed expression of human fetal liver cytochrome P450 (CYP3A7) in insect cells using baculovirus. (PubMed id 7663401)9 Sakuma T....Kamataki T. (Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 1995)
    524. Baculovirus expression of human P450 2E1 and cytochrome b5: spectral and catalytic properties and effect of b5 on the stoichiometry of P450 2E1-catalyzed reactions. (PubMed id 7893169)9 Patten C.J. and Koch P. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995)
    525. The role of specific reductases in the intracellular activation and binding of 2-nitroimidazoles. (PubMed id 8195032)9 Joseph P....Chapman J.D. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1994)
    526. Generation of free radicals from neocarzinostatin mediated by NADPH/cytochrome P-450 reductase via activation of enediyne chromophore. (PubMed id 7811256)9 Sato K....Maeda H. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994)
    527. Probing the putative cytochrome P450- and cytochrome c-binding sites on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase by anti-peptide antibodies. (PubMed id 8038172)9 Shen S. and Strobel H.W. (Biochemistry 1994)
    528. Cell line-dependent changes in sensitivity to mitomycin C by 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is due to an altered intracellular dose of the anticancer drug and/or to changes in DT-diaphorase activity. (PubMed id 7531052)9 Kimura H....Aoyama T. (amp 1994)
    529. Mechanism of abnormal production of adrenal androgens in patients with adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas. (PubMed id 8288710)9 Sakai Y....Nawata H. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1994)
    530. Aromatization of a bicyclic steroid analog, 3-oxodecalin-4-ene-10-carboxaldehyde, by liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2B4. (PubMed id 7947773)9 Vaz A.D....Coon M.J. (Biochemistry 1994)
    531. Semi-artificial hydroxylating enzymes created by flavins binding to cytochrome P450 2B4 and by bleomycin binding to NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. (PubMed id 7513993)9 Uvarov VYu ....Archakov A.I. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994)
    532. Involvement of phenyl radicals in iodonium inhibition of flavoenzymes. (PubMed id 7969060)9 O'Donnell V.B....Jones O.T. (Mol. Pharmacol. 1994)
    533. Regioselective biotransformation of midazolam by members of the human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily. (PubMed id 8185679)9 Gorski J.C....Wrighton S.A. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1994)
    534. Free radical formation by ansamycin benzoquinone in human breast tumor cells: implications for cytotoxicity and resistance. (PubMed id 7982624)9 Benchekroun N.M....Sinha B.K. (amp 1994)
    535. DT-diaphorase protects cells from the hypoxic cytotoxicity of indoloquinone EO9. (PubMed id 7526885)9 Plumb J.A....Workman P. (Br. J. Cancer 1994)
    536. Quantification of CYP2B7, CYP4B1, and CYPOR messenger RNAs in normal human lung and lung tumors. (PubMed id 8313365)9 Czerwinski M....Gonzalez F.J. (Cancer Res. 1994)
    537. Cellular biochemical determinants modulating the metabolism of estrone 3,4-quinone. (PubMed id 7841338)9 Nutter L.M....Abul-Hajj Y. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1994)
    538. Differential roles of Glu318 and Thr319 in cytochrome P450 1A2 catalysis supported by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. (PubMed id 7910007)9 Hiroya K....Ortiz de Montellano P.R. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1994)
    539. The metabolism of zidovudine by human liver microsomes in vitro: formation of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine. (PubMed id 8053924)9 Eagling V.A....Back D.J. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1994)
    540. Inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and monooxygenase activities by eugenol. (PubMed id 8205227)9 Nagababu E. and Lakshmaiah N. (Free Radic. Res. 1994)
    541. Aromatase inhibitors--mechanisms for non-steroidal inhibitors. (PubMed id 7949204)9 Vanden Bossche H.V....Koymans L.M. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 1994)
    542. The histochemical G6PDH reaction but not the LDH reaction with neotetrazolium is suitable for the oxygen sensitivity test to detect cancer cells. (PubMed id 7930518)9 Griffini P....Van Noorden C.J. (J. Histochem. Cytochem. 1994)
    543. Characterization of a human bladder cancer cell line selected for resistance to mitomycin C. (PubMed id 8077054)9 Xu B.H....Singh S.V. (Int. J. Cancer 1994)
    544. Expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by primary and secondary hepatic tumors in man. (PubMed id 8195019)9 Philip P.A....Carmichael J. (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1994)
    545. Regio- and stereoselective epoxidation of arachidonic acid by human cytochromes P450 2C8 and 2C9. (PubMed id 7996455)9 Daikh B.E....Koop D.R. (J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1994)
    546. Mechanism of differential sensitivity of human bladder cancer cells to mitomycin C and its analogue. (PubMed id 8297721)9 Xu B.H....Singh S.V. (Br. J. Cancer 1994)
    547. In-vitro evidence for the regulation of 17,20-lyase activity by cytochrome b5 in adrenocortical adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome. (PubMed id 8137519)9 Sakai Y....Nawata H. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 1994)
    548. The mechanism of stimulation of NADPH oxidation during the mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 2B1 by N-methylcarbazole: redox cycling and DNA scission. (PubMed id 8199313)9 Shen T. and Hollenberg P.F. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1994)
    549. Catalytic activity of cytochrome P4501A2 in reconstituted system with Emulgen 913. (PubMed id 8185310)9 Sevrukova I.F....Archakov A.I. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1994)
    550. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 reductase by the diphenyliodonium cation. Kinetic analysis and covalent modifications. (PubMed id 8399148)9 Tew D.G. (Biochemistry 1993)
    551. Accumulation of intermediates and isotopically sensitive enolization distinguish between aromatase (cytochrome P450 CYP19) from rat ovary and human placenta. (PubMed id 8342956)9 Swinney D.C....So O.Y. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1993)
    552. Engineered yeast cells as model to study coupling between human xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Simulation of the two first steps of benzo[a]pyrene activation. (PubMed id 8425552)9 Gautier J.C....Pompon D. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993)
    553. High expression of cytochrome b5 in adrenocortical adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome associated with high secretion of adrenal androgens. (PubMed id 8496319)9 Sakai Y....Nawata H. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1993)
    554. Metabolism of the bioreductive cytotoxin SR 4233 by tumour cells: enzymatic studies. (PubMed id 8431360)9 Wang J....Brown J.M. (Br. J. Cancer 1993)
    555. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a human kidney, cytochrome P-450 4A fatty acid omega-hydroxylase and the cognate enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli. (PubMed id 7679927)9 Palmer C.N.A.... Johnson E.F. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1993)
    556. Initial characterization of the major mouse cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the reductive metabolism of the hypoxic cytotoxin 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (tirapazamine, SR 4233, WIN 59075). (PubMed id 8461036)9 Riley R.J....Workman P. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1993)
    557. Cytochrome P450 dependent N-hydroxylation of a guanidine (debrisoquine), microsomal catalysed reduction and further oxidation of the N-hydroxy-guanidine metabolite to the urea derivative. Similarity with the oxidation of arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide. (PubMed id 8274159)9 Clement B....Wohlers H. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1993)
    558. Expression and purification of functional human 17 alpha- hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) in Escherichia coli. Use of this system for study of a novel form of combined 17 alpha- hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. (PubMed id 8396144)9 Imai T.... Waterman M.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993)
    559. Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized normal human liver epithelial cells express hepatocyte characteristics and metabolize chemical carcinogens. (PubMed id 7685115)9 Pfeifer A.M....Trump B.F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1993)
    560. Mammalian PC-12 cell genetically engineered for human cytochrome P450 2E1 expression. (PubMed id 8391436)9 Mapoles J....MAcnez J.F. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993)
    561. Enzyme-substrate binding interactions of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase characterized with pH and alternate substrate/inhibitor studies. (PubMed id 8218221)9 Sem D.S. and Kasper C.B. (Biochemistry 1993)
    562. [In vitro metabolism of zidovudine in man]. (PubMed id 8128420)9 Rajaonarison J.F....Catalin J. (Therapie 1993)
    563. Nitric oxide: an ubiquitous messenger. (PubMed id 8294080)9 Berdeaux A. (amp 1993)
    564. Catalytic properties of the human cytochrome P450 2E1 produced by cDNA expression in mammalian cells. (PubMed id 1444447)9 Patten C.J....Yang C.S. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1992)
    565. High-level expression of functional human cytochrome P450 1A2 in Escherichia coli. (PubMed id 1537466)9 Fisher C.W....Estabrook R.W. (FASEB J. 1992)

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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    PharmGKB entry for POR Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for POR Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for POR gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving POR

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search

    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, GeneTex, and/or others, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway and/or Taconic Biosciences,
    CRISPR knockouts from OriGene)
    About This Section

     EMD Millipore genomic analysis products

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