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Aliases for PON2 Gene

Aliases for PON2 Gene

  • Paraoxonase 2 2 3 5
  • Serum Aryldialkylphosphatase 2 4
  • Aromatic Esterase 2 4
  • Paraoxonase Nirs 2
  • Arylesterase 2 2
  • A-Esterase 2 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • PON 2 4

External Ids for PON2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PON2 Gene

  • GC07M093569
  • GC07M094632
  • GC07M094646
  • GC07M094678
  • GC07M094872
  • GC07M095034
  • GC07M089641

Summaries for PON2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PON2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the paraoxonase gene family, which includes three known members located adjacent to each other on the long arm of chromosome 7. The encoded protein is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, membrane-bound, and may act as a cellular antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Hydrolytic activity against acylhomoserine lactones, important bacterial quorum-sensing mediators, suggests the encoded protein may also play a role in defense responses to pathogenic bacteria. Mutations in this gene may be associated with vascular disease and a number of quantitative phenotypes related to diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PON2 Gene

PON2 (Paraoxonase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PON2 include Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and arylesterase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PON1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

  • Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.

Gene Wiki entry for PON2 Gene

Additional gene information for PON2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PON2 Gene

Genomics for PON2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PON2 Gene

Enhancers for PON2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07H095429 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 13.4 +2.5 2534 6.8 HDGF FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF2 YY1 PON3 PON2 ASB4 PON1 ENSG00000233942 ENSG00000273138
GH07H095439 1.3 FANTOM5 ENCODE 10.1 -6.3 -6286 4.2 FOXA2 ATF1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 TCF12 ATF7 SP5 PON1 PON3 PON2 PDK4 ASB4
GH07H095420 0.7 ENCODE 15.6 +14.0 13967 1.5 SOX13 CEBPG EBF1 POLR2A ATF7 RUNX3 IKZF2 SMARCA5 SOX5 TRIM22 ASB4 PON2 PON3 PON1 ENSG00000273138
GH07H096387 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 4.6 -953.4 -953370 2.5 JUN CEBPB CEBPG EP300 PRDM1 MAFK SLC25A13 PON2 GC07P096379 GC07M096424
GH07H095320 0.5 ENCODE 7 +114.5 114494 0.7 JUND ATF3 HNF4G HNF4A YY1 ASB4 PON1 PON2 GC07P095294
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PON2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PON2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Locations for PON2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PON2 Gene
30,468 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PON2 Gene

Genes around PON2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PON2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PON2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PON2 Gene

Proteins for PON2 Gene

  • Protein details for PON2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1H7
    • B2RCP9
    • B4DJD5
    • O15114
    • O15115
    • O75856
    • Q5FBX7
    • Q86YL0

    Protein attributes for PON2 Gene

    354 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39397 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PON2 Gene


neXtProt entry for PON2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PON2 Gene

  • The signal sequence is not cleaved.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=254254, Asn269, and Asn323
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for PON2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PON2 Gene

Domains & Families for PON2 Gene

Gene Families for PON2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PON2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PON2: view

Function for PON2 Gene

Molecular function for PON2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paraoxonase-like sequence 1(PON2),susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease,ubiquitously expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A phenyl acetate + H(2)O = a phenol + acetate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H(2)O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PON2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PON2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004064 arylesterase activity IBA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IDA 15772423
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0102007 acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PON2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PON2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Clone Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PON2 Gene

Localization for PON2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PON2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
lysosome 3
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005764 lysosome IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PON2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PON2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PON2: view

Pathways by source for PON2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA --
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IBA --
GO:0019372 lipoxygenase pathway TAS --
GO:0019439 aromatic compound catabolic process IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PON2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PON2 Gene

(12) Drugs for PON2 Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hydroquinone Approved Pharma 39
Isopropyl alcohol Approved Pharma 0
Phenol Approved, Experimental Pharma 51
Water Approved Pharma 0
acetic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 115

(10) Additional Compounds for PON2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Hexanol
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Alcohol C-6
  • Alcohol(C6)
  • 1-Pentanol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Alcool amylique (french)
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate
  • DEP
  • Di-Ethyl phosphate
  • Diethyl acid phosphate
  • Diethyl hydrogen phosphate
  • Diethyl phosphate
  • DETP
  • Diethylthiophosphate
  • Diethylthiophosphorate
  • Diethylthiophosphoric acid
  • O,O-Diethyl phosphorothionate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PON2: view

Transcripts for PON2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PON2 Gene

Paraoxonase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PON2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP11: -
SP12: -

ExUns: 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d

Relevant External Links for PON2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PON2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PON2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PON2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (8.5), Fetal Liver (7.5), and Testis (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PON2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PON2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PON2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PON2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PON2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest expression in liver, lung, placenta, testis and heart.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PON2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Heart(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PON2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
  • bronchus
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • lung
  • scapula
  • trachea
  • biliary tract
  • liver
  • stomach
  • arm
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • humerus
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PON2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PON2 Gene

Orthologs for PON2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PON2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PON2 33 34
  • 99.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PON2 33 34
  • 92.47 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PON2 33 34
  • 91.99 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pon2 33 16 34
  • 86.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pon2 33
  • 86.44 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PON2 34
  • 59 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PON2 33 34
  • 72.79 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pon2 33
  • 64.97 (n)
Str.1885 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pon3 33
  • 59.5 (n)
pon2 34
  • 54 (a)
pon1 34
  • 53 (a)
zgc:174637 34 34
  • 53 (a)
Dr.20841 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea poml-3 34
  • 28 (a)
poml-2 34
  • 27 (a)
poml-4 34
  • 27 (a)
mec-6 34
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PON2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PON2 Gene

Gene Tree for PON2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PON2 (if available)

Paralogs for PON2 Gene

Paralogs for PON2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PON2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PON2: view

Variants for PON2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PON2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs12026 Benign 95,411,704(-) AGAAG(C/G)AGAAA reference, missense
rs7493 Benign 95,405,463(-) TCTAT(C/G)TGAGA reference, missense
rs1000112785 -- 95,409,987(+) ACAAC(A/T)TTTGC reference, missense
rs1000140145 -- 95,428,227(+) CTTTT(A/T)CATTA intron-variant
rs1000188253 -- 95,415,924(+) TCCAG(C/T)CGGGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PON2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv607863 CNV loss 21841781
nsv1023193 CNV gain 25217958
esv3614194 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for PON2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.15; 95.16% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PON2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

Disorders for PON2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for PON2 Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
multiple chemical sensitivity
  • 20th century disease
hypercholesterolemia, familial
  • hypercholesterolemia, familial, modifier of
coronary artery disease
  • coronary artery anomaly
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PON2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PON2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PON2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PON2 Gene

Publications for PON2 Gene

  1. Human PON2 gene at 7q21.3: cloning, multiple mRNA forms, and missense polymorphisms in the coding sequence. (PMID: 9714608) Mochizuki H … Prochazka M (Gene 1998) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. DNA polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes (PON1 and PON2) are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. (PMID: 9443862) Sanghera DK … Kamboh MI (American journal of human genetics 1998) 3 4 22 45 60
  3. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase gene (PON1) is one member of a multigene family. (PMID: 8661009) Primo-Parmo SL … La Du BN (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 60
  4. The role of polymorphisms within paraoxonases (192 Gln/Arg in PON1 and 311Ser/Cys in PON2) in the modulation of cardiovascular risk: a pilot study. (PMID: 19939821) Gluba A … Rysz J (Angiology 2010) 3 22 45 60
  5. Evaluation of polymorphisms in paraoxonase 2 (PON2) gene and their association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk in Mexican Americans. (PMID: 19546579) Thameem F … Abboud HE (Kidney & blood pressure research 2009) 3 22 45 60

Products for PON2 Gene

Sources for PON2 Gene

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