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Aliases for PON1 Gene

Aliases for PON1 Gene

  • Paraoxonase 1 2 3
  • PON 3 4 6
  • Serum Aryldialkylphosphatase 1 3 4
  • Aromatic Esterase 1 3 4
  • Arylesterase 1 2 3
  • A-Esterase 1 3 4
  • Esterase A 2 3
  • PON 1 3 4
  • MVCD5 3 6
  • K-45 3 4
  • ESA 3 6
  • Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase 1 3
  • Serum Aryldiakylphosphatase 3
  • Arylesterase B-Type 3
  • Paraoxonase B-Type 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4

External Ids for PON1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PON1 Gene

  • PON

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PON1 Gene

  • GC07M093462
  • GC07M094525
  • GC07M094539
  • GC07M094571
  • GC07M094764
  • GC07M094926
  • GC07M089534

Summaries for PON1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PON1 Gene

  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is an arylesterase that mainly hydrolyzes paroxon to produce p-nitrophenol. Paroxon is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase compound that is produced in vivo by oxidation of the insecticide parathion. Polymorphisms in this gene are a risk factor in coronary artery disease. The gene is found in a cluster of three related paraoxonase genes at 7q21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PON1 Gene

PON1 (Paraoxonase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PON1 include microvascular complications of diabetes 5 and aortic valve insufficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Phase I, non P450. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PON2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

  • Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.

Gene Wiki entry for PON1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PON1 Gene

Genomics for PON1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PON1 Gene

Genomic Location for PON1 Gene

95,297,676 bp from pter
95,324,707 bp from pter
27,032 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PON1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PON1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PON1 Gene

Proteins for PON1 Gene

  • Protein details for PON1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RA40
    • Q16052
    • Q6B0J6
    • Q9UCB1

    Protein attributes for PON1 Gene

    355 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39731 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108; Note=Binds 2 calcium ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Heterooligomer with phosphate-binding protein (HPBP). Interacts with CLU.
    • The preferential association of PON1 with HDL is mediated in part by its signal peptide, by binding phospholipids directly, rather than binding apo AI. The retained signal peptide may allow transfer of the protein between phospholipid surfaces

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PON1 Gene

neXtProt entry for PON1 Gene

Proteomics data for PON1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PON1 Gene

Other Protein References for PON1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PON1 Gene

Domains for PON1 Gene

Gene Families for PON1 Gene

  • PON :Paraoxonases

Protein Domains for PON1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PON1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P27169
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PON1: view

Function for PON1 Gene

Molecular function for PON1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: paraoxonase,high-density-lipoprotein associated enzyme,susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease but not myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients and for Parkinson disease in some populations but not in Chinese in Taiwan
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: A phenyl acetate + H(2)O = a phenol + acetate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: An aryl dialkyl phosphate + H(2)O = dialkyl phosphate + an aryl alcohol
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: An N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H(2)O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PON1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004063 aryldialkylphosphatase activity IDA 15098021
GO:0004064 arylesterase activity NAS 1673382
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 15098021
GO:0005543 phospholipid binding IDA 10479665
GO:0016844 strictosidine synthase activity --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view

Phenotypes for PON1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PON1: view

Animal Models for PON1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PON1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PON1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PON1

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PON1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PON1 Gene

Localization for PON1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PON1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PON1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 7638166
GO:0034364 high-density lipoprotein particle TAS 10479665
GO:0034366 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle IDA 16682745
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view

Pathways for PON1 Gene

SuperPathways for PON1 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Metabolism
2 Phase I, non P450
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PON1: view

Pathways by source for PON1 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for PON1 Gene
1 KEGG pathway for PON1 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for PON1 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000222381 P27169-PON1_HUMAN for PON1 Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process --
GO:0009058 biosynthetic process --
GO:0009605 response to external stimulus NAS 1657140
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IEA --
GO:0010875 positive regulation of cholesterol efflux IDA 15721011
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view

Compounds for PON1 Gene

(10) HMDB Compounds for PON1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 1-Butanol
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Pentol
  • Atorvastatin acid
  • 1-Hydroxyethane

(1) Drugbank Compounds for PON1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • Cefazolin sodium
25953-19-9 target inhibitor

(87) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PON1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
paraoxon 95 138
phenylacetate 94.9 95
diazoxon 94.3 37
chlorpyrifos oxon 79.4 7
homocysteine thiolactone 79.3 12

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for PON1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PON1: view

Transcripts for PON1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PON1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PON1 Gene

Paraoxonase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PON1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PON1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for PON1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PON1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PON1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PON1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (48.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PON1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PON1 Gene Hs.370995

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PON1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Plasma, associated with HDL (at protein level). Expressed in liver, but not in heart, brain, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney or pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PON1: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for PON1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PON1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 99.44 (a)
PON1 36
  • 92 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 85.35 (n)
  • 82.25 (a)
PON1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 89.11 (n)
  • 87.89 (a)
PON1 36
  • 88 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pon1 35
  • 83.19 (n)
  • 82.25 (a)
Pon1 16
Pon1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PON1 36
  • 70 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pon1 35
  • 82.54 (n)
  • 80.56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PON2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 56 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pon1-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pon1 36
  • 48 (a)
pon2 36
  • 53 (a)
zgc:174637 36
  • 52 (a)
zgc:174637 36
  • 51 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mec-6 36
  • 20 (a)
poml-2 36
  • 26 (a)
poml-3 36
  • 27 (a)
poml-4 36
  • 26 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PON1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PON1 Gene

Gene Tree for PON1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PON1 (if available)

Paralogs for PON1 Gene

Paralogs for PON1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PON1 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PON1: view

Variants for PON1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

The allelic form of the enzyme with Gln-192 (allozyme A) hydrolyzes paraoxon with a low turnover number and the one with Arg-192 (allozyme B) with a high turnover number

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PON1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs662 Pathogenic, - 95,308,134(-) CTTAC(A/G)ATCCT reference, missense
rs705378 -- 95,317,259(+) TTTAG(G/T)TGATC intron-variant
rs705379 other 95,324,583(+) GCCCC(A/G)CCCCT upstream-variant-2KB
rs705380 -- 95,324,601(+) GGGTC(C/G)GCAGC upstream-variant-2KB
rs705381 -- 95,324,637(+) AGGCG(C/T)GGCTT upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PON1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv888740 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv888741 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv5851 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv528555 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for PON1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for PON1 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for PON1 Gene (168820)


  • Microvascular complications of diabetes 5 (MVCD5) [MIM:612633]: Pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Homozygosity for the Leu-55 allele is strongly associated with the development of retinal disease in diabetic patients.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PON1 Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PON1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
atherosclerosis 82.7 149
coronary heart disease 68.4 97
cardiovascular diseases 65.6 82
coronary artery disease 63.5 71
vascular diseases 54.9 37

Relevant External Links for PON1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PON1: view

Publications for PON1 Gene

  1. New paraoxonase 1 polymorphism I102V and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men. (PMID: 12783936) Marchesani M. … Salonen J.T. (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2003) 3 4 23 48
  2. Paraoxonase activity and paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism in patients with uremia. (PMID: 12790379) Biasioli S. … Fasolin A. (ASAIO J. 2003) 3 23 48
  3. Effect of six candidate genes on early aging in a French population. (PMID: 12889841) Xia Y. … Visvikis S. (Aging Clin Exp Res 2003) 3 23 48
  4. Gln-Arg192 polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus of Chinese. (PMID: 12849920) Hu Y. … Liu R. (Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2003) 3 23 48
  5. Paraoxonase (Pon1) Q192R polymorphism and serum Pon1 activity in diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis. (PMID: 14579940) Zhang B. … Saku K. (Clin. Nephrol. 2003) 3 23 48

Products for PON1 Gene

Sources for PON1 Gene

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