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Aliases for POLR2D Gene

Aliases for POLR2D Gene

  • Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide D 2 3
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerase II Subunit D 3 4
  • RNA Polymerase II Subunit HsRBP4 2 3
  • RNA Polymerase II 16 KDa Subunit 3 4
  • RNA Polymerase II Subunit B4 3 4
  • RPB16 3 4
  • DNA-Directed RNA Polymerase II 16 KDa Polypeptide 3
  • HSRBP4 3
  • HSRPB4 3
  • RBP4 3

External Ids for POLR2D Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for POLR2D Gene

  • GC02M125901
  • GC02M126528
  • GC02M128509
  • GC02M128697
  • GC02M128320
  • GC02M128606
  • GC02M120910
  • GC02M128608
  • GC02M128620
  • GC02M128637
  • GC02M128649
  • GC02M128663
  • GC02M127847

Summaries for POLR2D Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for POLR2D Gene

  • This gene encodes the fourth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast, this polymerase subunit is associated with the polymerase under suboptimal growth conditions and may have a stress protective role. A sequence for a ribosomal pseudogene is contained within the 3' untranslated region of the transcript from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for POLR2D Gene

POLR2D (Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide D) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR). GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and single-stranded RNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for POLR2D Gene

  • DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB4 is part of a subcomplex with RPB7 that binds to a pocket formed by RPB1, RPB2 and RPB6 at the base of the clamp element. The RBP4-RPB7 subcomplex seems to lock the clamp via RPB7 in the closed conformation thus preventing double-stranded DNA to enter the active site cleft. The RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds single-stranded DNA and RNA (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for POLR2D Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for POLR2D Gene

Genomics for POLR2D Gene

Regulatory Elements for POLR2D Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for POLR2D Gene

Chromosome:
2
Start:
127,843,551 bp from pter
End:
127,858,157 bp from pter
Size:
14,607 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for POLR2D Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
GeneLoc Logo Gene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for POLR2D Gene

Proteins for POLR2D Gene

  • Protein details for POLR2D Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O15514-RPB4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4
    Protein Accession:
    O15514
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q52LT4

    Protein attributes for POLR2D Gene

    Size:
    142 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16311 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex consisting of 12 subunits. RPB4 and RPB7 form a subcomplex that protrudes from the 10-subunit Pol II core complex.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for POLR2D Gene

neXtProt entry for POLR2D Gene

Proteomics data for POLR2D Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for POLR2D Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for POLR2D Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for POLR2D Gene

Domains & Families for POLR2D Gene

Gene Families for POLR2D Gene

Protein Domains for POLR2D Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for POLR2D Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O15514

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RPB4_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the eukaryotic RPB4 RNA polymerase subunit family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the eukaryotic RPB4 RNA polymerase subunit family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with POLR2D: view

Function for POLR2D Gene

Molecular function for POLR2D Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
polymerase II,RNA DNA directed,polypeptide D likely associating with POLR2G (RPB7)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB4 is part of a subcomplex with RPB7 that binds to a pocket formed by RPB1, RPB2 and RPB6 at the base of the clamp element. The RBP4-RPB7 subcomplex seems to lock the clamp via RPB7 in the closed conformation thus preventing double-stranded DNA to enter the active site cleft. The RPB4-RPB7 subcomplex binds single-stranded DNA and RNA (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for POLR2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003697 contributes_to single-stranded DNA binding IBA --
GO:0003727 contributes_to single-stranded RNA binding IBA --
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0003899 DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity IMP 9528765
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with POLR2D: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with POLR2D: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for POLR2D Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target POLR2D

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for POLR2D Gene

Localization for POLR2D Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for POLR2D Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for POLR2D Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for POLR2D gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for POLR2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000932 cytoplasmic mRNA processing body IBA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 9852112
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005665 DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex IDA 9528765
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with POLR2D: view

Pathways & Interactions for POLR2D Gene

SuperPathways for POLR2D Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Formation of the HIV-1 Early Elongation Complex
2 RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation And Promoter Clearance
3 Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER)
4 POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2, NANOG activate genes related to proliferation
5 mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with POLR2D: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for POLR2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000288 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay IBA --
GO:0000398 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome TAS --
GO:0006281 DNA repair TAS --
GO:0006283 transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair TAS --
GO:0006289 nucleotide-excision repair TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with POLR2D: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for POLR2D Gene

Drugs & Compounds for POLR2D Gene

(5) Drugs for POLR2D Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Cytidine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Uridine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with POLR2D: view

Transcripts for POLR2D Gene

mRNA/cDNA for POLR2D Gene

Unigene Clusters for POLR2D Gene

Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for POLR2D

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for POLR2D Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - - - -

Relevant External Links for POLR2D Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
POLR2D
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
POLR2D

Expression for POLR2D Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for POLR2D Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for POLR2D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for POLR2D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (37.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for POLR2D Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for POLR2D Gene Hs.715348

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with POLR2D: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for POLR2D Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for POLR2D Gene

Orthologs for POLR2D Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for POLR2D Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia POLR2D 35
  • 91.55 (n)
  • 99.3 (a)
POLR2D 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia POLR2D 35
  • 92.25 (n)
  • 100 (a)
POLR2D 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Polr2d 35
  • 87.56 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Polr2d 16
Polr2d 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia POLR2D 35
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 100 (a)
POLR2D 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Polr2d 35
  • 87.79 (n)
  • 100 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia POLR2D 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves POLR2D 35
  • 83.1 (n)
  • 97.18 (a)
POLR2D 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia POLR2D 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia polr2d 35
  • 77.93 (n)
  • 90.85 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.8056 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii polr2d 35
  • 77.78 (n)
  • 92.91 (a)
polr2d 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2260 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001228 35
  • 64.49 (n)
  • 75.36 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Rpb4 35
  • 68.46 (n)
  • 77.69 (a)
Rpb4 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F43E2.2 37
  • 57 (a)
rpb-4 35
  • 58.39 (n)
  • 58.87 (a)
rpb-4 36
  • 56 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RPB4 36
  • 19 (a)
OneToOne
RPB4 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons NRPB4 35
  • 51.52 (n)
  • 43.18 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0116900 35
  • 49.75 (n)
  • 41.67 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4840 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3457 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for POLR2D:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for POLR2D Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for POLR2D (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for POLR2D (if available)

Paralogs for POLR2D Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for POLR2D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with POLR2D: view

No data available for Paralogs for POLR2D Gene

Variants for POLR2D Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for POLR2D Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs12900 -- 127,846,498(+) CAAGT(A/G)ACTTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs14506 -- 127,846,779(-) CCCCA(A/G)CGTAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1061056 -- 127,846,658(-) AAAAA(A/T)TTTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1142194 -- 127,846,232(-) CTGGC(A/T)GTGTT downstream-variant-500B
rs1804817 -- 127,846,994(-) GTGGT(G/T)GTTGT utr-variant-3-prime

Variation tolerance for POLR2D Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 57.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.06; 1.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for POLR2D Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
POLR2D

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for POLR2D Gene

Disorders for POLR2D Gene

Relevant External Links for POLR2D

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
POLR2D
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
POLR2D
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
POLR2D
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with POLR2D: view

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for POLR2D Gene

Publications for POLR2D Gene

  1. Fenofibrate reduces serum retinol-binding protein-4 by suppressing its expression in adipose tissue. (PMID: 19088257) Wu H. … Xiang K. (Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009) 23 67
  2. Methylation of CLDN6, FBN2, RBP1, RBP4, TFPI2, and TMEFF2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (PMID: 19288010) Tsunoda S. … Drew P.A. (Oncol. Rep. 2009) 23 67
  3. Circulating and liver tissue levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (PMID: 19624771) Schina M. … Archimandritis A. (Hepatol. Res. 2009) 23 67
  4. Retinol binding protein-4 is associated with TNF-alpha and not insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. (PMID: 19597296) Al-Daghri N.M. … Sabico S. (Dis. Markers 2009) 23 67
  5. Retinol-binding protein-4 is not strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in normal pregnancies. (PMID: 18426814) Ueland T. … Bollerslev J. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2008) 23 67

Products for POLR2D Gene

Sources for POLR2D Gene

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