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Aliases for POLD2 Gene

Aliases for POLD2 Gene

  • Polymerase (DNA) Delta 2, Accessory Subunit 2 3
  • DNA Polymerase Delta Subunit P50 2 4
  • EC 4 63
  • Polymerase (DNA Directed), Delta 2, Regulatory Subunit (50kD) 2
  • Polymerase (DNA Directed), Delta 2, Regulatory Subunit 50kDa 2
  • Polymerase (DNA Directed), Delta 2, Accessory Subunit 5
  • Pol Delta B Subunit (P50) 2

External Ids for POLD2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for POLD2 Gene

  • GC07M043800
  • GC07M043861
  • GC07M043895
  • GC07M043927
  • GC07M044120
  • GC07M044039

Summaries for POLD2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for POLD2 Gene

  • This gene encodes the 50-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is required for the stimulation of DNA polymerase delta activity by the processivity cofactor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of this gene may be a marker for ovarian carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GeneCards Summary for POLD2 Gene

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA) Delta 2, Accessory Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are HTLV-I infection and Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER). GO annotations related to this gene include DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for POLD2 Gene

  • The function of the small subunit is not yet clear.

Gene Wiki entry for POLD2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for POLD2 Gene

Genomics for POLD2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for POLD2 Gene

Enhancers for POLD2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around POLD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for POLD2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around POLD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for POLD2 Gene

44,114,680 bp from pter
44,124,358 bp from pter
9,679 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for POLD2 Gene

Genes around POLD2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
POLD2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for POLD2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for POLD2 Gene

Proteins for POLD2 Gene

  • Protein details for POLD2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA polymerase delta subunit 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D2J4
    • B2R5S4

    Protein attributes for POLD2 Gene

    469 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51289 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer composed of subunits of 125 kDa, 50 kDa, 66 kDa and 12 kDa. Interacts with KCTD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD13/POLDIP1, POLDIP2 and POLDIP3. Interacts with WRNIP1. Interacts with POLD4.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for POLD2 Gene

neXtProt entry for POLD2 Gene

Proteomics data for POLD2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for POLD2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 81, Lys 90, Lys 99, Lys 125, Lys 267, Lys 389, and Lys 413
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for POLD2 Gene

Gene Families for POLD2 Gene

Protein Domains for POLD2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the DNA polymerase delta/II small subunit family.
  • Belongs to the DNA polymerase delta/II small subunit family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with POLD2: view

Function for POLD2 Gene

Molecular function for POLD2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
polymerase (DNA directed) delta 2,small catalytic subunit 48kDa,involved in DNA replication of nuclear genome
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The function of the small subunit is not yet clear.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for POLD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with POLD2: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for POLD2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target POLD2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for POLD2 Gene

Localization for POLD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for POLD2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for POLD2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for POLD2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 1
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for POLD2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for POLD2 Gene

SuperPathways for POLD2 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis
2 Translesion synthesis by Y family DNA polymerases bypasses lesions on DNA template
3 Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER)
4 Mismatch repair
5 DNA Double-Strand Break Repair
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with POLD2: view

Pathways by source for POLD2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for POLD2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000722 telomere maintenance via recombination TAS --
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA,TAS 8530069
GO:0006261 DNA-dependent DNA replication IEA --
GO:0006271 DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication TAS --
GO:0006283 transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with POLD2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for POLD2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for POLD2 Gene

(4) Drugs for POLD2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
dctp Experimental Pharma 0
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
dgtp Experimental Pharma 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for POLD2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Thymidine 5'-triphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxythymidine triphosphate
  • 5'-TTP
  • 5-Methyl-dUTP
  • Deoxy-TTP
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with POLD2: view

Transcripts for POLD2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for POLD2 Gene

Polymerase (DNA directed), delta 2, accessory subunit:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for POLD2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP11: - - -
SP12: - - - -
SP13: - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - - - - -
SP17: -

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^ 15a · 15b · 15c
SP1: -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP9: -
SP15: -

Relevant External Links for POLD2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for POLD2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for POLD2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for POLD2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (30.6) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for POLD2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for POLD2 Gene Hs.306791

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with POLD2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for POLD2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for POLD2 Gene

Orthologs for POLD2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for POLD2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia POLD2 35
  • 89.55 (n)
  • 95.52 (a)
POLD2 36
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia POLD2 35
  • 85.53 (n)
  • 90.47 (a)
POLD2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pold2 35
  • 88.14 (n)
  • 94.76 (a)
Pold2 16
Pold2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia POLD2 35
  • 99.5 (n)
  • 99.79 (a)
POLD2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pold2 35
  • 87.41 (n)
  • 94.54 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia POLD2 36
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia POLD2 36
  • 85 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves POLD2 35
  • 73.64 (n)
  • 73.86 (a)
POLD2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia POLD2 36
  • 74 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pold2 35
  • 68.7 (n)
  • 70.96 (a)
Str.12411 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pold2-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.18066 35
pold2 35
  • 66.59 (n)
  • 68.2 (a)
pold2 36
  • 67 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta BcDNA:HL03874 37
  • 43 (a)
CG12018 35
  • 51.28 (n)
  • 44.47 (a)
CG12018 36
  • 43 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008910 35
  • 51.73 (n)
  • 45.93 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F12F6.7 37
  • 28 (a)
F12F6.7 36
  • 27 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes POL31 36
  • 30 (a)
POL31 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons POLD2 35
  • 48.64 (n)
  • 44.5 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0128500 35
  • 49.92 (n)
  • 44.02 (a)
Species with no ortholog for POLD2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for POLD2 Gene

Gene Tree for POLD2 (if available)
Gene Tree for POLD2 (if available)

Paralogs for POLD2 Gene Pseudogenes for POLD2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with POLD2: view

No data available for Paralogs for POLD2 Gene

Variants for POLD2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for POLD2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3087366 - 44,116,226(-) CACCA(A/G)TTACA reference, missense
rs6955312 -- 44,125,615(+) gttaa(C/T)gtggt upstream-variant-2KB
rs2075070 -- 44,115,653(-) AACTG(C/T)CTGAG intron-variant
rs34353428 -- 44,120,287(+) GCTCC(-/C)AATAA intron-variant
rs34484835 -- 44,118,171(+) CCTGG(-/C)CCTTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for POLD2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv428165 CNV Gain 18775914
nsv8082 CNV Gain 18304495
nsv887996 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470210 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv830983 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv887997 CNV Loss 21882294
esv998294 CNV Deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for POLD2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.95% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.69; 14.74% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for POLD2 Gene

Disorders for POLD2 Gene

Relevant External Links for POLD2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for POLD2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for POLD2 Gene

Publications for POLD2 Gene

  1. Cloning of the cDNAs for the small subunits of bovine and human DNA polymerase delta and chromosomal location of the human gene (POLD2). (PMID: 8530069) Zhang J. … So A.G. (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 67
  2. Systematic identification of molecular links between core and candidate genes in breast cancer. (PMID: 25640309) Arroyo R. … Aloy P. (J. Mol. Biol. 2015) 3
  3. FF483-484 motif of human PolI^ mediates its interaction with the POLD2 subunit of PolI' and contributes to DNA damage tolerance. (PMID: 25662213) Baldeck N. … Cordonnier A.M. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2015) 3
  4. DNA Polymerases as targets for gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. (PMID: 25924900) Liu H. … Jia Z. (BMC Cancer 2015) 3
  5. Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes. (PMID: 26344197) Wan C. … Emili A. (Nature 2015) 3

Products for POLD2 Gene

Sources for POLD2 Gene