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PNPLA1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 46
GCID: GC06P037304

Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain Containing 1

  See PNPLA1-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain Containing 11 2
ARCI102 5
dJ50J22.12
Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain-Containing Protein 12
EC 3.1.1.-3

External Ids:    HGNC: 212461   Entrez Gene: 2858482   Ensembl: ENSG000001803167   OMIM: 6121215   UniProtKB: Q8N8W43   

Export aliases for PNPLA1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06P036212 GC06P036257 GC06P036318 GC06P035930 GC06P036337


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PNPLA1 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the patatin-like phospholipase (PNPLA) family, which is characterized
by the presence of a highly conserved patatin domain. PNPLA family members have diverse lipolytic and
acyltransferase activities, and are key elements in lipid metabolism. While other members of this family have
been well characterized, the function of this gene remained an enigma. However, recent studies show that this
gene is expressed in the skin epidermal keratinocytes, and has a role in glycerophospholipid metabolism in the
cutaneous barrier. Consistent with these observations, mutations in this gene are associated with ichthyosis in
human (autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, ARCI) and dog. Alternatively spliced transcript variants
encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012)

GeneCards Summary for PNPLA1 Gene:
PNPLA1 (patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PNPLA1 include ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 10, and pnpla1-related autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PNPLA4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4
Function: Lipid hydrolase. Important in the formation of the epidermal lipid barrier. Plays a role in
glycerophospholipid metabolism




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PNPLA1 gene promoter:
         AREB6   Spz1   FOXD3   MyoD   AP-4   ITF-2   Tal-1beta   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPNPLA1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PNPLA1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PNPLA1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.31

PNPLA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PNPLA1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P037304:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
36,210,945 bp from pter      End:
36,276,372 bp from pter
Size:
65,428 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 1  
Size: 532 amino acids; 57875 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=CAI21612.2; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
Secondary accessions: A3RMU3 J3JS20 Q2A6N1 Q3SY95 Q3SY96 Q5R3L2
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  Q8N8W4-1   Q8N8W4-2   Q8N8W4-3   (Inactive. No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PNPLA1: NX_Q8N8W4

Explore proteomics data for PNPLA1 at MOPED


See PNPLA1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
NP_001139188.1  NP_001139189.2  NP_775947.2  

ENSEMBL proteins: 
 ENSP00000321116   ENSP00000373367   ENSP00000391868   ENSP00000378072  

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antibodies-online peptides for PNPLA1

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(According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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HGNC Gene Families:
PNPLA: Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing

2 InterPro protein domains:
 IPR016035 Acyl_Trfase/lysoPLipase
 IPR002641 Patatin/PLipase_A2-rel

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8N8W4

ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N8W4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4
Similarity: Contains 1 patatin domain


Find genes that share domains with PNPLA1           About GenesLikeMe


(According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Molecular Function:

     UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4
Function: Lipid hydrolase. Important in the formation of the epidermal lipid barrier. Plays a role in
glycerophospholipid metabolism

     Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.1.1.-1

     Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0016787hydrolase activity IEA--
     
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Phenotypes:
     1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PNPLA1:
 Decreased Wnt reporter activit 

     1 MGI phenotypic allele for Pnpla1 (no phenotypes)

Find genes that share phenotypes with PNPLA1           About GenesLikeMe

Animal Models:
   genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PNPLA1

miRNA
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1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate PNPLA1:
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SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPNPLA1 3' UTR sequence
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(According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4: Cytoplasm. Note=Clearly distributed in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes
Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

CompartmentConfidence
cytoskeleton1
cytosol1
endoplasmic reticulum1
golgi apparatus1
mitochondrion1
nucleus1
peroxisome1
plasma membrane1

Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--

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(SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PNPLA1
Interactions:

    Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PNPLA1

Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
GO:0006629lipid metabolic process ----
GO:0008152metabolic process ----
GO:0016042lipid catabolic process IEA--

Find genes that share ontologies with PNPLA1           About GenesLikeMe



(Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
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Browse Tocris compounds for PNPLA1 (PLPL1)



(Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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REFSEQ mRNAs for PNPLA1 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
NM_001145716.2  NM_001145717.1  NM_173676.2  NM_001039725.1  

Unigene Cluster for PNPLA1:

Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1
Hs.407002  [show with all ESTs]
Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001145717
4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
ENST00000312917 ENST00000388715(uc010jwe.1 uc003olw.1) ENST00000457797
ENST00000394571(uc010jwf.2)
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hsa-miR-3907
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Inhib. RNA
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Additional mRNA sequence: 

AK096074.1 AM182887.1 BC103905.1 BC103906.1 BC103907.1 FJ457781.1 

3 DOTS entries:

DT.100001216  DT.91652339  DT.121324988 

4 AceView cDNA sequences:

AK096074 NM_173676 BI257213 BG194684 

GeneLoc Exon Structure


(RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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PNPLA1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
CGAP TAG: --
PNPLA1 Expression
About this image


PNPLA1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
 
 Blood (Hematopoietic System)
         Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
PNPLA1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

PNPLA1 Protein Expression

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.407002

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4
Tissue specificity: Expressed in the digestive system. Expressed in the epidermis of skin keratinocytes. Strongly
expressed in the granular layer. Expressed in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands of the dermis and in
the region of keratin filament bundles, which is more pronounced in upper epidermal layers and in the lower
cornified layers

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In Situ
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Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PNPLA1

(Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PNPLA1 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
Organism Taxonomic
classification
Gene Description Human
Similarity
Orthology
Type
Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pnpla11 , 5 patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 11, 5 72.02(n)1
68.45(a)1
  17 (15.03 cM)5
4330911  NM_001034885.31  NP_001030057.11 
 288584115 
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PNPLA11 patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 63.66(n)
55.69(a)
  428259  XM_425818.4  XP_425818.2 
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia --
--
Uncharacterized protein
45(a)
43(a)
1 ↔ many
1 ↔ many
4(124411201-124434859)
4(124435422-124445704)
tropical clawed frog
(Xenopus tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC1004973901 patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein more 55.56(n)
46.12(a)
  100497390  XM_002938433.2  XP_002938479.2 
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01030033.16
Uncharacterized protein
16(a)
1 ↔ 1
23(5218512-5229309) ENSDARG00000086554
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta dob6
bmm6
brummer
23(a)
21(a)
many ↔ many
many ↔ many
X(14961036-14963124)
3L(14769596-14779512)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C05D11.76
Protein C05D11.7, isoform b
16(a)
1 → many
III(6415772-6421712) WBGene00015484


ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PNPLA1 (if available)
TreeFam Gene Tree for PNPLA1 (if available)

(Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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Paralogs for PNPLA1 gene
PNPLA42  PNPLA22  PNPLA52  PNPLA32  
4 SIMAP similar genes for PNPLA1 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     PLPL1_HUMAN:
ATGL    PNPLA2    PNPLA3    PNPLA4

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(SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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Selected SNPs for PNPLA1 (see all 1698)    About this table                                 

Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
SNP IDValidClinical
significance
Chr 6 posSequence#AA
Chg
TypeMore#Allele
freq
PopTotal
sample
More
----------
VAR_0695664
Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 10 (ARCI10)4--see VAR_0695662 A V mis40--------
rs1427094371,2
--36120218(+) CCTCCA/GGCCTC 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1152031521,2
F--36120260(+) GATTAC/TAGGCA 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA 118
rs117563321,2
H--36120460(+) aatttA/Taaaaa 2 -- us2k10--------
rs771033021,2
--36120561(+) TTTTTG/TTAGAT 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50NA 2
rs47139391,2
C,F,A,H--36120668(+) GTTCCG/ATATCA 2 -- us2k125Minor allele frequency- A:0.24NS EA NA WA 2940
rs1836943201,2
--36120794(+) TTTTGC/TAGTCG 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1879904911,2
--36120853(+) GTGGGG/TGTGTG 2 -- us2k10--------
rs1142067011,2
C,F--36121027(+) CATCTC/TTTCTC 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 118
rs734155361,2
C--36121093(+) AGACTC/TCTCAG 2 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PNPLA1 (36210945 - 36276372 bp)

Structural Variations
     Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PNPLA1:    About this table    
Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
esv33691CNV Gain+Loss17666407

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PNPLA1
Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PNPLA1
DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PNPLA1

(in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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OMIM gene information: 612121   
OMIM disorders: 615024  
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLPL1_HUMAN, Q8N8W4
  • Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 10 (ARCI10) [MIM:615024]: A form of autosomal recessive
    congenital ichthyosis, a disorder of keratinization with abnormal differentiation and desquamation of the
    epidermis, resulting in abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar
    ichthyosis (LI) and non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within
    the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur. Lamellar ichthyosis is a condition often
    associated with an embedment in a collodion-like membrane at birth; skin scales later develop, covering the
    entire body surface. Non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma characterized by fine whitish scaling on
    an erythrodermal background; larger brownish scales are present on the buttocks, neck and legs. Note=The disease
    is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 4 diseases for PNPLA1:    
    About MalaCards
    ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 10    pnpla1-related autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis    autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis    ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 2

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PNPLA1:
    Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma

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    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PNPLA1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PNPLA1 (2 documents)

    Export disorders for PNPLA1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PNPLA1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 11):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PNPLA1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Characterization of the human patatin-like phospholipase family. (PubMed id 16799181)1, 2, 3 Wilson P.A.... Crowther D.J. (J. Lipid Res. 2006)
    2. PNPLA1 mutations cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in golden retriever dogs and humans. (PubMed id 22246504)1, 2 Grall A.... Fischer J. (Nat. Genet. 2012)
    3. Genetic variance in the adiponutrin gene family and childhood obesity. (PubMed id 19390624)1, 4 Johansson L.E....RidderstrAYle M. (PLoS ONE 2009)
    4. Mammalian patatin domain containing proteins: a family with diverse lipolytic activities involved in multiple biological functions. (PubMed id 19029121)1, 3 Kienesberger P.C.... Zechner R. (J. Lipid Res. 2009)
    5. Genetic variants associated with arsenic susceptibility: study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, arsenic (+3) methyltransferase, and glutathione S-transferase omega genes. (PubMed id 18414634)1, 4 De Chaudhuri S....Giri A.K. (Environ. Health Perspect. 2008)
    6. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    7. Identification of human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 1 and a mutant in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. (PubMed id 24057234)1 Chang P.A....Wu Y.J. (Mol. Biol. Rep. 2013)
    8. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    9. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. (PubMed id 14574404)2 Mungall A.J.... Beck S. (Nature 2003)
    10. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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      Query String
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      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 285848 HGNC: 21246 AceView: PNPLA1 Ensembl:ENSG00000180316 euGenes: HUgn285848
    ECgene: PNPLA1 H-InvDB: PNPLA1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PNPLA1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PNPLA1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PNPLA1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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