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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PNP Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC14P021021

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

(Previous name: nucleoside phosphorylase)
(Previous symbol: NP)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase1 2     Nucleoside Phosphorylase1
NP1 2 3 5     PRO18372
Inosine Phosphorylase2 3     PUNP2
Inosine-Guanosine Phosphorylase2 3     Purine-Nucleoside:Orthophosphate Ribosyltransferase2
EC 2.4.2.13 8     

External Ids:    HGNC: 78921   Entrez Gene: 48602   Ensembl: ENSG000001988057   OMIM: 1640505   UniProtKB: P004913   

Export aliases for PNP gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14P020008 GC14P001059


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PNP Gene:
This gene encodes an enzyme which reversibly catalyzes the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. The enzyme is
trimeric, containing three identical subunits. Mutations which result in nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
result in defective T-cell (cell-mediated) immunity but can also affect B-cell immunity and antibody responses.
Neurologic disorders may also be apparent in patients with immune defects. A known polymorphism at aa position 51
that does not affect enzyme activity has been described. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 2.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PNP Gene: 
PNP (purine nucleoside phosphorylase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PNP include purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, and pedophilia, and among its related super-pathways are Purine metabolism and NAD metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include drug binding and nucleoside binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
Function: The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in
the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and
pentose-1-phosphate

Gene Wiki entry for PNP (Purine nucleoside phosphorylase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.8  NC_018925.2  NT_026437.12  
Regulatory elements:
   Search SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites for PNP
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPNP promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PNP

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PNP


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q13.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q11.2

PNP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PNP gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P021021:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
20,937,113 bp from pter      End:
20,946,165 bp from pter
Size:
9,053 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase  
Size: 289 amino acids; 32118 Da
Subunit: Homotrimer
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton (By similarity). Cytoplasm
6/34 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PNP (see all 34):
1M73 (3D)        1PF7 (3D)        1PWY (3D)        1RCT (3D)        1RFG (3D)        1RR6 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R8S5 D3DS00 Q15160 Q5PZ03

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PNP: NX_P00491

Explore proteomics data for PNP at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P00491

  • 4 DME Specific Peptides for PNP (P00491)
     KVTFPVRV  VVTNAAGGLN  RFPAMSDAYDR  DAVGMSTVPEVIVA 

    PNP Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PNP Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000261.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000450663   ENSP00000354532   ENSP00000452421   ENSP00000451108  
    Reactome Protein details: P00491
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PNP: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase/PNP)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for PNP
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PNP
    OriGene MassSpec for PNP 
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    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PNP
    Novus Biologicals PNP Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PNP Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PNP
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PNP
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular IDA15047506
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA16930574
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005856cytoskeleton IEA--

    PNP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PNP Antibody Products: 
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    Assay Products for PNP: 
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    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018099 Purine_phosphorylase-2_CS
     IPR001369 PNP/MTAP
     IPR000845 Nucleoside_phosphorylase_d
     IPR011270 Pur_Nuc_Pase_Ino/Guo-sp
     IPR011268 Purine_phosphorylase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00491

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00491

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001369 Purine (and other) phosphorylase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Similarity: Belongs to the PNP/MTAP phosphorylase family


    PNP for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Function: The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in
    the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and
    pentose-1-phosphate
    Catalytic activity: Purine nucleoside + phosphate = purine + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.4.2.11 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001882nucleoside binding IDA9305962
    GO:0002060purine nucleobase binding IDA9305962
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004731purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity IDA16930574
    GO:0008144drug binding IDA18938130
         
    PNP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PNP:
     Decreased number of cells in m 

         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 7 alleles(MGI details for Pnp):
     cellular  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  mortality/aging 
     renal/urinary system 

    PNP for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pnptm1Cmr for PNP

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PNP 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PNP

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PNP 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PNP 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PNP:
    hsa-mir-1 (MIRT003765)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PNP
    8/12 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PNP (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-206 hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4251 hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-1 hsa-miR-4267 hsa-miR-3926
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPNP 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PNP
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PNP (NM_000270)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PNP
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PNP
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PNP
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PNP 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PNP 

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PNP


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PNP About   (see all 6)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Purine metabolism
    Purine metabolism0.38
    ATP/ITP metabolism0.31
    Pyrimidine metabolism0.38
    2NAD metabolism
    NAD metabolism0.43
    Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism0.43
    3Metabolism
    Metabolism0.40
    Metabolic pathways0.40
    4adenine and adenosine salvage III
    purine ribonucleosides degradation to ribose-1-phosphate0.75
    guanine and guanosine salvage I0.50
    adenine and adenosine salvage III0.75
    arsenate detoxification I (glutaredoxin)0.33
    xanthine and xanthosine salvage0.50
    guanosine nucleotides degradation III0.33
    5Purine metabolism
    Purine metabolism0.42
    Purine salvage0.39
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42
    Purine catabolism0.30

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 EMD Millipore Pathways for PNP
        NAD metabolism
    ATP/ITP metabolism


    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PNP
        NAD metabolism
    ATP/ITP metabolism

    5/9 BioSystems Pathways for PNP (see all 9)
        arsenate detoxification I (glutaredoxin)
    adenine and adenosine salvage III
    adenosine nucleotides degradation II
    purine ribonucleosides degradation to ribose-1-phosphate
    guanosine nucleotides degradation III


    5        Reactome Pathways for PNP
        Metabolism of nucleotides
    Metabolism
    Purine salvage
    Purine catabolism
    Purine metabolism


    4         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PNP):
        Purine metabolism
    Pyrimidine metabolism
    Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
    Metabolic pathways

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Pathway: Purine metabolism; purine nucleoside salvage


    PNP for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for PNP

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/57 Interacting proteins for PNP (P004912, 3 ENSP000003545324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 57)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APLP1P516932, 3MINT-63336 I2D: score=5 
    CCDC90BQ9GZT62, 3MINT-63337 I2D: score=5 
    TP53P046372, 3MINT-63335 I2D: score=5 
    ZHX1Q9UKY12, 3MINT-63340 I2D: score=5 
    LRIF1Q5T3J32, 3MINT-63338 I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/16 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006139nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process IDA3029074
    GO:0006144purine nucleobase metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006148inosine catabolic process IDA16964310
    GO:0006195purine nucleotide catabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006738nicotinamide riboside catabolic process IDA19001417

    PNP for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PNP for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PNP (PNPH)

    10/23 HMDB Compounds for PNP (see all 23)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenine1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine (see all 19)73-24-5--
    Adenosine1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-beta-D-Ribofuranose (see all 32)58-61-7--
    Deoxyadenosine1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1,2-dideoxy-b-D-Ribofuranose (see all 22)958-09-8--
    Deoxyadenosine monophosphate2'-Deoxy-5'-adenylate (see all 24)653-63-4--
    Deoxyguanosine2'-Deoxyguanosine (see all 11)961-07-9--
    Deoxyinosine2'-Deoxyinosine (see all 10)890-38-0--
    Deoxyribose 1-phosphate2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate (see all 14)17210-42-3--
    Deoxyuridine1-(2-Deoxy-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)uracil (see all 12)951-78-0--
    GuanineGUN (see all 26)73-40-5--
    Guanosine2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-6H-purin-6-one (see all 10)118-00-3--

    10/19 DrugBank Compounds for PNP (see all 19)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Cladribine2-CdA (see all 5)4291-63-8targetinducer6808516 3260648 10444166 10500836 8521855
    2,6-Diamino-(S)-9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Purine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2-Amino-7-[2-(2-Hydroxy-1-Hydroxymethyl-Ethylamino)-Ethyl]-1,7-Dihydro-Purin-6-One-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    9-(5,5-Difluoro-5-Phosphonopentyl)Guanine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    9-Deazainosine-- 89458-19-5target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Hypoxanthine-- 68-94-0target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Ribose-1-Phosphate-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    3-Deoxyguanosine-- --target--17139284 17016423
    4'-Deaza-1'-Aza-2'-Deoxy-1'-(9-Methylene)-Immucillin-H, (3r,4r)-N-[9-Deazahypoxanthin-9-Yl)Methyl]-4-Hydroxymethyl-Pyrrolidin-3-Ol-- --target--17139284 17016423
    8-azaguanineAzaguanine (see all 5)134-58-7target--17139284 17016423

    10/102 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PNP gene (see all 102)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    purine nucleoside 99.3 962 9628722 (5), 8432666 (4), 12018991 (4), 7779212 (4) (see all 99)
    9-deazaguanine 93.5 16 18066911 (2), 17544667 (1), 1789255 (1), 8515423 (1) (see all 6)
    ribose 1-phosphate 92.2 31 16771490 (2), 19172318 (1), 19778725 (1), 9305963 (1) (see all 13)
    mesg 91.9 10 1445214 (1), 8954523 (1), 10395483 (1), 7659511 (1) (see all 7)
    6-methylpurine 2'-deoxyriboside 91.1 8 9322865 (1), 15028961 (1), 18407409 (1), 16305530 (1)
    5'-methylthioinosine 90.7 2 15961383 (1), 15576366 (1)
    9-(5,5-difluoro-5-phosphonopentyl)guanine 90.1 27 16263289 (1), 17544667 (1), 18029771 (1), 15272165 (1) (see all 5)
    purine 89.8 163 9585525 (4), 12429535 (2), 7614469 (2), 15817485 (2) (see all 74)
    inosine 89.5 71 19478237 (3), 8241176 (2), 11707439 (2), 12730608 (2) (see all 35)
    7-methyl-6-thio-guanosine 86.4 4 16154528 (2), 7810877 (1), 7785781 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PNP / PNPH

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PNP gene: 
    NM_000270.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PNP:

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
    Hs.75514  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK126154
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000553418 ENST00000361505(uc001vxo.4) ENST00000556293(uc010ahm.2)
    ENST00000557229(uc010ahn.3) ENST00000554056 ENST00000553591 ENST00000554065
    ENST00000556754(uc021rns.1)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    8/12 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PNP (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-206 hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4251 hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-1 hsa-miR-4267 hsa-miR-3926
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPNP 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
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    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PNP
    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PNP (NM_000270)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PNP
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PNP
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PNP 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PNP 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PNP
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK098544.1 AK126154.1 AK307340.1 AK307364.1 AK313490.1 BC104206.1 BC104207.1 BC106074.1 
    CR407607.1 X00737.1 

    17 DOTS entries:

    DT.95354047  DT.100637431  DT.119477  DT.95315045  DT.95358448  DT.95156884  DT.100887960  DT.119476 
    DT.95314017  DT.100643362  DT.120778482  DT.120778505  DT.120778508  DT.120778518  DT.99939499  DT.100037476 
    DT.92446924 

    24/517 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 517):

    AA541792 BM737669 BM911986 BM788001 AA457308 CR592961 BE260453 BU622706 
    N69225 AI674743 BQ423245 CR608316 CR606974 CB151915 CR601251 AA156105 
    CA432742 CA312737 CR598982 BM827103 BE741189 BM789250 BM757340 CR594642 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PNP expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PNP embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGCCTCTGTC
    PNP Expression
    About this image


    PNP expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/19 selected tissues (see all 19) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
             brain/midbrain   
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Retina
             sensory organ/eye/cornea   
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Metanephros
             visceral organ/metanephros/renal cortex   
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             heart/atrium   
     
     Lower Urinary Tract (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             visceral organ   

    See PNP Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PNP

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.75514

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in red blood cells; overexpressed in red blood cells (cytoplasm) of patients with
    hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology

        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for PNP
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PNP
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PNP
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PNP
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP
    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PNP

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PNP gene from 8/20 species (see all 20)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pnp1 , 5 purine-nucleoside phosphorylase1, 5 84.2(n)1
    84.43(a)1
      14 (26.31 cM)5
    189501  NM_013632.41  NP_038660.11 
     509443025 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC7699581 purine nucleoside phosphorylase-like 62.04(n)
    60.85(a)
      769958  XM_003641902.1  XP_003641950.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PNP6
    --
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
    68(a)
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    possible ortholog
    GL343220.1(1237094-1262614)
    GL343346.1(1170034-1180124)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC047264.12   -- 72.41(n)    BC047264.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufc27g062 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 71.49(n)    CK028042.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG167581 CG16758 55.36(n)
    51.24(a)
      38315  NM_139470.3  NP_647727.2 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K02D7.11 Protein K02D7.1 50.19(n)
    47.49(a)
      176851  NM_067499.6  NP_499900.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PNP1(YLR209C)4
    PNP11
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, specifically metabolizes more4
    Pnp1p1
    54.81(n)1
    52.43(a)1
      12(561732-560797)4
    8509061, 4  NP_013310.11, 4 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PNP (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PNP (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PNP gene

    PNP for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PNP
    PGOHUM00000240104


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/307 SNPs in PNP are shown (see all 307)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0022454
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022452 D G mis40--------
    VAR_0022474
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022472 R P mis40--------
    VAR_0022464
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022462 A P mis40--------
    VAR_0022444
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022442 E K mis40--------
    VAR_0106534
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0106532 Y C mis40--------
    rs10495641,2,4
    C,F,A,Hnon-pathogenic11939711(-) TTCACC/TGTAGT 2 S G mis129Minor allele frequency- T:0.21NA EU NS EA WA CSA 8505
    rs1048944551,2
    Cpathogenic11939630(+) AGCACC/TGACCT 2 R * stg10--------
    rs1048944601,2
    Cpathogenic11939732(+) TTCCCC/TGAAGT 2 R * stg10--------
    rs1048944531,2
    Cpathogenic11941820(+) TGTATA/GAAGGG 2 K E mis10--------
    rs1048944501,2
    Cpathogenic11942135(+) TGGAGA/GTATCA 2 D G mis10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PNP (20937113 - 20946165 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PNP:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv23438CNV Gain+Loss19812545


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PNP

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): PNP
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PNP
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PNP

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 164050   
    OMIM disorders: 613179  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179]: A disorder that interrupts both the
    catabolism of inosine into hypoxanthine and guanosine into guanine, and leads to the accumulation of guanosine,
    inosine, and their deoxified by-products. The main clinical presentation is recurrent infections due to severe
    T-cell immunodeficiency. Some patients also have neurologic impairment. Note=The disease is caused by mutations
    affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 20/59 diseases for PNP (see all 59):    About MalaCards
    purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency    pedophilia    thoracic outlet syndrome    immunodeficiency due to purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
    adenosine deaminase deficiency    exhibitionism    lymphopenia    lesch-nyhan syndrome
    progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy    molybdenum cofactor deficiency    t lymphocyte deficiency    gout
    cutaneous leishmaniasis    severe combined immunodeficiency    common variable immunodeficiency    schistosomiasis
    leishmaniasis    metabolic disorders    paraplegia    hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    5 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PNP:
    Primary immunodeficiency disease     Schizophrenia     Lesch-Nyhan syndrome     Pedophilia
    Leukemia

    PNP for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/52 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PNP gene (see all 52)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    adenosine deaminase deficiency 74.3 5 9605997 (2), 16176880 (1), 1696525 (1), 1988230 (1)
    hypouricemia 59.7 6 8976110 (1), 8673045 (1), 1929018 (1), 8665699 (1)
    severe combined immunodeficiency 56.7 18 8931706 (2), 1560016 (2), 1384322 (1), 8976114 (1) (see all 9)
    molybdenum cofactor deficiency 52 1 10759467 (1)
    lesch-nyhan syndrome 50.4 1 8976090 (1)
    immunodeficiency 47.8 47 19733163 (3), 20210752 (2), 7918681 (1), 17641261 (1) (see all 31)
    leukemia t-cell 43.4 7 1573639 (1), 15299840 (1), 8592572 (1), 9403342 (1) (see all 5)
    t-all 41.3 2 18086346 (1), 18086344 (1)
    lymphopenia 39.1 9 15571269 (1), 18086347 (1), 16131572 (1), 16778146 (1) (see all 5)
    developmental delay 37.6 8 19733163 (1), 11902746 (1), 17910661 (1), 15520787 (1) (see all 6)

    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PNP (15 documents)

    Export disorders for PNP gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PNP gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 461) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PNP)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase cDNA sequence and genomic clone characterization. (PubMed id 6087295)1, 2, 3 Williams S.R.... Martin D.W. Jr. (1984)
    2. Molecular analysis of mutations in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 1384322)1, 2, 9 Aust M.R....Markert M.L. (1992)
    3. Two novel missense and frameshift mutations in exons 5 and 6 of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) gene in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient. (PubMed id 8931706)1, 2, 9 Pannicke U.... Schwarz K. (1996)
    4. Genetic variation in genes associated with arsenic metabolism: glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphisms in European and indigenous Americans. (PubMed id 12928150)1, 2, 9 Yu L.... Klimecki W.T. (2003)
    5. Three-dimensional structure of human erythrocytic purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 3.2-A resolution. (PubMed id 2104852)1, 2, 9 Ealick S.E.... Bugg C.E. (1990)
    6. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    8. A human purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency caused by a single base change. (PubMed id 3029074)1, 2 Williams S.R.... Martin D.W. Jr. (1987)
    9. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 1931007)1, 9 Markert M.L. (1991)
    10. Intracellular delivery of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) fused to protein transduction domain corrects PNP deficiency in vitro. (PubMed id 16930574)1, 9 Toro A....Grunebaum E. (2006)
    11. Altered enthalpy-entropy compensation in picomolar tr ansition state analogues of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 19425594)1, 9 Edwards A.A....Schramm V.L. (2009)
    12. Conformational states of human purine nucleoside phos phorylase at rest, at work, and with transition state analogues. (PubMed id 20108972)1, 9 Edwards A.A....Schramm V.L. (2010)
    13. Crystal structure of human PNP complexed with hypoxanthine and sulfate ion. (PubMed id 15582582)1, 9 Canduri F....de Azevedo W.F. (2005)
    14. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 3. Reversal of purine base specificity by site-directed mutagenesis. (PubMed id 9305964)1, 9 Stoeckler J.D....Erion M.D. (1997)
    15. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 2. Catalytic mechanism. (PubMed id 9305963)1, 9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (1997)
    16. Role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in interactions between 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and allopurinol, ganciclovir, or tenofovir. (PubMed id 15047506)1, 9 Ray A.S....Fridland A. (2004)
    17. Crystal structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 2.3A resolution. (PubMed id 12914785)1, 9 de Azevedo W.F....Santos D.S. (2003)
    18. Remote mutations alter transition-state structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18281957)1, 9 Luo M....Schramm V.L. (2008)
    19. Structures of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with inosine and ddI. (PubMed id 14706628)1, 9 Canduri F....Santos D.S. (2004)
    20. Role of ionization of the phosphate cosubstrate on phosphorolysis by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) of bacterial (E. coli) and mammalian (human) origin. (PubMed id 17639373)1, 9 Modrak-Wojcik A....Kierdaszuk B. (2008)
    21. Novel mutations and hot-spots in patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 15571269)1, 9 Grunebaum E....Roifman C.M. (2004)
    22. Xanthosine and xanthine. Substrate properties with purine nucleoside phosphorylases, and relevance to other enzyme systems. (PubMed id 12180982)1, 9 Stoychev G....Shugar D. (2002)
    23. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 1. Structure-function studies. (PubMed id 9305962)1, 9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (1997)
    24. Exon skipping in purine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA processing leading to severe immunodeficiency. (PubMed id 1560016)1, 9 Andrews L.G. and Markert M.L. (1992)
    25. Structural studies of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase: towards a new specific empirical scoring function. (PubMed id 18790691)1, 9 Timmers L.F....de Azevedo W.F. (2008)
    26. Altered thermodynamics from remote mutations altering human toward bovine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18281956)1, 9 Ghanem M....Schramm V.L. (2008)
    27. Docking and small angle X-ray scattering studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 13679062)1, 9 Filgueira de Azevedo W....Santos D.S. (2003)
    28. Sequence and functional characterization of the human purine nucleoside phosphorylase promoter. (PubMed id 1923769)1, 9 Jonsson J.J....McIvor R.S. (1991)
    29. Crystal structure and molecular dynamics studies of h uman purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with 7-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 19932753)1, 9 Caceres R.A....de Azevedo W.F. (2010)
    30. Molecular modeling and dynamics studies of purine nuc leoside phosphorylase from Bacteroides fragilis. (PubMed id 19172318)1, 9 Pauli I....de Azevedo W.F. (2009)
    31. Effect of the phosphate substrate on drug-inhibitor binding to human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18938130)1, 9 Todorova N.A. and Schwarz F.P. (2008)
    32. The G51S purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphism is associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients. (PubMed id 17221831)1, 9 Tumini E....Licastro F. (2007)
    33. TAT-mediated intracellular delivery of purine nucleoside phosphorylase corrects its deficiency in mice. (PubMed id 16964310)1, 9 Toro A. and Grunebaum E. (2006)
    34. Two novel mutations in a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficient patient. (PubMed id 11453975)1, 9 Dalal I....Roifman C.M. (2001)
    35. Common resistance mechanisms to nucleoside analogues in variants of the human erythroleukemic line K562. (PubMed id 10500836)7, 9 Dumontet C....Rolland M.O. (1999)
    36. Common resistance mechanisms to deoxynucleoside analogues in variants of the human erythroleukaemic line K562. (PubMed id 10444166)7, 9 Dumontet C....MacKey J. (1999)
    37. Direct evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance of Arg24 to termination codon in purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene in a family with a severe combined immunodeficiency patient. (PubMed id 9737781)1, 9 Sasaki Y....Yamashita R. (1998)
    38. Mutations in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 9067751)1, 9 Markert M.L....Ward F.E. (1997)
    39. The proteomic analysis of endogenous FAT10 substrates identifies p62/SQSTM1 as a substrate of FAT10ylation. (PubMed id 22797925)1 Aichem A....Groettrup M. (2012)
    40. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (2012)
    41. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (2012)
    42. The interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolas e 37 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 21800051)1 Fang Y....Shen X. (2012)
    43. Proteomic analysis of a4b1 integrin adhesion complexes reveals a-subunit-dependent protein recruitment. (PubMed id 22623428)1 Byron A....Humphries M.J. (2012)
    44. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in prote in ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (2012)
    45. A high-throughput approach for measuring temporal chan ges in the interactome. (PubMed id 22863883)1 Kristensen A.R....Foster L.J. (2012)
    46. Proteome-wide identification of ubiquitylation sites b y conjugation of engineered lysine-less ubiquitin. (PubMed id 22053931)1 Oshikawa K....Nakayama K.I. (2012)
    47. T- and B-cell defects in a novel purine nucleoside pho sphorylase mutation. (PubMed id 22578971)1 Somech R....Etzioni A. (2012)
    48. Functional proteomics establishes the interaction of S IRT7 with chromatin remodeling complexes and expands its role in regulation of R NA polymerase I transcription. (PubMed id 22586326)1 Tsai Y.C....Cristea I.M. (2012)
    49. Assessment of the red cell proteome of young patients with unexplained hemolytic anemia by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). (PubMed id 22509282)2 von Lohneysen K.... Friedman J.S. (2012)
    50. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (2011)
    51. Arsenate and phosphate as nucleophiles at the transit ion states of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 21348499)1 Silva R.G....Schramm V.L. (2011)
    52. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase su bstrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (2011)
    53. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation r eveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (2011)
    54. An important role for CDK2 in G1 to S checkpoint activation and DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells. (PubMed id 21319273)1 Neganova I....Lako M. (2011)
    55. Metabolites of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (NP) i n serum have the potential to delineate pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (PubMed id 21448452)1 Vareed S.K....Sreekumar A. (2011)
    56. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency: a mutation update. (PubMed id 22132981)1 Walker P.L....Marinaki A. (2011)
    57. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiqui tylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (2011)
    58. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquiti n-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (2011)
    59. Genetic polymorphism of As3MT and delayed urinary DMA excretion after organic arsenic intake from oyster ingestion. (PubMed id 20532380)1 Hwang Y.H....Yuan T.H. (2010)
    60. Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. (PubMed id 19413330)2 Gauci S....Mohammed S. (2009)
    61. Loop-tryptophan human purine nucleoside phosphorylase reveals submillisecond protein dynamics. (PubMed id 19191546)1 Callender M....Schramm V.L. (2009)
    62. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism. (PubMed id 19001417)1 Belenky P....Brenner C. (2009)
    63. Atomic detail of chemical transformation at the transition state of an enzymatic reaction. (PubMed id 18946041)1 Saen-Oon S....Schwartz S.D. (2008)
    64. Quantitative analysis of global ubiquitination in HeLa cells by mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 18781797)1 Meierhofer D.... Kaiser P. (2008)
    65. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (2006)
    66. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of dru g targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (2006)
    67. A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome. (PubMed id 16169070)1 Stelzl U.... Wanker E.E. (2005)
    68. Large-scale analysis of the human ubiquitin-related p roteome. (PubMed id 16196087)1 Matsumoto M....Nakayama K.I. (2005)
    69. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase : crystal structures, immucillin inhibitors, and dual catalytic function. (PubMed id 14982926)7 Shi W....Schramm V.L. (2004)
    70. Identification of Ca2+-dependent binding partners for the neuronal calcium sensor protein neurocalcin delta: interaction with actin, clathrin and tubulin. (PubMed id 11964161)1 Ivings L....Burgoyne R.D. (2002)
    71. TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. (PubMed id 11752352)7 Chen X....Chen Y.Z. (2002)
    72. Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA. (PubMed id 12068295)1 Falkenberg M....Gustafsson C.M. (2002)
    73. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)
    74. A DNA enzyme with N-glycosylase activity. (PubMed id 10884411)1 Sheppard T.L....Joyce G.F. (2000)
    75. The Protein Data Bank. (PubMed id 10592235)7 Berman H.M....Bourne P.E. (2000)
    76. 2-Chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) and its analo gues are good substrates and potent selective inhibitors of Escherichia coli pu rine-nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 8521855)7 Bzowska A. and Kazimierczuk Z. (1995)
    77. Changes in sensitivity to anticancer drugs during TPA -induced cellular differentiation in a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MOLT-4 ). (PubMed id 3260648)7 Takimoto T....Mikawa H. (1988)
    78. Possible metabolic basis for the different immunodefi cient states associated with genetic deficiencies of adenosine deaminase and pu rine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 6808516)7 Carson D.A....Kamatani N. (1982)
    79. Characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human granulocytes and its metabolism of deoxyribonucleosides. (PubMed id 6771276)1 Wiginton D.A....Hutton J.J. (1980)
    80. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (PubMed id 100152)1 Borgers M....Geuens G. (1978)
    81. Lentivirus gene therapy for purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 18924118)9 Liao P....Grunebaum E. (2008)
    82. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a comparison with the human enzyme reveals a conserved topology. (PubMed id 9351810)9 Mao C....Ealick S.E. (1997)
    83. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with substrates and substrate analogues. (PubMed id 9585525)9 Mao C....Ealick S.E. (1998)
    84. Intron requirement for expression of the human purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene. (PubMed id 1620616)9 Jonsson J.J....McIvor R.S. (1992)
    85. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of functional human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12509998)9 Silva R.G....Santos D.S. (2003)
    86. Transition state analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Plasmodium falciparum. (PubMed id 11707439)9 Kicska G.A....Schramm V.L. (2002)
    87. Arsenate reduction in human erythrocytes and rats--testing the role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12730608)9 Nemeti B....Gregus Z. (2003)
    88. Adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia: relation with differentiation stage, in vitro drug resistance and clinical prognosis. (PubMed id 1593902)9 Pieters R....Veerman A.J. (1992)
    89. PNP anticancer gene therapy. (PubMed id 16305530)9 Zhang Y....Ealick S.E. (2005)
    90. Calcitonin-specific transcription and splicing targets gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 12629124)9 Messina M....Robinson B.G. (2003)
    91. Achieving the ultimate physiological goal in transition state analogue inhibitors for purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12842889)9 Lewandowicz A....Schramm V.L. (2003)
    92. A novel mutation in purine nucleoside phosphorylase i n a child with normal uric acid levels. (PubMed id 19733163)9 Al-Saud B....Al-Mousa H. (2009)
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    233. Synthesis of bicyclic N-arylmethyl-substituted iminoribitol derivatives as selective nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors. (PubMed id 19115304)9 Berg M....Augustyns K. (2009)
    234. Long-term survival of Campylobacter jejuni at low tem peratures is dependent on polynucleotide phosphorylase activity. (PubMed id 19801468)9 Haddad N....Cappelier J.M. (2009)
    235. Identification of antigenic proteins associated with trichloroethylene-induced autoimmune disease by serological proteome analysis. (PubMed id 19647757)9 Liu J....Zhuang Z. (2009)
    236. Regioselective metalation of 6-methylpurines: synthes is of fluoromethyl purines and related nucleosides for suicide gene therapy of cancer. (PubMed id 20183607)9 Hassan A.E....Secrist J.A. (2009)
    237. Synergistic antitumor efficacy of suicide/ePNP gene a nd 6-methylpurine 2'-deoxyriboside via Salmonella against murine tumors. (PubMed id 18437183)9 Fu W....Ren D. (2008)
    238. Targeting gene therapy for hepatocarcinoma cells with the E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase suicide gene system directed by a chimeric alpha-fetoprotein promoter. (PubMed id 18407409)9 Cai X....Lin J. (2008)
    239. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase is critical for viability of malaria parasites. (PubMed id 18957439)9 Madrid D.C....Kim K. (2008)
    240. Erythrocytic adenosine monophosphate as an alternative purine source in Plasmodium falciparum. (PubMed id 18799466)9 Cassera M.B....Schramm V.L. (2008)
    241. Nucleotide- and nucleoside-converting ectoenzymes: Im portant modulators of purinergic signalling cascade. (PubMed id 18302942)9 Yegutkin G.G. (2008)
    242. Adenosine produced by neurons is metabolized to hypox anthine by astrocytes. (PubMed id 18627033)9 Zamzow C.R....Parkinson F.E. (2008)
    243. Effect of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV on endogenous nucleotide pools. (PubMed id 18839780)9 Vela J.E....Ray A.S. (2008)
    244. Efficient synthesis of fluorophosphonylated alkyles b y ring-opening reaction of cyclic sulfates. (PubMed id 18666773)9 Diab S.A....Lequeux T. (2008)
    245. Azetidine based transition state analogue inhibitors of N-ribosyl hydrolases and phosphorylases. (PubMed id 18251493)9 Evans G.B....Tyler P.C. (2008)
    246. Neurotrophic effects of extracellular guanosine. (PubMed id 18600524)9 Rathbone M....Jiang S. (2008)
    247. Coupled biocatalysts applied to the synthesis of nucleosides. (PubMed id 18776493)9 Medici R....Iribarren A.M. (2008)
    248. Novel purine nucleoside analogues for hematological malignancies. (PubMed id 18537755)9 Korycka A....Robak T. (2008)
    249. Induction of nucleoside phosphorylase in Enterobacter aerogenes and enzymatic synthesis of adenine arabinoside. (PubMed id 18600781)9 Wei X.K....Wang C.L. (2008)
    250. Purine Nucleosidase Phosphorylase (PNP): A novel target in leukemias and lymphomas. (PubMed id 18086341)9 Kantarjian H.M. (2007)
    251. Synthesis and evaluation of 9-deazaguanine derivative s as multi-substrate analogue inhibitors of PNP. (PubMed id 18029771)9 Hashimoto M....Yokomatsu T. (2007)
    252. An enzymatic transglycosylation of purine bases. (PubMed id 18058506)9 Roivainen J....Miroshnikov A.I. (2007)
    253. Forodesine (BCX-1777, Immucillin H)--a new purine nucleoside analogue: mechanism of action and potential clinical application. (PubMed id 17897085)9 Korycka A....Robak T. (2007)
    254. Pharmacology and mechanism of action of forodesine, a T-cell targeted agent. (PubMed id 18086347)9 Gandhi V. and Balakrishnan K. (2007)
    255. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 9-deazaguanine derivatives connected by a linker to difluoromethylene phosphonic acid as multi-substrate analogue inhibitors of PNP. (PubMed id 17544667)9 Hikishima S....Yokomatsu T. (2007)
    256. Efficient electrogene therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma treatment using the bacterial purine nucleoside phosphorylase suicide gene with fludarabine. (PubMed id 17487360)9 Deharvengt S....Hajri A. (2007)
    257. Successful HLA-identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 17910661)9 Delicou S....Grafakos S. (2007)
    258. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions. (PubMed id 17126452)9 Balestri F....Camici M. (2007)
    259. Enzymes as a special class of therapeutic target: clinical drugs and modes of action. (PubMed id 17884461)9 Robertson J.G. (2007)
    260. Biochemical and structural characterization of mammalian-like purine nucleoside phosphorylase from the Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. (PubMed id 17419725)9 Cacciapuoti G....Porcelli M. (2007)
    261. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 16949240)9 Parvaneh N....Parvaneh L. (2007)
    262. CD4+ cell count decline despite HIV suppression: a pr obable didanosine-valganciclovir interaction. (PubMed id 17341536)9 Tseng A.L. and Salit I.E. (2007)
    263. Clinical management of T-cell malignancies: current perspectives, key issues, and emerging therapies. (PubMed id 18086345)9 Cheson B.D. (2007)
    264. Binding isotope effects: boon and bane. (PubMed id 17869163)9 Schramm V.L. (2007)
    265. Forodesine treatment and post-transplant graft-versus-host disease in two patients with acute leukemia: facilitation of graft-versus-leukemia effect? (PubMed id 18086346)9 Gore L....Quinones R. (2007)
    266. Anopheles gambiae purine nucleoside phosphorylase: ca talysis, structure, and inhibition. (PubMed id 17918964)9 Taylor E.A....Schramm V.L. (2007)
    267. Inhibition and structure of Trichomonas vaginalis pur ine nucleoside phosphorylase with picomolar transition state analogues. (PubMed id 17223688)9 Rinaldo-Matthis A....Schramm V.L. (2007)
    268. Purine nucleoside analogs as immunosuppressive and antineoplastic agents: mechanism of action and clinical activity. (PubMed id 17168705)9 Robak T....Robak E. (2006)
    269. Back to the beginnings: an autobiography. (PubMed id 17066574)9 Giblett E.R. (2006)
    270. Suboptimal CD4 gains in HIV-infected patients receivi ng didanosine plus tenofovir. (PubMed id 16531427)9 Barreiro P. and Soriano V. (2006)
    271. Comprehensive detection of disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism by HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 16613999)9 Hartmann S....Hoffmann G.F. (2006)
    272. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 9-(5',5'-difluoro-5'-phosphonopentyl)guanine derivatives for PNP-inhibitors. (PubMed id 16263289)9 Hikishima S....Yokomatsu T. (2006)
    273. Phosphate activation in the ground state of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 16771490)9 Deng H....Schramm V.L. (2006)
    274. Forodesine, an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. (PubMed id 16778146)9 Balakrishnan K....Gandhi V. (2006)
    275. A new approach to interpretation of heterogeneity of fluorescence decay: effect of induced tautomeric shift and enzyme-->ligand fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (PubMed id 16765509)9 Wlodarczyk J. and Kierdaszuk B. (2006)
    276. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism. (PubMed id 16519676)9 Tozzi M.G....Ipata P.L. (2006)
    277. Differences in activities of the enzymes of nucleotide metabolism and its implications for cardiac xenotransplantation. (PubMed id 17065095)9 Yuen A.H....Smolenski R.T. (2006)
    278. Protein dynamics and catalysis: the problems of trans ition state theory and the subtlety of dynamic control. (PubMed id 16873129)9 Pineda J.R. and Schwartz S.D. (2006)
    279. Human polynucleotide phosphorylase protein in response to oxidative stress. (PubMed id 16716086)9 Hayakawa H. and Sekiguchi M. (2006)
    280. Ring-expanded analogues of natural oxetanocin: (+) and (-) hydroxymethyl isodideoxyadenosine. (PubMed id 16248024)9 Chun B.K....Nair V. (2005)
    281. Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase II, the product of the xapA gene. (PubMed id 15808857)9 Dandanell G....Bochtler M. (2005)
    282. Experimental therapy of allogeneic solid tumors induced in athymic mice with suicide gene-transducing replication-competent foamy virus vectors. (PubMed id 15905857)9 Heinkelein M....Rethwilm A. (2005)
    283. Emerging drugs for adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (PubMed id 16083331)9 Thomas X. (2005)
    284. Structural basis for inhibition of Escherichia coli u ridine phosphorylase by 5-substituted acyclouridines. (PubMed id 15983408)9 Bu W....Ealick S.E. (2005)
    285. Pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazines: purine analogues with electronic absorption in the visible region. (PubMed id 18007523)9 Mojzych M....Wierzchowski J. (2005)
    286. Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. (PubMed id 16176880)9 Nyhan W.L. (2005)
    287. Synthesis and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of the forodesine HCl analog BCX-3040. (PubMed id 16438050)9 Kezar H.S....Morris P.E. (2005)
    288. Transcriptional tumor-selective promoter targeting of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase for pancreatic cancer suicide gene therapy. (PubMed id 15580629)9 Deharvengt S....Hajri A. (2005)
    289. Targeting a novel Plasmodium falciparum purine recycling pathway with specific immucillins. (PubMed id 15576366)9 Ting L.M....Kim K. (2005)
    290. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human erythrocyte lysate and rat liver cytosol - characterization of a glutathione- and NAD-dependent arsenate reduction linked to glycolysis. (PubMed id 15788720)9 NAcmeti B. and Gregus Z. (2005)
    291. A human biotin acceptor domain allows site-specific conjugation of an enzyme to an antibody-avidin fusion protein for targeted drug delivery. (PubMed id 15748688)9 Asai T....Morrison S.L. (2005)
    292. Design and evaluation of dihydroxytetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c]- [1,4]benzothiazines as conformationally restricted transition-state inhibitors of beta-ribosidases. (PubMed id 16238341)9 Gao L. and Hollingsworth R.I. (2005)
    293. Xanthine, xanthosine and its nucleotides: solution structures of neutral and ionic forms, and relevance to substrate properties in various enzyme systems and metabolic pathways. (PubMed id 15218545)9 Kulikowska E....Shugar D. (2004)
    294. Active site contacts in the purine nucleoside phosphorylase--hypoxanthine complex by NMR and ab initio calculations. (PubMed id 15595853)9 Deng H....Jones R.A. (2004)
    295. Plasma purine nucleoside phosphorylase in cancer patients. (PubMed id 15149878)9 Roberts E.L....Axford A.T. (2004)
    296. Estimation of guanine deaminase using guanosine as a 'prosubstrate'. (PubMed id 14690689)9 Roberts E.L. and Newton R.P. (2004)
    297. Human deoxycytidine kinase as a deoxyribonucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 15561147)9 Usova E....Eriksson S. (2004)
    298. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for prostate cancer in a mouse model that imitates the development of human disease. (PubMed id 14716676)9 Martiniello-Wilks R....Russell P.J. (2004)
    299. Targeting the polyamine pathway with transition-state analogue inhibitors of 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase. (PubMed id 15163207)9 Evans G.B....Tyler P.C. (2004)
    300. Enzyme activities controlling adenosine levels in normal and neoplastic tissues. (PubMed id 15299191)9 Vannoni D....Marinello E. (2004)
    301. Recent advances in 4'-thionucleosides as potential an tiviral and antitumor agents. (PubMed id 15544465)9 Gunaga P....Jeong L.S. (2004)
    302. Suicide gene/prodrug therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma by E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase and 6-methylpurine 2'-deoxyriboside. (PubMed id 15028961)9 Deharvengt S....Hajri A. (2004)
    303. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNP-def) presenting with lymphopenia and developmental delay: successful correction with umbilical cord blood transplantation. (PubMed id 15520787)9 Myers L.A....Kurtzberg J. (2004)
    304. Glutathione-dependent reduction of arsenate in human erythrocytes--a process independent of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 15470234)9 NAcmeti B. and Gregus Z. (2004)
    305. Syntheses of omega-hydroxy-alpha,alpha-difluoromethylphosphonates by oxacycle ring-opening reactions. (PubMed id 15469339)9 Ozouf P....Lequeux T.P. (2004)
    306. A three-enzyme microelectrode sensor for detecting purine release from central nervous system. (PubMed id 12445443)9 Llaudet E....Dale N. (2003)
    307. Synthesis of second-generation transition state analogues of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 14613329)9 Evans G.B....Tyler P.C. (2003)
    308. Capillary electrophoresis in diagnosis and monitoring of adenosine deaminase deficiency. (PubMed id 14578314)9 Carlucci F....Marinello E. (2003)
    309. Structural basis for substrate specificity of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12937174)9 Bennett E.M....Ealick S.E. (2003)
    310. Rapid disappearance of deoxyribose-1-phosphate in platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase overexpressing cells. (PubMed id 12565833)9 de Bruin M....Peters G.J. (2003)
    311. Crystal structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with acyclovir. (PubMed id 12914786)9 dos Santos D.M....Santos D.S. (2003)
    312. Ionic states of substrates and transition state analogues at the catalytic sites of N-ribosyltransferases. (PubMed id 12741826)9 Sauve A.A....Schramm V.L. (2003)
    313. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase: complex kinetic mechanism, hydrolysis of 7-methylguanosine, and oligomeric state in solution. (PubMed id 12007610)9 Bzowska A. (2002)
    314. Flow system for fish freshness determination based on double multi-enzyme reactor electrodes. (PubMed id 11888726)9 Okuma H. and Watanabe E. (2002)
    315. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency: a new case report and identification of two novel mutations (Gly156A1a and Val217Ile), only one of which (Gly156A1a) is deleterious. (PubMed id 12483996)9 Moallem H.J....Fikrig S. (2002)
    316. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a fortuitous cytosolic arsenate reductase? (PubMed id 12388828)9 Waalkes M.P. and Liu J. (2002)
    317. Purine metabolism in leukocytes and erythrocytes in Graves' or Hashimoto's disease. (PubMed id 12489570)9 Karbownik M....Fabianowska-Majewska K. (2002)
    318. Simple non-radiochemical HPLC-linked method for screening for purine metabolism disorders using dried blood spot. (PubMed id 12204435)9 Jacomelli G....Pompucci G. (2002)
    319. Transcription-targeted gene therapy for androgen-independent prostate cancer. (PubMed id 11961667)9 Martiniello-Wilks R....Russell P.J. (2002)
    320. The metabolism of 2-methyladenosine in Mycobacterium smegmatis. (PubMed id 11782521)9 Chen C.K....Parker W.B. (2002)
    321. Influence of moderate drinking on purine and carbohyd rate metabolism. (PubMed id 12198370)9 Nishioka K....Suwa Y. (2002)
    322. Persistent developmental delay despite successful bone marrow transplantation for purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 11902746)9 Baguette C....Cornu G. (2002)
    323. Structure of E. coli 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase reveals similarity to the purine nucleoside phosphorylases. (PubMed id 11591349)9 Lee J.E....Howell P.L. (2001)
    324. Involvement of astrocytes in purine-mediated reparative processes in the brain. (PubMed id 11378300)9 Ciccarelli R....Di Iorio P. (2001)
    325. Novel 6-substituted uracil analogs as inhibitors of the angiogenic actions of thymidine phosphorylase. (PubMed id 11705459)9 Klein R.S....Schwartz E.L. (2001)
    326. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor BCX-1777 (Immucillin-H)--a novel potent and orally active immunosuppressive agent. (PubMed id 11407314)9 Bantia S....Sandhu J.S. (2001)
    327. Immucillin H, a powerful transition-state analog inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, selectively inhibits human T lymphocytes. (PubMed id 11287638)9 Kicska G.A....Kaufman H.L. (2001)
    328. Structure-activity relationships for a collection of structurally diverse inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 11201210)9 Andricopulo A.D. and Yunes R.A. (2001)
    329. Identification of two genetic groups in Bacteroides fragilis by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis: distribution of antibiotic resistance (cfiA, cepA) and enterotoxin (bft) encoding genes. (PubMed id 10832652)9 Gutacker M....Piffaretti J.C. (2000)
    330. In vivo sensitization of ovarian tumors to chemotherapy by expression of E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase in a small fraction of cells. (PubMed id 11083495)9 Gadi V.K....Sorscher E.J. (2000)
    331. Purine requirements for the expression of Cape buffalo serum trypanocidal activity. (PubMed id 11790327)9 Wang Q....Black S.J. (2000)
    332. Rapid screening of high-risk patients for disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism using HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of liquid urine or urine-soaked filter paper strips. (PubMed id 10759467)9 Ito T....van Gennip A.H. (2000)
    333. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of peldesine (BCX-34), a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, following single and multiple oral doses in healthy volunteers. (PubMed id 10761169)9 Viegas T.X....Kisicki J. (2000)
    334. Effect of TEI-6720, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on the nucleoside transport in the lung cancer cell line A549. (PubMed id 10629441)9 Yamamoto T....Hada T. (2000)
    335. Interactions of calf spleen purine nucleoside phospho rylase with antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonate inhibitors: kinetics and e mission studies. (PubMed id 10432698)9 Wierzchowski J....Shugar D. (1999)
    336. Preformulation studies for the development of a parenteral liquid formulation of the immunomodulator, peldesine. (PubMed id 10754728)9 Viegas T.X. and Van Winkle L.L. (1999)
    337. Nucleotide pool imbalance and adenosine deaminase deficiency induce alterations of N-region insertions during V(D)J recombination. (PubMed id 10079104)9 Gangi-Peterson L....Mitchell B.S. (1999)
    338. Gene therapy of cancer: activation of nucleoside prodrugs with E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 10432677)9 Secrist J.A....Sorscher E.J. (1999)
    339. Reduced purine 5'-nucleotidase activity in lymphocytes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: results of a pilot study. (PubMed id 10343529)9 Stolk J.N....Boerbooms A.M. (1999)
    340. Modulation of 5-fluorouracil by 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine on cell lines expressing different dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities. (PubMed id 10885904)9 Katona C....KralovA!nszky J. (1999)
    341. Purine pathway enzymes in a cyst forming strain of Toxoplasma gondii. (PubMed id 10576552)9 Gherardi A....Peyron F. (1999)
    342. Deranged blood coagulation equilibrium as a factor of massive liver necrosis following endotoxin administration in partially hepatectomized rats. (PubMed id 10216139)9 Mochida S....Fujiwara K. (1999)
    343. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-inducible pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism of chick embryonic erythrocytes. (PubMed id 9531619)9 Dragon S....Baumann R. (1998)
    344. Development of a system with enzyme reactors for the determination of fish freshness. (PubMed id 18967333)9 Carsol M.A. and Mascini M. (1998)
    345. [Certain biochemical features of leukocytes in blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia] (PubMed id 9703628)9 Kharchenko M.F....Blinov M.M. (1998)
    346. [Metabolism of purine compounds in psoriasis] (PubMed id 9575724)9 Tikhonov I.u.V....Toguzov R.T. (1998)
    347. Metabolism and metabolic actions of 6-methylpurine and 2-fluoroadenine in human cells. (PubMed id 9634004)9 Parker W.B....Bennett L.L. (1998)
    348. Sensitivity of isoenzyme analysis for the detection of interspecies cell line cross-contamination. (PubMed id 9542633)9 Nims R.W....Harbell J.W. (1998)
    349. Cellulomonas sp. purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Comparison with human and E. coli enzymes. (PubMed id 9598071)9 Wielgus-Kutrowska B....Bzowska A. (1998)
    350. Reduced thiopurine methyltransferase activity and development of side effects of azathioprine treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 9778228)9 Stolk J.N....van de Putte L.B. (1998)
    351. The role of gene duplication in the evolution of purine nucleotide salvage pathways. (PubMed id 9742728)9 Becerra A. and Lazcano A. (1998)
    352. One-third-the-sites transition-state inhibitors for purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 9628722)9 Miles R.W....Schramm V.L. (1998)
    353. Relative efficiency of tumor cell killing in vitro by two enzyme-prodrug systems delivered by identical adenovirus vectors. (PubMed id 9815599)9 Lockett L.J....Both G.W. (1997)
    354. Channelling of deoxyribose moiety of exogenous DNA into carbohydrate metabolism: role of deoxyriboaldolase. (PubMed id 9226884)9 Sgarrella F....Tozzi M.G. (1997)
    355. Crystal structure of calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase in a complex with hypoxanthine at 2.15 A resolution. (PubMed id 9020983)9 Koellner G....Bzowska A. (1997)
    356. Contributions of protein structure-based drug design to cancer chemotherapy. (PubMed id 9129687)9 Jackson R.C. (1997)
    357. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for aspartate transcarbamylase and ATPases. (PubMed id 9056187)9 Rieger C.E....Turnbull J.L. (1997)
    358. Pharmacological and biochemical strategies to increase the accumulation of arabinofuranosylguanine triphosphatein primary human leukemia cells. (PubMed id 9815603)9 Rodriguez C.O....Gandhi V. (1997)
    359. Enzymatic properties of the unnatural beta-L-enantiomers of 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine. (PubMed id 9397178)9 Pelicano H....Maury G. (1997)
    360. [Metabolism of purine nucleotides and the production of uric acid] (PubMed id 8976090)9 Yamaoka T. and Itakura M. (1996)
    361. Purine deoxynucleoside metabolism in human melanoma cells with a high spontaneous mutation rate. (PubMed id 8657185)9 Musk P....Parsons P.G. (1996)
    362. Liquid-chromatographic study of purine metabolism abnormalities in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 8595732)9 Chantin C....Bory C. (1996)
    363. Guanine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, and triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine (8-azaguanine) phosphonate acyclic derivatives as inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 8632418)9 Beauchamp L.M....Sznaidman M.L. (1996)
    364. [Inherited disorders of uric acid metabolism--classification, enzymatic- and DNA-diagnosis] (PubMed id 8976110)9 Iwahana H. and Itakura M. (1996)
    365. A spectrophotometric method to measure enzymatic activity in reactions that generate inorganic pyrophosphate. (PubMed id 8954523)9 Upson R.H....Haugland R.P. (1996)
    366. Purine enzyme activities in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: are there differences between patients and healthy controls? (PubMed id 8984938)9 Stolk J.N....van de Putte L.B. (1996)
    367. Marked hypouricemia in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency--serendipitous finding on screen. (PubMed id 8665699)9 Timms P.M....Bold A.M. (1996)
    368. Enzyme sensors for determination of fish freshness. (PubMed id 18966489)9 Volpe G. and Mascini M. (1996)
    369. Continuous monitoring of Pi release following nucleotide hydrolysis in actin or tubulin assembly using 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase as an enzyme-linked assay. (PubMed id 8810908)9 Melki R....Carlier M.F. (1996)
    370. Developmental changes in purine nucleotide metabolism in cultured rat astroglia. (PubMed id 8770661)9 Zoref-Shani E....Sperling O. (1995)
    371. Chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation between purine metabolism enzyme activities and membrane immunophenotype. (PubMed id 7617076)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (1995)
    372. Characterization of the deoxycytidine kinase promoter in human lymphoblast cell lines. (PubMed id 7706474)9 Chen E.H....Mitchell B.S. (1995)
    373. Purine enzyme activities in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a new non-radiochemical high-performance liquid chromatography procedure and a radiochemical thin-layer chromatography procedure. (PubMed id 7655619)9 Stolk J.N....van de Putte L.B. (1995)
    374. Kinetics of adenylate metabolism in human and rat myocardium. (PubMed id 7599155)9 Tavenier M....de Jong J.W. (1995)
    375. Demonstration of induction of erythrocyte inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in Ribavirin-treated patients using a high performance liquid chromatography linked method. (PubMed id 7586576)9 Montero C....Morgan G. (1995)
    376. 2-Amino-6-methoxypurine arabinoside: an agent for T-cell malignancies. (PubMed id 7614470)9 Lambe C.U....Krenitsky T.A. (1995)
    377. Relationship between early liver graft viability and enzyme activities in effluent preservation solution. (PubMed id 7570966)9 Devlin J....Williams R. (1995)
    378. A comparison of some leucocyte differentiation markers and the adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase values in B and T cell leukemias and lymphomas. (PubMed id 8592572)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (1995)
    379. Enzyme histochemical studies on tumor blood vessels. (PubMed id 11322303)9 Gerzeli G....Bertone V. (1995)
    380. Erythroid differentiation and growth inhibition of K5 62 cells by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine: synergism with interferon-alpha. (PubMed id 7500653)9 Ogawa K....Okuma M. (1995)
    381. 5-Iodo-2'-deoxy-L-uridine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxy-L-uridine: selective phosphorylation by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase, antiherpetic activity, and cytotoxicity studies. (PubMed id 7603465)9 Spadari S....Tondelli L. (1995)
    382. A broadly applicable continuous spectrophotometric assay for measuring aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity. (PubMed id 7659511)9 Lloyd A.J....Soll D. (1995)
    383. Pre-steady-state transition-state analysis of the hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 7827065)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (1995)
    384. Azathioprine-related bone marrow toxicity and low activities of purine enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 7818564)9 Kerstens P.J....Boerbooms A.A. (1995)
    385. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for protein phosphatases. (PubMed id 7785781)9 Cheng Q....Killilea S.D. (1995)
    386. Enzymatic preparation of [2,4,5,6,8-14C, 5'-3H]guanosine for use in biosynthetic studies of pterinoid and flavin compounds. (PubMed id 8074301)9 Irby R. and Adair W.L. (1994)
    387. Potentiating effect of (2-[2-[(2-amino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9H-purin-9-yl)methyl]-phenyl]e thenyl) -phosphonic acid (MDL 74,428), a potent inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, on the antiretroviral activities of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine combined with ribavirin in mice. (PubMed id 8053921)9 Weibel M....Mamont P. (1994)
    388. Purine enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis: possible association with response to azathioprine. A pilot study. (PubMed id 7979599)9 Kerstens P.J....van de Putte L.B. (1994)
    389. Normal uric acid concentrations in a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficient child presenting with severe chicken pox, possible immunodeficiency and developmental delay. (PubMed id 7544949)9 Hallett R.J....Simmonds H.A. (1994)
    390. A continuous visible spectrophotometric assay for aspartate transcarbamylase. (PubMed id 8074305)9 Wedler F.C....Moyer M.L. (1994)
    391. Enzymes of purine salvage and catabolism in the mouse preimplantation embryo measured by high performance liquid chromatography. (PubMed id 8064675)9 Alexiou M. and Leese H.J. (1994)
    392. A continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of glycogen phosphorylase-catalyzed reaction in the direction of glycogen synthesis. (PubMed id 7810877)9 Sergienko E.A. and Srivastava D.K. (1994)
    393. Regulation of gene expression of adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase by dexamethasone and cAMP in human leukemic cells. (PubMed id 7660900)9 FernA!ndez-Mejia C....Madrid-Marina V. (1994)
    394. Leishmania major-like parasite, a pathogenic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paraguay. (PubMed id 7810807)9 Yamasaki H....Aoki T. (1994)
    395. Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14. (PubMed id 8188219)9 Huppi K....Mischak H. (1994)
    396. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism in human gliomas: relation to chromosomal aberrations. (PubMed id 8054268)9 Bardot V....Luccioni C. (1994)
    397. Nucleotide and adenosine metabolism in different cell types of human and rat heart. (PubMed id 7897672)9 Kochan Z....Seymour A.L. (1994)
    398. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleo side phosphorylase. 4. A study of phosphate mimics. (PubMed id 8164252)9 Guida W.C....Montgomery J.A. (1994)
    399. Multilocus enzyme typing of human and animal strains of Clostridium perfringens. (PubMed id 8082823)9 Pons J.L....Leluan G. (1994)
    400. [Adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in lympho- and myeloproliferative disorders] (PubMed id 7746892)9 Warzocha K....Robak T. (1994)
    401. Tumor cell bystander killing in colonic carcinoma utilizing the Escherichia coli DeoD gene to generate toxic purines. (PubMed id 7584086)9 Sorscher E.J....Parker W.B. (1994)
    402. Formation and breakdown of uridine in ischemic hearts of rats and humans. (PubMed id 8441182)9 SmoleA8ski R.T....Yacoub M.H. (1993)
    403. Kinetic determination of serum adenosine deaminase. (PubMed id 8403405)9 Oosthuizen H.M....Bissbort S.H. (1993)
    404. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 1. 9-(arylmethyl) derivatives of 9-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 8421291)9 Montgomery J.A....Ealick S.E. (1993)
    405. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 3. 9-Arylmethyl derivatives of 9-deazaguanine substituted on the methylene group. (PubMed id 8254607)9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (1993)
    406. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 2. 9-Alicyclic and 9-heteroalicyclic derivatives of 9-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 8515423)9 Secrist J.A....Montgomery J.A. (1993)
    407. Cloning and gene map assignment of the Xiphophorus DNA ligase 1 gene. (PubMed id 7904041)9 Walter R.B....Nairn R.S. (1993)
    408. Acute myeloid leukemia: correlation between purine metabolism enzyme activities and membrane immunophenotype. (PubMed id 8289964)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (1993)
    409. Overview of biochemical abnormalities and molecular genetics of adenosine deaminase deficiency. (PubMed id 8433873)9 Hirschhorn R. (1993)
    410. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N4-substituted imidazo- and v-triazolo[4,5-d]pyridazine nucleosides. (PubMed id 8258836)9 Bussolari J.C....Panzica R.P. (1993)
    411. PD 141955 and CI-972: 9-deazaguanine analog purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors. II. Effects on nucleoside catabolism in human and rat blood in vitro. (PubMed id 8273600)9 Dong M.K. and Gilbertsen R.B. (1993)
    412. The H2O2 induced effects on purine metabolism in human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 8138186)9 Griesmacher A....Mueller M.M. (1993)
    413. Activities of two 9-deazaguanine analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, CI-972 and PD 141955, in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed id 8363228)9 Gilbertsen R.B....Conroy M.C. (1993)
    414. Novel 6-alkoxypurine 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides as inhibitors of the cytopathic effect of the human immunodeficiency virus. (PubMed id 8426365)9 Burns C.L....Koszalka G.W. (1993)
    415. Analysis of purine metabolic enzymes in human CD4 Leu 8- and CD4 Leu 8+ lymphocyte subpopulations. (PubMed id 8444317)9 Fernandez-Mejia C....Madrid-Marina V. (1993)
    416. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Catalytic mechanism and transition-state analysis of the arsenolysis reaction. (PubMed id 8241176)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (1993)
    417. [Retinoic acid induces differentiation of human T lymphocytic leukemia CCRF-CEM cells] (PubMed id 8174476)9 Lin J.Q. (1993)
    418. Efficacy and toxicity of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG) as an agent to purge malignant T cells from murine bone marrow: application to an in vivo T-leukemia model. (PubMed id 8350627)9 Gravatt L.C....Kurtzberg J. (1993)
    419. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Kinetic mechanism of the enzyme from calf spleen. (PubMed id 1559977)9 Porter D.J. (1992)
    420. Cockayne's syndrome fibroblasts are characterized by hypersensitivity to deoxyguanosine and abnormal DNA precursor pool metabolism in response to deoxyguanosine or ultraviolet light. (PubMed id 1475705)9 Squires S....Johnson R.T. (1992)
    421. Purine salvage as a metabolite and energy saving mechanism in the ocular lens. (PubMed id 1606839)9 Cappiello M....Ipata P.L. (1992)
    422. Species differences in adenosine metabolic sites in t he heart. (PubMed id 1506236)9 Borgers M. and ThonAc F. (1992)
    423. Metabolism of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in human blood. (PubMed id 1576055)9 Back D.J....Macleod R. (1992)
    424. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for inorganic phosphate and for measuring phosphate release kinetics in biological systems. (PubMed id 1534409)9 Webb M.R. (1992)
    425. The enzymatic synthesis of antiviral agents. (PubMed id 1368058)9 Hanrahan J.R. and Hutchinson D.W. (1992)
    426. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolysis, tight binding of the hypoxanthine intermediate, and third-the-sites reactivity. (PubMed id 1627539)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (1992)
    427. Metabolic fate of hypoxanthine and inosine in cultured cardiomyocytes. (PubMed id 1583701)9 Zoref-Shani E....Sperling O. (1992)
    428. Acquired T cell specific deficiency other than acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (PubMed id 1568029)9 Saiki O....Kishimoto S. (1992)
    429. Syntenic conservation of HSP70 genes in cattle and humans. (PubMed id 1478667)9 Grosz M.D....Skow L.C. (1992)
    430. Interaction of GTPase-activating protein with p21ras, measured using a continuous assay for inorganic phosphate release. (PubMed id 1445214)9 Webb M.R. and Hunter J.L. (1992)
    431. Regulation of GTP biosynthesis. (PubMed id 1353938)9 Weber G....Nagai M. (1992)
    432. [Chromosome abnormalities and adenine metabolism in human glial tumors] (PubMed id 1448660)9 Bardot V....Dutrillaux B. (1992)
    433. Characterization of three T-lymphoid cell lines with distinct sensitivities to deoxyadenosine plus deoxycoformycin. (PubMed id 1373528)9 Duan D.S....Cowan M.J. (1992)
    434. Purine metabolism enzyme pattern, cytochemical characteristics and clinicopathologic features of CD10-positive childhood T-cell leukemia. (PubMed id 1837333)9 BabusA-kovA! O....KonA-kovA! E. (1991)
    435. Acyclonucleoside analogue inhibitors of mammalian pur ine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 1903945)9 Bzowska A....Johansson N.G. (1991)
    436. Evidence that X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is not a differentiation defect of T lymphocytes. (PubMed id 1988230)9 Goodship J....Levinsky R.J. (1991)
    437. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human erythrocytes: a kinetic study of the fully separated isoenzymes. (PubMed id 1768259)9 Accorsi A....Fazi A. (1991)
    438. [Hypouricemia and cellular immunodeficiency associated with purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency] (PubMed id 1929018)9 GarcA-a AmorA-n Z....LA^pez Sastre J. (1991)
    439. Purine catabolites in cerebral interstitial fluid dur ing progression of and recovery from ischemia. (PubMed id 1715045)9 Morimoto K....Mogami H. (1991)
    440. Uridine and purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in human and rat heart. (PubMed id 1781364)9 de Jong J.W....Yacoub M.H. (1991)
    441. Activities of purine catabolism related enzymes in zi nc deficiency: relationship to T-lymphocyte dysfunction and hyperammonemia. (PubMed id 1906845)9 Cossack Z.T. and Prasad A.S. (1991)
    442. Purifications and properties of orotidine-phosphorolyzing enzyme and purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Erwinia carotovora AJ 2992. (PubMed id 1368721)9 Shirae H. and Yokozeki K. (1991)
    443. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of CI-972, a novel 9-deazaguanine analog purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor. (PubMed id 1789255)9 Gilbertsen R.B....Conroy M.C. (1991)
    444. Purine catabolism in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. P horbol myristate acetate-induced accumulation of adenosine owing to inactivatio n of extracellularly released adenosine deaminase. (PubMed id 1898656)9 van Waeg G. and Van den Berghe G. (1991)
    445. Theophylline-induced increase in plasma uric acid--purine catabolism increased by theophylline. (PubMed id 1889911)9 Yamamoto T....Higashino K. (1991)
    446. A Japanese family pedigree of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease with X-linked inheritance. (PubMed id 1920912)9 Minegishi M....Konno T. (1991)
    447. Determination of purine nucleosides and their bases by high-performance liquid chromatography using co-immobilized enzyme reactors. (PubMed id 2117020)9 Kito M....Hirose S. (1990)
    448. The release of adenosine at the electric organ of Torpedo. A study using a continuous chemiluminescent method. (PubMed id 2325827)9 Solsona C....SaltA^ C. (1990)
    449. The metabolism of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine in CEM cells. (PubMed id 2405846)9 Karlsson A....Eckstein F. (1990)
    450. Nucleotide analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 2105941)9 Krenitsky T.A....Beauchamp L. (1990)
    451. Purine salvage enzyme activities in normal and neoplastic human tissues. (PubMed id 2125239)9 Camici M....Ipata P.L. (1990)
    452. Amperometric determination of phosphate by use of a nucleoside phosphorylase-xanthine oxidase enzyme sensor based on a Clark-type hydrogen peroxide or oxygen electrode. (PubMed id 2127658)9 Haemmerli S.D....Guilbault G.G. (1990)

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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 4860 HGNC: 7892 AceView: NP Ensembl:ENSG00000198805 euGenes: HUgn4860
    ECgene: PNP Kegg: 4860 H-InvDB: PNP

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PNP Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    NPbasehttp://bioinf.uta.fi/NPbase/
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