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PNP Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 67
GCID: GC14P021021

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase

(Previous name: nucleoside phosphorylase)
(Previous symbol: NP)
  See PNP-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase1 2     HEL-S-156an2
NP1 2 3 5     PRO18372
Inosine Phosphorylase2 3     PUNP2
Inosine-Guanosine Phosphorylase2 3     Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 156an2
EC 8     Purine-Nucleoside:Orthophosphate Ribosyltransferase2
Nucleoside Phosphorylase1     

External Ids:    HGNC: 78921   Entrez Gene: 48602   Ensembl: ENSG000001988057   OMIM: 1640505   UniProtKB: P004913   

Export aliases for PNP gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC14P020008 GC14P001059

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PNP Gene:
This gene encodes an enzyme which reversibly catalyzes the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. The enzyme is
trimeric, containing three identical subunits. Mutations which result in nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
result in defective T-cell (cell-mediated) immunity but can also affect B-cell immunity and antibody responses.
Neurologic disorders may also be apparent in patients with immune defects. A known polymorphism at aa position 51
that does not affect enzyme activity has been described. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 2.
(provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PNP Gene:
PNP (purine nucleoside phosphorylase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PNP include pedophilia, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. GO annotations related to this gene include drug binding and nucleoside binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
Function: The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in
the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and

Gene Wiki entry for PNP (Purine nucleoside phosphorylase) Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000014.8  NC_018925.2  NT_026437.13  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for PNP
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPNP promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PNP

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PNP

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q13.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q11.2

PNP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PNP gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P021021:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

20,937,113 bp from pter      End:
20,946,165 bp from pter
9,053 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase  
Size: 289 amino acids; 32118 Da
Subunit: Homotrimer
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PNP (see all 34):
1M73 (3D)        1PF7 (3D)        1PWY (3D)        1RCT (3D)        1RFG (3D)        1RR6 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2R8S5 D3DS00 Q15160 Q5PZ03

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PNP: NX_P00491

Explore proteomics data for PNP at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys22, Lys95, Lys179, Lys211
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 4 DME Specific Peptides for PNP (P00491)

    See PNP Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000261.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000450663   ENSP00000354532   ENSP00000452421   ENSP00000451108  
    Reactome Protein details: P00491

    PNP Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase/PNP)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for PNP
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PNP
    OriGene MassSpec for PNP
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PNP
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PNP
    Novus Biologicals PNP Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PNP Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PNP
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PNP
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PNP 

    antibodies-online proteins for PNP (14 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for PNP

    Search GeneTex for Proteins for PNP 

    PNP Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase/PNP)
    OriGene Antibodies for PNP
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PNP
    Novus Biologicals PNP Antibodies
    Search for Antibodies for PNP at Abcam
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PNP
    antibodies-online antibodies for PNP (27 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for PNP:  
                        PNP Antibodies

    PNP Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PNP
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PNP
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PNP 
    antibodies-online kits for PNP (17 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR018099 Purine_phosphorylase-2_CS
     IPR001369 PNP/MTAP
     IPR000845 Nucleoside_phosphorylase_d
     IPR011270 Pur_Nuc_Pase_Ino/Guo-sp
     IPR011268 Purine_phosphorylase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00491

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00491

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001369 Purine (and other) phosphorylase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Similarity: Belongs to the PNP/MTAP phosphorylase family

    Find genes that share domains with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Function: The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in
    the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and
    Catalytic activity: Purine nucleoside + phosphate = purine + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001882nucleoside binding IDA9305962
    GO:0002060purine nucleobase binding IDA9305962
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004731purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity IDA16930574
    GO:0008144drug binding IDA18938130
    Find genes that share ontologies with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PNP:
     Decreased number of cells in m 

         6 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 7 alleles(MGI details for Pnp):
     cellular  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  mortality/aging 
     renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pnptm1Cmr for PNP

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PNP

        Taconic Biosicences: Generate A Custom CRISPR Mouse Model For Your Study 

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for PNP

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PNP:
    hsa-mir-1296-5p (MIRT036138), hsa-mir-133a-3p (MIRT006571), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT031731), hsa-mir-196a-5p (MIRT026040), hsa-mir-186-5p (MIRT021132), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT003765), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022705)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PNP using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PNP (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-206 hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4251 hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-1 hsa-miR-4267 hsa-miR-3926
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPNP 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PNP
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PNP

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PNP (see all 8)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PNP
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PNP (NM_000270)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PNP
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PNP

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PNP
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PNP 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PNP

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PNPH_HUMAN, P00491: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton (By similarity). Cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular IDA15047506
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA16930574
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005856cytoskeleton IEA--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    Find genes that share ontologies with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PNP About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Purine metabolism (REACTOME)
    Purine metabolism0.42
    guanine and guanosine salvage0.00
    Metabolism of nucleotides0.42
    Purine catabolism0.00
    adenine and adenosine salvage III0.00
    urate biosynthesis/inosine 5-phosphate degradation0.00
    purine nucleotides degradation0.00
    purine ribonucleosides degradation to ribose-1-phosphate0.00
    2Purine metabolism (KEGG)
    Purine metabolism0.38
    ATP/ITP metabolism0.31
    Pyrimidine metabolism0.38
    3Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
    Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism0.43
    NAD metabolism0.43
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    5purine nucleotide salvage
    purine nucleotide salvage0.78

    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PNP
        NAD metabolism
    ATP/ITP metabolism

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PNP (see all 9)
        arsenate detoxification I (glutaredoxin)
    guanosine nucleotides degradation
    adenine and adenosine salvage III
    purine nucleotide salvage
    adenosine nucleotides degradation

    2 Reactome Pathways for PNP
        Purine salvage
    Purine catabolism

    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PNP):
        Purine metabolism
    Pyrimidine metabolism
    Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
    Metabolic pathways

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Pathway: Purine metabolism; purine nucleoside salvage

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PNP

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PNP

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PNP (P004912, 3 ENSP000003545324) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 64)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    APLP1P516932, 3MINT-63336 I2D: score=5 
    CCDC90BQ9GZT62, 3MINT-63337 I2D: score=5 
    TP53P046372, 3MINT-63335 I2D: score=5 
    ZHX1Q9UKY12, 3MINT-63340 I2D: score=5 
    LRIF1Q5T3J32, 3MINT-63338 I2D: score=4 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006139nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process IDA3029074
    GO:0006144purine nucleobase metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006148inosine catabolic process IDA16964310
    GO:0006195purine nucleotide catabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006738nicotinamide riboside catabolic process IDA19001417

    Find genes that share ontologies with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PNP (PNPH)

    Selected HMDB Compounds for PNP (see all 23)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenine1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine (see all 19)73-24-5--
    Adenosine1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-beta-D-Ribofuranose (see all 32)58-61-7--
    Deoxyadenosine1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1,2-dideoxy-b-D-Ribofuranose (see all 22)958-09-8--
    Deoxyadenosine monophosphate2'-Deoxy-5'-adenylate (see all 24)653-63-4--
    Deoxyguanosine2'-Deoxyguanosine (see all 11)961-07-9--
    Deoxyinosine2'-Deoxyinosine (see all 10)890-38-0--
    Deoxyribose 1-phosphate2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate (see all 14)17210-42-3--
    Deoxyuridine1-(2-Deoxy-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)uracil (see all 12)951-78-0--
    GuanineGUN (see all 26)73-40-5--
    Guanosine2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-6H-purin-6-one (see all 10)118-00-3--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for PNP (see all 19)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Cladribine2-CdA (see all 5)4291-63-8targetinducer6808516 3260648 10444166 10500836 8521855
    2,6-Diamino-(S)-9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Purine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    2-Amino-7-[2-(2-Hydroxy-1-Hydroxymethyl-Ethylamino)-Ethyl]-1,7-Dihydro-Purin-6-One-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    9-(5,5-Difluoro-5-Phosphonopentyl)Guanine-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    9-Deazainosine-- 89458-19-5target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Hypoxanthine-- 68-94-0target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Ribose-1-Phosphate-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    3-Deoxyguanosine-- --target--17139284 17016423
    4'-Deaza-1'-Aza-2'-Deoxy-1'-(9-Methylene)-Immucillin-H, (3r,4r)-N-[9-Deazahypoxanthin-9-Yl)Methyl]-4-Hydroxymethyl-Pyrrolidin-3-Ol-- --target--17139284 17016423
    8-azaguanineAzaguanine (see all 5)134-58-7target--17139284 17016423

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PNP gene (see all 102)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    purine nucleoside 99.3 962 9628722 (5), 8432666 (4), 12018991 (4), 7779212 (4) (see all 99)
    9-deazaguanine 93.5 16 18066911 (2), 17544667 (1), 1789255 (1), 8515423 (1) (see all 6)
    ribose 1-phosphate 92.2 31 16771490 (2), 19172318 (1), 19778725 (1), 9305963 (1) (see all 13)
    mesg 91.9 10 1445214 (1), 8954523 (1), 10395483 (1), 7659511 (1) (see all 7)
    6-methylpurine 2'-deoxyriboside 91.1 8 9322865 (1), 15028961 (1), 18407409 (1), 16305530 (1)
    5'-methylthioinosine 90.7 2 15961383 (1), 15576366 (1)
    9-(5,5-difluoro-5-phosphonopentyl)guanine 90.1 27 16263289 (1), 17544667 (1), 18029771 (1), 15272165 (1) (see all 5)
    purine 89.8 163 9585525 (4), 12429535 (2), 7614469 (2), 15817485 (2) (see all 74)
    inosine 89.5 71 19478237 (3), 8241176 (2), 11707439 (2), 12730608 (2) (see all 35)
    7-methyl-6-thio-guanosine 86.4 4 16154528 (2), 7810877 (1), 7785781 (1)

    Find genes that share compounds with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PNP gene: 

    Unigene Cluster for PNP:

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
    Hs.75514  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK126154
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000553418 ENST00000361505(uc001vxo.4) ENST00000556293(uc010ahm.2)
    ENST00000557229(uc010ahn.3) ENST00000554056 ENST00000553591 ENST00000554065
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PNP using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PNP (see all 12):
    hsa-miR-3194-5p hsa-miR-206 hsa-miR-185* hsa-miR-4251 hsa-miR-202 hsa-miR-1 hsa-miR-4267 hsa-miR-3926
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPNP 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PNP
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PNP
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PNP (see all 8)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PNP
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PNP (NM_000270)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PNP
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PNP
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PNP
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PNP
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK098544.1 AK126154.1 AK307340.1 AK307364.1 AK313490.1 BC104206.1 BC104207.1 BC106074.1 
    CR407607.1 X00737.1 

    17 DOTS entries:

    DT.95354047  DT.100637431  DT.119477  DT.95315045  DT.95358448  DT.95156884  DT.100887960  DT.119476 
    DT.95314017  DT.100643362  DT.120778482  DT.120778505  DT.120778508  DT.120778518  DT.99939499  DT.100037476 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 517):

    CD370020 AI377116 CR598982 AA156105 CR599285 BI517586 BM755821 CR608191 
    CR601413 CB130582 CR612303 AW250171 BM838995 CB110064 CR598701 BQ439104 
    CA309749 N41854 BM827103 BQ882148 CA312737 AW403290 CR604278 AK098544 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PNP expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    PNP Expression
    About this image

    PNP expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Liver Lobule
    PNP Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PNP Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.75514

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in red blood cells; overexpressed in red blood cells (cytoplasm) of patients with
    hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology

        Custom PCR Arrays for PNP
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PNP
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PNP
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PNP
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PNP
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PNP

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PNP gene from Selected species (see all 20)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pnp1 , 5 purine-nucleoside phosphorylase1, 5 84.2(n)1
      14 (26.31 cM)5
    189501  NM_013632.41  NP_038660.11 
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PNP1 purine nucleoside phosphorylase 62.32(n)
      769958  XM_003641902.2  XP_003641950.2 
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PNP6
    purine nucleoside phosphorylase
    1 ↔ 1
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC047264.12   -- 72.41(n)    BC047264.1 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii wufc27g062 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 71.49(n)    CK028042.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG167581 CG16758 55.36(n)
      38315  NM_001274401.1  NP_001261330.1 
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K02D7.11 K02D7.1 50.19(n)
      176851  NM_067499.7  NP_499900.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PNP1(YLR209C)4
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase, specifically metabolizes more4
    8509061, 4  NP_013310.11, 4 

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PNP (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PNP (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for PNP gene

    Find genes that share paralogs with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    1 Pseudogene for PNP

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Selected SNPs for PNP (see all 307)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022452 D G mis40--------
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022472 R P mis40--------
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022462 A P mis40--------
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0022442 E K mis40--------
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD)4--see VAR_0106532 Y C mis40--------
    C,F,A,Hnon-pathogenic11939711(-) TTCACC/TGTAGT 2 S G mis129Minor allele frequency- T:0.21NA EU NS EA WA CSA 8505
    Cpathogenic11939630(+) AGCACC/TGACCT 2 R * stg10--------
    Cpathogenic11939732(+) TTCCCC/TGAAGT 2 R * stg10--------
    Cpathogenic11941820(+) TGTATA/GAAGGG 2 K E mis10--------
    Cpathogenic11942135(+) TGGAGA/GTATCA 2 D G mis10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PNP (20937113 - 20946165 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PNP:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv23438CNV Gain+Loss19812545

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PNP
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): PNP

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PNP

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 164050   
    OMIM disorders: 613179  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PNPH_HUMAN, P00491
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179]: A disorder that interrupts both the
    catabolism of inosine into hypoxanthine and guanosine into guanine, and leads to the accumulation of guanosine,
    inosine, and their deoxified by-products. The main clinical presentation is recurrent infections due to severe
    T-cell immunodeficiency. Some patients also have neurologic impairment. Note=The disease is caused by mutations
    affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 10 diseases for PNP:    
    About MalaCards
    pedophilia    purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency    immunodeficiency due to purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency    adenosine deaminase deficiency
    lesch-nyhan syndrome    primary immunodeficiency disease    molybdenum cofactor deficiency    lymphopenia
    progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy    malaria

    5 inferred disease relationships from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PNP:
    Primary immunodeficiency disease     Schizophrenia     Lesch-Nyhan syndrome     Pedophilia

    Find genes that share disorders with PNP           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PNP gene (see all 52)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    adenosine deaminase deficiency 74.3 5 9605997 (2), 16176880 (1), 1696525 (1), 1988230 (1)
    hypouricemia 59.7 6 8976110 (1), 8673045 (1), 1929018 (1), 8665699 (1)
    severe combined immunodeficiency 56.7 18 8931706 (2), 1560016 (2), 1384322 (1), 8976114 (1) (see all 9)
    molybdenum cofactor deficiency 52 1 10759467 (1)
    lesch-nyhan syndrome 50.4 1 8976090 (1)
    immunodeficiency 47.8 47 19733163 (3), 20210752 (2), 7918681 (1), 17641261 (1) (see all 31)
    leukemia t-cell 43.4 7 1573639 (1), 15299840 (1), 8592572 (1), 9403342 (1) (see all 5)
    t-all 41.3 2 18086346 (1), 18086344 (1)
    lymphopenia 39.1 9 15571269 (1), 18086347 (1), 16131572 (1), 16778146 (1) (see all 5)
    developmental delay 37.6 8 19733163 (1), 11902746 (1), 17910661 (1), 15520787 (1) (see all 6)

    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PNP (15 documents)

    Export disorders for PNP gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PNP gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 464) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PNP)

    1. Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase cDNA sequence and genomic clone characterization. (PubMed id 6087295)1, 2, 3 Williams S.R.... Martin D.W. Jr. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1984)
    2. Molecular analysis of mutations in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 1384322)1, 2, 9 Aust M.R....Markert M.L. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1992)
    3. Two novel missense and frameshift mutations in exons 5 and 6 of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) gene in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient. (PubMed id 8931706)1, 2, 9 Pannicke U.... Schwarz K. (Hum. Genet. 1996)
    4. Genetic variation in genes associated with arsenic metabolism: glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphisms in European and indigenous Americans. (PubMed id 12928150)1, 2, 9 Yu L.... Klimecki W.T. (Environ. Health Perspect. 2003)
    5. Three-dimensional structure of human erythrocytic purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 3.2-A resolution. (PubMed id 2104852)1, 2, 9 Ealick S.E.... Bugg C.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 1990)
    6. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    8. A human purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency caused by a single base change. (PubMed id 3029074)1, 2 Williams S.R.... Martin D.W. Jr. (J. Biol. Chem. 1987)
    9. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 1931007)1, 9 Markert M.L. (Immunodefic Rev 1991)
    10. Intracellular delivery of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) fused to protein transduction domain corrects PNP deficiency in vitro. (PubMed id 16930574)1, 9 Toro A....Grunebaum E. (Cell. Immunol. 2006)
    11. Altered enthalpy-entropy compensation in picomolar transition state analogues of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 19425594)1, 9 Edwards A.A....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2009)
    12. Conformational states of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase at rest, at work, and with transition state analogues. (PubMed id 20108972)1, 9 Edwards A.A....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2010)
    13. Crystal structure of human PNP complexed with hypoxanthine and sulfate ion. (PubMed id 15582582)1, 9 Canduri Azevedo W.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    14. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 3. Reversal of purine base specificity by site-directed mutagenesis. (PubMed id 9305964)1, 9 Stoeckler J.D....Erion M.D. (Biochemistry 1997)
    15. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 2. Catalytic mechanism. (PubMed id 9305963)1, 9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (Biochemistry 1997)
    16. Role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in interactions between 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and allopurinol, ganciclovir, or tenofovir. (PubMed id 15047506)1, 9 Ray A.S....Fridland A. (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2004)
    17. Crystal structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 2.3A resolution. (PubMed id 12914785)1, 9 de Azevedo W.F....Santos D.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    18. Remote mutations alter transition-state structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18281957)1, 9 Luo M....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2008)
    19. Structures of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with inosine and ddI. (PubMed id 14706628)1, 9 Canduri F....Santos D.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004)
    20. Role of ionization of the phosphate cosubstrate on phosphorolysis by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) of bacterial (E. coli) and mammalian (human) origin. (PubMed id 17639373)1, 9 Modrak-WA^jcik A....Kierdaszuk B. (Eur. Biophys. J. 2008)
    21. Novel mutations and hot-spots in patients with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 15571269)1, 9 Grunebaum E....Roifman C.M. (amp 2004)
    22. Xanthosine and xanthine. Substrate properties with purine nucleoside phosphorylases, and relevance to other enzyme systems. (PubMed id 12180982)1, 9 Stoychev G....Shugar D. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2002)
    23. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 1. Structure-function studies. (PubMed id 9305962)1, 9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (Biochemistry 1997)
    24. Exon skipping in purine nucleoside phosphorylase mRNA processing leading to severe immunodeficiency. (PubMed id 1560016)1, 9 Andrews L.G. and Markert M.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 1992)
    25. Structural studies of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase: towards a new specific empirical scoring function. (PubMed id 18790691)1, 9 Timmers Azevedo W.F. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008)
    26. Altered thermodynamics from remote mutations altering human toward bovine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18281956)1, 9 Ghanem M....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2008)
    27. Docking and small angle X-ray scattering studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 13679062)1, 9 Filgueira de Azevedo W....Santos D.S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    28. Sequence and functional characterization of the human purine nucleoside phosphorylase promoter. (PubMed id 1923769)1, 9 Jonsson J.J....McIvor R.S. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1991)
    29. Crystal structure and molecular dynamics studies of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with 7-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 19932753)1, 9 Caceres Azevedo W.F. (J. Struct. Biol. 2010)
    30. Molecular modeling and dynamics studies of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Bacteroides fragilis. (PubMed id 19172318)1, 9 Pauli Azevedo W.F. (J Mol Model 2009)
    31. Effect of the phosphate substrate on drug-inhibitor binding to human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 18938130)1, 9 Todorova N.A. and Schwarz F.P. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008)
    32. The G51S purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphism is associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients. (PubMed id 17221831)1, 9 Tumini E....Licastro F. (Hum Psychopharmacol 2007)
    33. TAT-mediated intracellular delivery of purine nucleoside phosphorylase corrects its deficiency in mice. (PubMed id 16964310)1, 9 Toro A. and Grunebaum E. (J. Clin. Invest. 2006)
    34. Two novel mutations in a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)-deficient patient. (PubMed id 11453975)1, 9 Dalal I....Roifman C.M. (Clin. Genet. 2001)
    35. Common resistance mechanisms to nucleoside analogues in variants of the human erythroleukemic line K562. (PubMed id 10500836)7, 9 Dumontet C....Rolland M.O. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1999)
    36. Common resistance mechanisms to deoxynucleoside analogues in variants of the human erythroleukaemic line K562. (PubMed id 10444166)7, 9 Dumontet C....MacKey J. (Br. J. Haematol. 1999)
    37. Direct evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance of Arg24 to termination codon in purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene in a family with a severe combined immunodeficiency patient. (PubMed id 9737781)1, 9 Sasaki Y....Yamashita R. (Hum. Genet. 1998)
    38. Mutations in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 9067751)1, 9 Markert M.L....Ward F.E. (Hum. Mutat. 1997)
    39. The HECT type ubiquitin ligase NEDL2 is degraded by anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-Cdh1, and its tight regulation maintains the metaphase to anaphase transition. (PubMed id 24163370)1 Lu L....Zhang L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    40. The proteomic analysis of endogenous FAT10 substrates identifies p62/SQSTM1 as a substrate of FAT10ylation. (PubMed id 22797925)1 Aichem A....Groettrup M. (J. Cell. Sci. 2012)
    41. Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-I+-acetylation features. (PubMed id 22223895)2 Bienvenut W.V....Giglione C. (amp 2012)
    42. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    43. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    44. The interaction between ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 and glucose-regulated protein 78 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 21800051)1 Fang Y....Shen X. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2012)
    45. Proteomic analysis of I+4I^1 integrin adhesion complexes reveals I+-subunit-dependent protein recruitment. (PubMed id 22623428)1 Byron A....Humphries M.J. (Proteomics 2012)
    46. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    47. A high-throughput approach for measuring temporal changes in the interactome. (PubMed id 22863883)1 Kristensen A.R....Foster L.J. (Nat. Methods 2012)
    48. Proteome-wide identification of ubiquitylation sites by conjugation of engineered lysine-less ubiquitin. (PubMed id 22053931)1 Oshikawa K....Nakayama K.I. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    49. T- and B-cell defects in a novel purine nucleoside phosphorylase mutation. (PubMed id 22578971)1 Somech R....Etzioni A. (J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2012)
    50. Functional proteomics establishes the interaction of SIRT7 with chromatin remodeling complexes and expands its role in regulation of RNA polymerase I transcription. (PubMed id 22586326)1 Tsai Y.C.... Cristea I.M. (Mol. Cell. Proteomics 2012)
    51. Assessment of the red cell proteome of young patients with unexplained hemolytic anemia by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). (PubMed id 22509282)2 von Lohneysen K.... Friedman J.S. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    52. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    53. Arsenate and phosphate as nucleophiles at the transition states of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 21348499)1 Silva R.G....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2011)
    54. Global identification of modular cullin-RING ligase substrates. (PubMed id 21963094)1 Emanuele M.J....Elledge S.J. (Cell 2011)
    55. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    56. An important role for CDK2 in G1 to S checkpoint activation and DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells. (PubMed id 21319273)1 Neganova I....Lako M. (Stem Cells 2011)
    57. Metabolites of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (NP) in serum have the potential to delineate pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (PubMed id 21448452)1 Vareed S.K....Sreekumar A. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    58. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency: a mutation update. (PubMed id 22132981)1 Walker P.L....Marinaki A. (amp 2011)
    59. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    60. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    61. Genetic polymorphism of As3MT and delayed urinary DMA excretion after organic arsenic intake from oyster ingestion. (PubMed id 20532380)1 Hwang Y.H....Yuan T.H. (J Environ Monit 2010)
    62. Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. (PubMed id 19413330)2 Gauci S....Mohammed S. (Anal. Chem. 2009)
    63. Loop-tryptophan human purine nucleoside phosphorylase reveals submillisecond protein dynamics. (PubMed id 19191546)1 Ghanem M....Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2009)
    64. Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes. (PubMed id 19056867)1 Gonzales P.A....Knepper M.A. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2009)
    65. Nicotinamide riboside and nicotinic acid riboside salvage in fungi and mammals. Quantitative basis for Urh1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase function in NAD+ metabolism. (PubMed id 19001417)1 Belenky P....Brenner C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    66. Atomic detail of chemical transformation at the transition state of an enzymatic reaction. (PubMed id 18946041)1 Saen-Oon S....Schwartz S.D. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    67. Quantitative analysis of global ubiquitination in HeLa cells by mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 18781797)1 Meierhofer D.... Kaiser P. (J. Proteome Res. 2008)
    68. How many drug targets are there? (PubMed id 17139284)7 Overington J.P....Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    69. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PubMed id 17016423)7 Imming P....Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006)
    70. A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome. (PubMed id 16169070)1 Stelzl U.... Wanker E.E. (Cell 2005)
    71. Large-scale analysis of the human ubiquitin-related proteome. (PubMed id 16196087)1 Matsumoto M....Nakayama K.I. (Proteomics 2005)
    72. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase: crystal structures, immucillin inhibitors, and dual catalytic function. (PubMed id 14982926)7 Shi W....Schramm V.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    73. Identification of Ca2+-dependent binding partners for the neuronal calcium sensor protein neurocalcin delta: interaction with actin, clathrin and tubulin. (PubMed id 11964161)1 Ivings L....Burgoyne R.D. (Biochem. J. 2002)
    74. TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. (PubMed id 11752352)7 Chen X....Chen Y.Z. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002)
    75. Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA. (PubMed id 12068295)1 Falkenberg M....Gustafsson C.M. (Nat. Genet. 2002)
    76. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    77. A DNA enzyme with N-glycosylase activity. (PubMed id 10884411)1 Sheppard T.L....Joyce G.F. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2000)
    78. The Protein Data Bank. (PubMed id 10592235)7 Berman H.M....Bourne P.E. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2000)
    79. 2-Chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) and its analogues are good substrates and potent selective inhibitors of Escherichia coli purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 8521855)7 Bzowska A. and Kazimierczuk Z. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1995)
    80. Changes in sensitivity to anticancer drugs during TPA-induced cellular differentiation in a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MOLT-4). (PubMed id 3260648)7 Takimoto T....Mikawa H. (Leukemia 1988)
    81. Possible metabolic basis for the different immunodeficient states associated with genetic deficiencies of adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 6808516)7 Carson D.A....Kamatani N. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1982)
    82. Characterization of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human granulocytes and its metabolism of deoxyribonucleosides. (PubMed id 6771276)1 Wiginton D.A....Hutton J.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1980)
    83. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (PubMed id 100152)1 Borgers M....Geuens G. (Blood 1978)
    84. Lentivirus gene therapy for purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 18924118)9 Liao P....Grunebaum E. (J Gene Med 2008)
    85. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase: a comparison with the human enzyme reveals a conserved topology. (PubMed id 9351810)9 Mao C....Ealick S.E. (Structure 1997)
    86. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with substrates and substrate analogues. (PubMed id 9585525)9 Mao C....Ealick S.E. (Biochemistry 1998)
    87. Intron requirement for expression of the human purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene. (PubMed id 1620616)9 Jonsson J.J....McIvor R.S. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1992)
    88. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of functional human purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12509998)9 Silva R.G....Santos D.S. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2003)
    89. Transition state analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Plasmodium falciparum. (PubMed id 11707439)9 Kicska G.A....Schramm V.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    90. Arsenate reduction in human erythrocytes and rats--testing the role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12730608)9 Nemeti B....Gregus Z. (Toxicol. Sci. 2003)
    91. Adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia: relation with differentiation stage, in vitro drug resistance and clinical prognosis. (PubMed id 1593902)9 Pieters R....Veerman A.J. (Leukemia 1992)
    92. PNP anticancer gene therapy. (PubMed id 16305530)9 Zhang Y....Ealick S.E. (Curr Top Med Chem 2005)
    93. Calcitonin-specific transcription and splicing targets gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 12629124)9 Messina M....Robinson B.G. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2003)
    94. Achieving the ultimate physiological goal in transition state analogue inhibitors for purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 12842889)9 Lewandowicz A....Schramm V.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    95. A novel mutation in purine nucleoside phosphorylase in a child with normal uric acid levels. (PubMed id 19733163)9 Al-Saud B....Al-Mousa H. (Clin. Biochem. 2009)
    96. Identification of a subversive substrate of Trichomonas vaginalis purine nucleoside phosphorylase and the crystal structure of the enzyme-substrate complex. (PubMed id 15817485)9 Zang Y....Wang C.C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)
    97. Transition state analysis for human and Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylases. (PubMed id 14769022)9 Lewandowicz A. and Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 2004)
    98. Purine-less death in Plasmodium falciparum induced by immucillin-H, a transition state analogue of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 11706018)9 Kicska G.A....Kim K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    99. The purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Trichomonas vaginalis is a homologue of the bacterial enzyme. (PubMed id 12173924)9 Munagala N. and Wang C.C. (Biochemistry 2002)
    100. Arsenate reductase II. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase in the presence of dihydrolipoic acid is a route for reduction of arsenate to arsenite in mammalian systems. (PubMed id 12018991)9 Radabaugh T.R....Aposhian H.V. (Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2002)
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    364. Purine deoxynucleoside metabolism in human melanoma cells with a high spontaneous mutation rate. (PubMed id 8657185)9 Musk P....Parsons P.G. (Mutat. Res. 1996)
    365. Liquid-chromatographic study of purine metabolism abnormalities in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PubMed id 8595732)9 Chantin C....Bory C. (Clin. Chem. 1996)
    366. Guanine, pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, and triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine (8-azaguanine) phosphonate acyclic derivatives as inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 8632418)9 Beauchamp L.M....Sznaidman M.L. (J. Med. Chem. 1996)
    367. [Inherited disorders of uric acid metabolism--classification, enzymatic- and DNA-diagnosis]. (PubMed id 8976110)9 Iwahana H. and Itakura M. (Nippon Rinsho 1996)
    368. A spectrophotometric method to measure enzymatic activity in reactions that generate inorganic pyrophosphate. (PubMed id 8954523)9 Upson R.H....Haugland R.P. (Anal. Biochem. 1996)
    369. Purine enzyme activities in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: are there differences between patients and healthy controls? (PubMed id 8984938)9 Stolk J.N....van de Putte L.B. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1996)
    370. Marked hypouricemia in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency--serendipitous finding on screen. (PubMed id 8665699)9 Timms P.M....Bold A.M. (Clin. Chem. 1996)
    371. Enzyme sensors for determination of fish freshness. (PubMed id 18966489)9 Volpe G. and Mascini M. (Talanta 1996)
    372. Continuous monitoring of Pi release following nucleotide hydrolysis in actin or tubulin assembly using 2-amino-6-mercapto-7-methylpurine ribonucleoside and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase as an enzyme-linked assay. (PubMed id 8810908)9 Melki R....Carlier M.F. (Biochemistry 1996)
    373. Developmental changes in purine nucleotide metabolism in cultured rat astroglia. (PubMed id 8770661)9 Zoref-Shani E....Sperling O. (Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 1995)
    374. Chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation between purine metabolism enzyme activities and membrane immunophenotype. (PubMed id 7617076)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (Neoplasma 1995)
    375. Characterization of the deoxycytidine kinase promoter in human lymphoblast cell lines. (PubMed id 7706474)9 Chen E.H....Mitchell B.S. (J. Clin. Invest. 1995)
    376. Purine enzyme activities in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a new non-radiochemical high-performance liquid chromatography procedure and a radiochemical thin-layer chromatography procedure. (PubMed id 7655619)9 Stolk J.N....van de Putte L.B. (J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. 1995)
    377. Kinetics of adenylate metabolism in human and rat myocardium. (PubMed id 7599155)9 Tavenier Jong J.W. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1995)
    378. Demonstration of induction of erythrocyte inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in Ribavirin-treated patients using a high performance liquid chromatography linked method. (PubMed id 7586576)9 Montero C....Morgan G. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 1995)
    379. 2-Amino-6-methoxypurine arabinoside: an agent for T-cell malignancies. (PubMed id 7614470)9 Lambe C.U....Krenitsky T.A. (Cancer Res. 1995)
    380. Relationship between early liver graft viability and enzyme activities in effluent preservation solution. (PubMed id 7570966)9 Devlin J....Williams R. (Transplantation 1995)
    381. A comparison of some leucocyte differentiation markers and the adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase values in B and T cell leukemias and lymphomas. (PubMed id 8592572)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (Neoplasma 1995)
    382. Enzyme histochemical studies on tumor blood vessels. (PubMed id 11322303)9 Gerzeli G....Bertone V. (Ital J Anat Embryol 1995)
    383. Erythroid differentiation and growth inhibition of K562 cells by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine: synergism with interferon-alpha. (PubMed id 7500653)9 Ogawa K....Okuma M. (Leuk. Res. 1995)
    384. 5-Iodo-2'-deoxy-L-uridine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxy-L-uridine: selective phosphorylation by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase, antiherpetic activity, and cytotoxicity studies. (PubMed id 7603465)9 Spadari S....Tondelli L. (Mol. Pharmacol. 1995)
    385. A broadly applicable continuous spectrophotometric assay for measuring aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity. (PubMed id 7659511)9 Lloyd A.J....SAPll D. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1995)
    386. Pre-steady-state transition-state analysis of the hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 7827065)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 1995)
    387. Azathioprine-related bone marrow toxicity and low activities of purine enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed id 7818564)9 Kerstens P.J....Boerbooms A.A. (Arthritis Rheum. 1995)
    388. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for protein phosphatases. (PubMed id 7785781)9 Cheng Q....Killilea S.D. (Anal. Biochem. 1995)
    389. Enzymatic preparation of [2,4,5,6,8-14C, 5'-3H]guanosine for use in biosynthetic studies of pterinoid and flavin compounds. (PubMed id 8074301)9 Irby R. and Adair W.L. (Anal. Biochem. 1994)
    390. Potentiating effect of (2-[2-[(2-amino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-9H-purin-9-yl)methyl]-phenyl]ethenyl) -phosphonic acid (MDL 74,428), a potent inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, on the antiretroviral activities of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine combined with ribavirin in mice. (PubMed id 8053921)9 Weibel M....Mamont P. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1994)
    391. Purine enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis: possible association with response to azathioprine. A pilot study. (PubMed id 7979599)9 Kerstens P.J....van de Putte L.B. (Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1994)
    392. Normal uric acid concentrations in a purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficient child presenting with severe chicken pox, possible immunodeficiency and developmental delay. (PubMed id 7544949)9 Hallett R.J....Simmonds H.A. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1994)
    393. A continuous visible spectrophotometric assay for aspartate transcarbamylase. (PubMed id 8074305)9 Wedler F.C....Moyer M.L. (Anal. Biochem. 1994)
    394. Enzymes of purine salvage and catabolism in the mouse preimplantation embryo measured by high performance liquid chromatography. (PubMed id 8064675)9 Alexiou M. and Leese H.J. (J. Reprod. Fertil. 1994)
    395. A continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of glycogen phosphorylase-catalyzed reaction in the direction of glycogen synthesis. (PubMed id 7810877)9 Sergienko E.A. and Srivastava D.K. (Anal. Biochem. 1994)
    396. Regulation of gene expression of adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase by dexamethasone and cAMP in human leukemic cells. (PubMed id 7660900)9 FernA!ndez-Mejia C....Madrid-Marina V. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1994)
    397. Leishmania major-like parasite, a pathogenic agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paraguay. (PubMed id 7810807)9 Yamasaki H....Aoki T. (Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1994)
    398. Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14. (PubMed id 8188219)9 Huppi K....Mischak H. (Genomics 1994)
    399. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism in human gliomas: relation to chromosomal aberrations. (PubMed id 8054268)9 Bardot V....Luccioni C. (Br. J. Cancer 1994)
    400. Nucleotide and adenosine metabolism in different cell types of human and rat heart. (PubMed id 7897672)9 Kochan Z....Seymour A.L. (J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1994)
    401. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 4. A study of phosphate mimics. (PubMed id 8164252)9 Guida W.C....Montgomery J.A. (J. Med. Chem. 1994)
    402. Multilocus enzyme typing of human and animal strains of Clostridium perfringens. (PubMed id 8082823)9 Pons J.L....Leluan G. (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 1994)
    403. [Adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) in lympho- and myeloproliferative disorders]. (PubMed id 7746892)9 Warzocha K....Robak T. (Prz. Lek. 1994)
    404. Tumor cell bystander killing in colonic carcinoma utilizing the Escherichia coli DeoD gene to generate toxic purines. (PubMed id 7584086)9 Sorscher E.J....Parker W.B. (Gene Ther. 1994)
    405. Formation and breakdown of uridine in ischemic hearts of rats and humans. (PubMed id 8441182)9 SmoleA8ski R.T....Yacoub M.H. (J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1993)
    406. Kinetic determination of serum adenosine deaminase. (PubMed id 8403405)9 Oosthuizen H.M....Bissbort S.H. (Clin. Chem. 1993)
    407. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 1. 9-(arylmethyl) derivatives of 9-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 8421291)9 Montgomery J.A....Ealick S.E. (J. Med. Chem. 1993)
    408. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 3. 9-Arylmethyl derivatives of 9-deazaguanine substituted on the methylene group. (PubMed id 8254607)9 Erion M.D....Ealick S.E. (J. Med. Chem. 1993)
    409. Structure-based design of inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. 2. 9-Alicyclic and 9-heteroalicyclic derivatives of 9-deazaguanine. (PubMed id 8515423)9 Secrist J.A....Montgomery J.A. (J. Med. Chem. 1993)
    410. Cloning and gene map assignment of the Xiphophorus DNA ligase 1 gene. (PubMed id 7904041)9 Walter R.B....Nairn R.S. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 1993)
    411. Acute myeloid leukemia: correlation between purine metabolism enzyme activities and membrane immunophenotype. (PubMed id 8289964)9 MesA!rosovA! A....BabusA-kovA! O. (Neoplasma 1993)
    412. Overview of biochemical abnormalities and molecular genetics of adenosine deaminase deficiency. (PubMed id 8433873)9 Hirschhorn R. (Pediatr. Res. 1993)
    413. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N4-substituted imidazo- and v-triazolo[4,5-d]pyridazine nucleosides. (PubMed id 8258836)9 Bussolari J.C....Panzica R.P. (J. Med. Chem. 1993)
    414. PD 141955 and CI-972: 9-deazaguanine analog purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors. II. Effects on nucleoside catabolism in human and rat blood in vitro. (PubMed id 8273600)9 Dong M.K. and Gilbertsen R.B. (Agents Actions 1993)
    415. The H2O2 induced effects on purine metabolism in human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 8138186)9 Griesmacher A....Mueller M.M. (amp 1993)
    416. Activities of two 9-deazaguanine analogue inhibitors of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, CI-972 and PD 141955, in vitro and in vivo. (PubMed id 8363228)9 Gilbertsen R.B....Conroy M.C. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1993)
    417. Novel 6-alkoxypurine 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides as inhibitors of the cytopathic effect of the human immunodeficiency virus. (PubMed id 8426365)9 Burns C.L....Koszalka G.W. (J. Med. Chem. 1993)
    418. Analysis of purine metabolic enzymes in human CD4 Leu 8- and CD4 Leu 8+ lymphocyte subpopulations. (PubMed id 8444317)9 Fernandez-Mejia C....Madrid-Marina V. (Int. J. Biochem. 1993)
    419. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Catalytic mechanism and transition-state analysis of the arsenolysis reaction. (PubMed id 8241176)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 1993)
    420. [Retinoic acid induces differentiation of human T lymphocytic leukemia CCRF-CEM cells]. (PubMed id 8174476)9 Lin J.Q. (Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 1993)
    421. Efficacy and toxicity of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG) as an agent to purge malignant T cells from murine bone marrow: application to an in vivo T-leukemia model. (PubMed id 8350627)9 Gravatt L.C....Kurtzberg J. (Leukemia 1993)
    422. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Kinetic mechanism of the enzyme from calf spleen. (PubMed id 1559977)9 Porter D.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1992)
    423. Cockayne's syndrome fibroblasts are characterized by hypersensitivity to deoxyguanosine and abnormal DNA precursor pool metabolism in response to deoxyguanosine or ultraviolet light. (PubMed id 1475705)9 Squires S....Johnson R.T. (Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 1992)
    424. Purine salvage as a metabolite and energy saving mechanism in the ocular lens. (PubMed id 1606839)9 Cappiello M....Ipata P.L. (Curr. Eye Res. 1992)
    425. Species differences in adenosine metabolic sites in the heart. (PubMed id 1506236)9 Borgers M. and ThonAc F. (Histochem. J. 1992)
    426. Metabolism of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in human blood. (PubMed id 1576055)9 Back D.J....Macleod R. (Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992)
    427. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for inorganic phosphate and for measuring phosphate release kinetics in biological systems. (PubMed id 1534409)9 Webb M.R. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992)
    428. The enzymatic synthesis of antiviral agents. (PubMed id 1368058)9 Hanrahan J.R. and Hutchinson D.W. (J. Biotechnol. 1992)
    429. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolysis, tight binding of the hypoxanthine intermediate, and third-the-sites reactivity. (PubMed id 1627539)9 Kline P.C. and Schramm V.L. (Biochemistry 1992)
    430. Metabolic fate of hypoxanthine and inosine in cultured cardiomyocytes. (PubMed id 1583701)9 Zoref-Shani E....Sperling O. (J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 1992)
    431. Acquired T cell specific deficiency other than acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (PubMed id 1568029)9 Saiki O....Kishimoto S. (Intern. Med. 1992)
    432. Syntenic conservation of HSP70 genes in cattle and humans. (PubMed id 1478667)9 Grosz M.D....Skow L.C. (Genomics 1992)
    433. Interaction of GTPase-activating protein with p21ras, measured using a continuous assay for inorganic phosphate release. (PubMed id 1445214)9 Webb M.R. and Hunter J.L. (Biochem. J. 1992)
    434. Regulation of GTP biosynthesis. (PubMed id 1353938)9 Weber G....Nagai M. (Adv. Enzyme Regul. 1992)
    435. [Chromosome abnormalities and adenine metabolism in human glial tumors]. (PubMed id 1448660)9 Bardot V....Dutrillaux B. (Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 1992)
    436. Characterization of three T-lymphoid cell lines with distinct sensitivities to deoxyadenosine plus deoxycoformycin. (PubMed id 1373528)9 Duan D.S....Cowan M.J. (Thymus 1992)
    437. Purine metabolism enzyme pattern, cytochemical characteristics and clinicopathologic features of CD10-positive childhood T-cell leukemia. (PubMed id 1837333)9 BabusA-kovA! O....KonA-kovA! E. (Neoplasma 1991)
    438. Acyclonucleoside analogue inhibitors of mammalian purine nucleoside phosphorylase. (PubMed id 1903945)9 Bzowska A....Johansson N.G. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1991)
    439. Evidence that X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is not a differentiation defect of T lymphocytes. (PubMed id 1988230)9 Goodship J....Levinsky R.J. (Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1991)
    440. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase from human erythrocytes: a kinetic study of the fully separated isoenzymes. (PubMed id 1768259)9 Accorsi A....Fazi A. (Biochem. Int. 1991)
    441. [Hypouricemia and cellular immunodeficiency associated with purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency]. (PubMed id 1929018)9 GarcA-a AmorA-n Z....LA^pez Sastre J. (An. Esp. Pediatr. 1991)
    442. Purine catabolites in cerebral interstitial fluid during progression of and recovery from ischemia. (PubMed id 1715045)9 Morimoto K....Mogami H. (Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) 1991)
    443. Uridine and purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in human and rat heart. (PubMed id 1781364)9 de Jong J.W....Yacoub M.H. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1991)
    444. Activities of purine catabolism related enzymes in zinc deficiency: relationship to T-lymphocyte dysfunction and hyperammonemia. (PubMed id 1906845)9 Cossack Z.T. and Prasad A.S. (Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1991)
    445. Purifications and properties of orotidine-phosphorolyzing enzyme and purine nucleoside phosphorylase from Erwinia carotovora AJ 2992. (PubMed id 1368721)9 Shirae H. and Yokozeki K. (Agric. Biol. Chem. 1991)
    446. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of CI-972, a novel 9-deazaguanine analog purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) inhibitor. (PubMed id 1789255)9 Gilbertsen R.B....Conroy M.C. (Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 1991)
    447. Purine catabolism in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Phorbol myristate acetate-induced accumulation of adenosine owing to inactivation of extracellularly released adenosine deaminase. (PubMed id 1898656)9 van Waeg G. and Van den Berghe G. (J. Clin. Invest. 1991)
    448. Theophylline-induced increase in plasma uric acid--purine catabolism increased by theophylline. (PubMed id 1889911)9 Yamamoto T....Higashino K. (Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1991)
    449. A Japanese family pedigree of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease with X-linked inheritance. (PubMed id 1920912)9 Minegishi M....Konno T. (Jinrui Idengaku Zasshi 1991)
    450. Determination of purine nucleosides and their bases by high-performance liquid chromatography using co-immobilized enzyme reactors. (PubMed id 2117020)9 Kito M....Hirose S. (J. Chromatogr. 1990)
    451. The release of adenosine at the electric organ of Torpedo. A study using a continuous chemiluminescent method. (PubMed id 2325827)9 Solsona C....SaltA^ C. (Neurochem. Res. 1990)
    452. The metabolism of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine in CEM cells. (PubMed id 2405846)9 Karlsson A....Eckstein F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1990)

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    Entrez Gene: 4860 HGNC: 7892 AceView: NP Ensembl:ENSG00000198805 euGenes: HUgn4860
    ECgene: PNP Kegg: 4860 H-InvDB: PNP

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