Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PNMT Gene

Aliases for PNMT Gene

  • Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase 2 3 5
  • Noradrenaline N-Methyltransferase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • PNMTase 3 4
  • PENT 3 4
  • Phenylethanolamine N-Methylase 3
  • EC 2.1.1 61

External Ids for PNMT Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PNMT Gene

  • PENT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PNMT Gene

  • GC17P037324
  • GC17P039822
  • GC17P037734
  • GC17P038199
  • GC17P035078
  • GC17P037824
  • GC17P033618

Summaries for PNMT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PNMT Gene

  • The product of this gene catalyzes the last step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway, which methylates norepinephrine to form epinephrine (adrenaline). The enzyme also has beta-carboline 2N-methyltransferase activity. This gene is thought to play a key step in regulating epinephrine production. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GeneCards Summary for PNMT Gene

PNMT (Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PNMT include Carbuncle and Extra-Adrenal Pheochromocytoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Amine-derived hormones. GO annotations related to this gene include methyltransferase activity and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is NNMT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNMT Gene

  • Converts noradrenaline to adrenaline.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PNMT Gene

Genomics for PNMT Gene

Regulatory Elements for PNMT Gene

Enhancers for PNMT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17F039630 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.6 -35.0 -34999 4.0 PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 RAD21 ETS1 YY1 ZNF121 GLIS2 SCRT2 ZNF143 PGAP3 STARD3 TCAP PNMT NEUROD2 RNU6-233P ERBB2 PPP1R1B
GH17F039090 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 5.6 -572.6 -572554 10.5 ZFP64 ZBTB40 RAD21 RARA SCRT2 EGR2 CEBPB REST ZNF518A ZNF623 PLXDC1 ENSG00000275532 LRRC37A11P ENSG00000275665 ENSG00000266469 SNORA21 LOC100287808 MED1 PNMT ENSG00000252699
GH17F039626 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 5.1 -39.5 -39450 4.5 PKNOX1 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF121 GLIS2 SCRT2 EGR2 CEBPB MIER3 KLF16 STARD3 PPP1R1B PGAP3 RAPGEFL1 PNMT
GH17F039363 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 4.9 -303.2 -303207 3.7 CEBPB DPF2 ZBTB40 GABPA ARID1B CREB3 ZNF316 ZNF318 IKZF1 CUX1 PGAP3 ENSG00000214546 PNMT STARD3 GC17P039362 GC17M039369
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PNMT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PNMT Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001345745 119 1001 HDGF CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF143 KLF13

Genomic Location for PNMT Gene

39,667,981 bp from pter
39,670,475 bp from pter
2,495 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PNMT Gene

Genes around PNMT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PNMT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PNMT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PNMT Gene

Proteins for PNMT Gene

  • Protein details for PNMT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for PNMT Gene

    282 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30855 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PNMT Gene

neXtProt entry for PNMT Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PNMT Gene


Post-translational modifications for PNMT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PNMT Gene

Domains & Families for PNMT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PNMT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class I-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. NNMT/PNMT/TEMT family.
  • Belongs to the class I-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. NNMT/PNMT/TEMT family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PNMT: view

No data available for Gene Families for PNMT Gene

Function for PNMT Gene

Molecular function for PNMT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=99 uM for phenylethanolamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16363801}; KM=3.4 uM for S-adenosyl-L-methionine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16363801};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phenylethanolamine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N-methylphenylethanolamine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Converts noradrenaline to adrenaline.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PNMT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PNMT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004603 phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0008168 methyltransferase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNMT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PNMT: view

Animal Models for PNMT Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PNMT:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PNMT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PNMT

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PNMT Gene

Localization for PNMT Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PNMT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PNMT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNMT: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNMT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PNMT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PNMT: view

Pathways by source for PNMT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P11086-PNMT_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Catecholamine biosynthesis; (R)-adrenaline biosynthesis; (R)-adrenaline from (R)-noradrenaline: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PNMT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0032259 methylation IEA --
GO:0042418 epinephrine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0042423 catecholamine biosynthetic process IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNMT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PNMT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PNMT Gene

(34) Drugs for PNMT Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 933
Norepinephrine Approved Pharma 683
S-Adenosylmethionine Approved Nutra 0
s-adenosylhomocysteine Experimental Pharma Target 0
(1R)-2-amino-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol Experimental Pharma Target 0

(11) Additional Compounds for PNMT Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 2-Amino-1-phenyl-1-ethanol
  • 2-Amino-1-phenylethanol
  • 2-Amino-1-phenylethanol-1
  • 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethylamine
  • 2-Phenyl-2-hydroxyethylamine
  • (+-)-alpha-((Methylamino)methyl)benzenemethanol
  • (+-)-Halostachine
  • 2-(Methylamino)-1-phenylethanol
  • 2-Methylamino-1-phenylethanol
  • alpha-((Methylamino)methyl)-dl-Benzyl alcohol

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PNMT Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LY 78335 39959-66-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PNMT: view

Transcripts for PNMT Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PNMT Gene

Unigene Clusters for PNMT Gene

Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PNMT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PNMT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PNMT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PNMT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PNMT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x6.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PNMT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (67.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PNMT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PNMT Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PNMT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PNMT Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PNMT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PNMT Gene

Orthologs for PNMT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PNMT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PNMT 34 35
  • 99.17 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PNMT 34 35
  • 89.14 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PNMT 34 35
  • 88.17 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pnmt 34 16 35
  • 83.03 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pnmt 34
  • 82.73 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PNMT 35
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PNMT 35
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PNMT 34 35
  • 67.84 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PNMT 35
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pnmt 34
  • 66.02 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100332609 34
  • 52.94 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea anmt-2 35
  • 26 (a)
anmt-1 35
  • 22 (a)
anmt-3 35
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PNMT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PNMT Gene

Gene Tree for PNMT (if available)
Gene Tree for PNMT (if available)

Paralogs for PNMT Gene

Paralogs for PNMT Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PNMT Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PNMT: view

Variants for PNMT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PNMT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs149585781 Pathogenic 39,666,063(+) ACTTC(A/G)TCGCT upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs773317399 Pathogenic 39,666,015(+) GATCA(A/C/T)AAAGC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs147503632 Uncertain significance 39,665,994(+) GGACC(A/G)CCAGG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs374886575 Uncertain significance 39,665,993(+) TGGAC(A/C/T)GCCAG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs397516863 Uncertain significance 39,666,077(+) TGTCC(A/C)GCTCC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PNMT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv574991 CNV loss 21841781
nsv528093 CNV loss 19592680
nsv516757 CNV loss 19592680
nsv457738 CNV loss 19166990
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv1070403 CNV deletion 25765185
dgv40n68 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PNMT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 64.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.22; 24.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PNMT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNMT Gene

Disorders for PNMT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for PNMT Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • carbuncle and furuncle of any part of face except eye
extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma
  • extraadrenal pheochromocytoma
von hippel-lindau syndrome
  • von hippel-lindau syndrome, modifier of
multiple endocrine neoplasia
  • multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
critical illness polyneuropathy
  • polyneuropathy, critical illness
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PNMT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PNMT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PNMT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PNMT Gene

Publications for PNMT Gene

  1. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms and adverse outcomes in acute kidney injury. (PMID: 20090367) Alam A. … Jaber B.L. (Nephron Clin Pract 2010) 3 22 46 64
  2. Human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase genetic polymorphisms and exercise-induced epinephrine release. (PMID: 18349382) Ji Y. … Weinshilboum R.M. (Physiol. Genomics 2008) 3 22 46 64
  3. The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis. (PMID: 18937842) Oades R.D. … Asherson P. (Behav Brain Funct 2008) 3 22 46 64
  4. Association study between reward dependence temperament and a polymorphism in the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in a Japanese female population. (PMID: 18702937) Yamano E. … Kosugi S. (Compr Psychiatry 2008) 3 22 46 64
  5. Effects of functional polymorphisms related to catecholaminergic systems on changes in blood catecholamine and cardiovascular measures after alcohol ingestion in the Japanese population. (PMID: 18715275) Nishimura F.T. … Saijoh K. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2008) 3 22 46 64

Products for PNMT Gene

Sources for PNMT Gene

Loading form....