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PLK4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC04P128802

Polo-Like Kinase 4

(Previous names: serine/threonine kinase 18, polo-like kinase 4 (Drosophila))
(Previous symbol: STK18)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Polo-Like Kinase 41 2 3     PLK-42 3
STK181 2 3 5     Polo-Like Kinase 4 (Drosophila)1
SAK2 3 5     Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase SAK2
Serine/Threonine Kinase 181 2     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PLK42
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 182 3     Snk Akin Kinase2
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase Sak2 3     EC 2.7.11.213

External Ids:    HGNC: 113971   Entrez Gene: 107332   Ensembl: ENSG000001427317   OMIM: 6050315   UniProtKB: O004443   

Export aliases for PLK4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P129260 GC04P129159 GC04P129021 GC04P124529


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PLK4 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to
centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during
the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been
found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PLK4 Gene:
PLK4 (polo-like kinase 4) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a central role in centriole duplication. Able to trigger
procentriole formation on the surface of the parental centriole cylinder, leading to the recruitment of centriole
biogenesis proteins such as SASS6, CENPJ/CPAP, CCP110, CEP135 and gamma-tubulin. When overexpressed, it is able
to induce centrosome amplification through the simultaneous generation of multiple procentrioles adjoining each
parental centriole during S phase. Phosphorylates 'Ser-151' of FBXW5 during the G1/S transition, leading to
inhibit FBXW5 ability to ubiquitinate SASS6. Its central role in centriole replication suggests a possible role
in tumorigenesis, centrosome aberrations being frequently observed in tumors. Also involved in
deuterosome-mediated centriole amplification in multiciliated that can generate more than 100 centrioles. Also
involved in trophoblast differentiation by phosphorylating HAND1, leading to disrupt the interaction between
HAND1 and MDFIC and activate HAND1. Phosphorylates CDC25C and CHEK2

Gene Wiki entry for PLK4 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.20  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLK4 gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   AML1a   Sp1   NF-E2 p45   CREB   deltaCREB   Pax-4a   NF-E2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPLK4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PLK4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PLK4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q28   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q28.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q27-q28

PLK4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLK4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P128802:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
128,802,016 bp from pter      End:
128,820,379 bp from pter
Size:
18,364 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4  
Size: 970 amino acids; 108972 Da
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity). Interacts with CEP152 (via N-terminus)
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for PLK4:
3COK (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RAL0 B7Z837 B7Z8G7 Q8IYF0 Q96Q95 Q9UD84 Q9UDE2
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  O00444-1   O00444-2   O00444-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLK4: NX_O00444

Explore proteomics data for PLK4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitinated; leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity)1
  • Tyrosine-phosphorylated by TEC1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PLK4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001177728.1  NP_001177730.1  NP_055079.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000270861   ENSP00000421774   ENSP00000427554   ENSP00000423412   ENSP00000423582  
     ENSP00000427568  
    Reactome Protein details: O00444

    PLK4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PLK4

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PLK4 (2 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PLK4

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: polo-like kinase 4
    Polo-like kinase (PLK) family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom
     IPR000959 POLO_box_duplicated_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O00444

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O00444

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB008266 Tyrosine protein kinase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 POLO box domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
    Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a central role in centriole duplication. Able to trigger
    procentriole formation on the surface of the parental centriole cylinder, leading to the recruitment of centriole
    biogenesis proteins such as SASS6, CENPJ/CPAP, CCP110, CEP135 and gamma-tubulin. When overexpressed, it is able
    to induce centrosome amplification through the simultaneous generation of multiple procentrioles adjoining each
    parental centriole during S phase. Phosphorylates 'Ser-151' of FBXW5 during the G1/S transition, leading to
    inhibit FBXW5 ability to ubiquitinate SASS6. Its central role in centriole replication suggests a possible role
    in tumorigenesis, centrosome aberrations being frequently observed in tumors. Also involved in
    deuterosome-mediated centriole amplification in multiciliated that can generate more than 100 centrioles. Also
    involved in trophoblast differentiation by phosphorylating HAND1, leading to disrupt the interaction between
    HAND1 and MDFIC and activate HAND1. Phosphorylates CDC25C and CHEK2
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Induction: Down-regulated in HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells, leading to aberrant centrioles composed of
    disorganized cylindrical microtubules and displaced appendages. Down-regulated by p53/TP53

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.211

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS--
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16189514
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PLK4:
     Decreased substrate adherent c  Increased mitotic index  Reduced beta-catenin activity  

         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Plk4):
     cellular  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  reproductive system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Plk4tm1Jwd for PLK4

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PLK4

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PLK4:
    hsa-mir-215-5p (MIRT024738), hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026169)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLK4 using miScript Target Protectors
    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PLK4:
    hsa-miR-3163 hsa-miR-2117 hsa-miR-3662
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLK4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PLK4_HUMAN, O00444: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole. Nucleus,
    nucleolus (By similarity). Cleavage furrow. Note=Component of the deuterosome, a structure that promotes de novo
    centriole amplification in multiciliated cells that can generate more than 100 centrioles. Associates with
    centrioles throughout the cell cycle. According to PubMed:16244668, it is not present at cleavage furrows
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    cytosol4
    nucleus4
    extracellular1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005730nucleolus ISS--
    GO:0005813centrosome IDA--
    GO:0005814centriole IDA16244668
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0032154cleavage furrow IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PLK4 About   (see all 7)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1FoxO signaling pathway
    FoxO signaling pathway
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle0.00
    PLK2 and PLK4 events0.00
    2Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.86
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition0.77
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.86
    G2/M Transition0.70
    Centrosome maturation0.86
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.69
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome0.86
    3Cell Cycle, Mitotic
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic0.90
    Cell Cycle0.90
    4Sweet Taste Signaling
    Sperm Motility0.37
    5Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control
    Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control0.32


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PLK4
        Sperm Motility

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PLK4
        Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control

    3 BioSystems Pathways for PLK4
        RB in Cancer
    PLK2 and PLK4 events
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle


    4 Reactome Pathways for PLK4
        Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization,from the centrosome
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for PLK4):
        FoxO signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PLK4: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PLK4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PLK4 (O004441, 2, 3 ENSP000002708614) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 231)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SFNP319471, 2, 3, ENSP000003409894EBI-746202,EBI-476295 MINT-66797 I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000340989
    CHD3Q128732, 3, ENSP000003697164MINT-8267008 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000369716
    CENPJQ9HC772, 3, ENSP000003713084MINT-7994553 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000371308
    MTUS2Q5JR592, 3MINT-67204 I2D: score=5 
    ENSG00000168452Q9UMR53I2D: score=5 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation TAS10607900
    GO:0007099centriole replication IMP--
    GO:0046601positive regulation of centriole replication IMP16244668

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
    8 ApexBio Compounds for PLK4     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    BI 2536PLK1 inhibitor[755038-02-9]
    BI6727 (Volasertib)highly potent Polo-like kinase inhibitor[755038-65-4]
    GSK461364inhibits purified Plk1[929095-18-1]
    GW843682Xselective inhibitor of PLK1 and PLK3[660868-91-7]
    HMN-214potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase (Plk)[173529-46-9]
    MLN0905small-molecule PLK1 inhibitor[1228960-69-7]
    Poloxinnon-ATP competitive Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor[321688-88-4]
    Rigosertib (ON-01910)PLK1 Inhibitor[1225497-78-8]

    Browse Tocris compounds for PLK4

    2 HMDB Compounds for PLK4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLK4 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    microplasmin 82.5 20 10235424 (5), 10390345 (3)
    serine 21 4 9572854 (1), 10235424 (1), 10390345 (1), 10607900 (1)
    fibrinogen 11.4 2 8902993 (1), 9303026 (1)
    cysteine 2.31 1 17217429 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLK4 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001190799.1  NM_001190801.1  NM_014264.4  

    Unigene Cluster for PLK4:

    Polo-like kinase 4
    Hs.172052  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_014264
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000270861(uc003ifo.3 uc011cgs.2 uc011cgt.2) ENST00000511942
    ENST00000503914 ENST00000515069 ENST00000513090 ENST00000507249 ENST00000514379
    ENST00000510605 ENST00000507454 ENST00000508113 ENST00000510192
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    Addgene plasmids for PLK4 
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB006972.1 AK302858.1 AK303399.1 AK314238.1 BC036023.1 Y13115.1 Z25433.1 

    5 DOTS entries:

    DT.313781  DT.100680216  DT.86845924  DT.100021202  DT.97818382 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 79):

    F09138 AU130274 BU431553 AA328593 BI829311 AI088969 BQ012426 AA599731 
    BC036023 AW274701 AA732873 AI189463 BU633758 Z41568 Z45951 BM759840 
    AI380324 AA825821 AL705839 Y13115 BX109057 AA311939 AA761923 NM_014264 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK4 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
    SP1:                                                                                                                                                
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                
    SP3:                                -                                                                                                               
    SP4:                                                                                            -                                                   
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLK4

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PLK4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATATTTGTT
    PLK4 Expression
    About this image


    PLK4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
             Rib
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Choroid Plexus Progenitor Cells Choroid Plexus
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
    PLK4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PLK4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.172052
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PLK4: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PLK4 gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plk41 , 5 polo-like kinase 4 (Drosophila)5
    polo-like kinase 41
    85.25(n)1
    82.97(a)1
      3 (19.54 cM)5
    208731  NM_011495.21  NP_035625.21 
     408000195 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves LOC4224971 serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4-like 71.24(n)
    68.57(a)
      422497  XM_004941009.1  XP_004941066.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PLK46
    polo-like kinase 4
    64(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(136382434-136403939)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC687912 hypothetical protein MGC68791 75.75(n)    BC060363.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.115032 Danio rerio, Similar to serine/threonine kinase 18, more 73.8(n)    BC045337.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta SAK1 Sak kinase 52(n)
    47.41(a)
      40384  NM_141067.3  NP_649324.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC56
    Polo-like kinase with multiple functions in mitosi...
    20(a)
    1 → many
    XIII(269019-271136) YMR001C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLK4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLK4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PLK4 gene
    PLK22  PLK12  PLK52  PLK32  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for PLK4 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     PLK4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    Plk-1 delta    AURKA    MKNK1    RPS6KA2    AURKC    RPS6KA3
    AURKB    PKN2    NUAK1    PkB-like 1    STK36    STK33
    BRAF    DKFZp564L2416    HUNK    KIAA0999    KIN27    MYO3A

    Find genes that share paralogs with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PLK4
    PGOHUM00000249627


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PLK4 (see all 459)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1831840271,2
    --128800026(+) AAAGAC/TTAGTT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1412940901,2
    C--128800060(+) AATTG-/TTTGAGA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1878676241,2
    --128800157(+) CAATTA/TATACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1512429801,2
    C--128800159(+) ATTTAC/TACAGT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1909881111,2
    --128800189(+) TAACAC/TCACTA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1437737521,2
    C--128800359(+) CCTTA-/ACACACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1821021591,2
    --128800364(+) ACACAC/TACACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1404638951,2
    --128800677(+) AAAATA/GTTAAA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1879124871,2
    --128800749(+) AATATC/TGTATC 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1925432351,2
    --128800847(+) GCATAC/GTGTAT 3 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLK4 (128802016 - 128820379 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for PLK4:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv879923CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5711n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv879915CNV Gain21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PLK4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PLK4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 605031    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PLK4           About GenesLikeMe

    4 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLK4 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acute myocardial infarction 5.22 1 8902993 (1)
    stroke 0 1 10769618 (1)
    tumors 0 4 15967108 (2), 20348415 (1)
    cancer 0 1 16652354 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLK4
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLK4 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for PLK4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PLK4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 87):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLK4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. SAK, a new polo-like kinase, is transcriptionally repressed by p53 and induces apoptosis upon RNAi silencing. (PubMed id 15967108)1, 2, 9 Li J.... Sun Y. (Neoplasia 2005)
    2. Sak serine-threonine kinase acts as an effector of Tec tyrosine kinase. (PubMed id 11489907)1, 2, 9 Yamashita Y.... Mano H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    3. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. (PubMed id 16326102)1, 2, 9 Bettencourt-Dias M.... Glover D.M. (Curr. Biol. 2005)
    4. Centrosome-related genes, genetic variation, and risk of breast cancer. (PubMed id 20508983)1, 4 Olson J.E....Couch F.J. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2011)
    5. The SCF-FBXW5 E3-ubiquitin ligase is regulated by PLK4 and targets HsSAS-6 to control centrosome duplication. (PubMed id 21725316)1, 2 Puklowski A....Malek N.P. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2011)
    6. Cep152 acts as a scaffold for recruitment of Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome. (PubMed id 21059844)1, 2 Cizmecioglu O.... Hoffmann I. (J. Cell Biol. 2010)
    7. Gamma-tubulin-containing abnormal centrioles are induced by insufficient Plk4 in human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 19454482)1, 2 Kuriyama R.... Sandvig L. (J. Cell Sci. 2009)
    8. Human Plk4 phosphorylates Cdc25C. (PubMed id 18239451)1, 2 Bonni S.... Hudson J.W. (Cell Cycle 2008)
    9. Plk4-induced centriole biogenesis in human cells. (PubMed id 17681131)1, 2 Kleylein-Sohn J.... Nigg E.A. (Dev. Cell 2007)
    10. The Polo kinase Plk4 functions in centriole duplication. (PubMed id 16244668)1, 2 Habedanck R.... Nigg E.A. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10733 HGNC: 11397 AceView: PLK4 Ensembl:ENSG00000142731 euGenes: HUgn10733
    ECgene: PLK4 Kegg: 10733 H-InvDB: PLK4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLK4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PLK4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PLK4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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