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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PLK4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC04P128802

Polo-Like Kinase 4

(Previous names: serine/threonine kinase 18, polo-like kinase 4 (Drosophila))
(Previous symbol: STK18)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Polo-Like Kinase 41 2 3     PLK-42 3
STK181 2 3 5     Polo-Like Kinase 4 (Drosophila)1
SAK2 3 5     Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase SAK2
Serine/Threonine Kinase 181 2     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PLK42
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 182 3     Snk Akin Kinase2
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase Sak2 3     EC 2.7.11.213

External Ids:    HGNC: 113971   Entrez Gene: 107332   Ensembl: ENSG000001427317   OMIM: 6050315   UniProtKB: O004443   

Export aliases for PLK4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P129260 GC04P129159 GC04P129021 GC04P124529


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PLK4 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein localizes to
centrioles, complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes, and regulates centriole duplication during
the cell cycle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been
found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PLK4 Gene: 
PLK4 (polo-like kinase 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PLK4 include acute myocardial infarction, and myocardial infarction, and among its related super-pathways are G2/M Transition and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a central role in centriole duplication. Able to trigger
procentriole formation on the surface of the parental centriole cylinder, leading to the recruitment of centriole
biogenesis proteins such as SASS6, CENPJ/CPAP, CCP110, CEP135 and gamma-tubulin. When overexpressed, it is able
to induce centrosome amplification through the simultaneous generation of multiple procentrioles adjoining each
parental centriole during S phase. Phosphorylates 'Ser-151' of FBXW5 during the G1/S transition, leading to
inhibit FBXW5 ability to ubiquitinate SASS6. Its central role in centriole replication suggests a possible role
in tumorigenesis, centrosome aberrations being frequently observed in tumors. Also involved in trophoblast
differentiation by phosphorylating HAND1, leading to disrupt the interaction between HAND1 and MDFIC and activate
HAND1. Phosphorylates CDC25C and CHEK2

Gene Wiki entry for PLK4 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.19  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLK4 gene promoter:
         C/EBPbeta   AML1a   Sp1   NF-E2 p45   CREB   deltaCREB   Pax-4a   NF-E2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPLK4 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PLK4

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PLK4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q28   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q28.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q27-q28

PLK4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLK4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P128802:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
128,802,016 bp from pter      End:
128,820,379 bp from pter
Size:
18,364 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK4  
Size: 970 amino acids; 108972 Da
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity). Interacts with CEP152 (via N-terminus)
Subcellular location: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole. Nucleus,
nucleolus (By similarity). Cleavage furrow. Note=Associates with centrioles throughout the cell cycle. According
to PubMed:16244668, it is not present at cleavage furrows
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for PLK4:
3COK (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RAL0 B7Z837 B7Z8G7 Q8IYF0 Q96Q95 Q9UD84 Q9UDE2
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  O00444-1   O00444-2   O00444-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLK4: NX_O00444

Explore proteomics data for PLK4 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Ubiquitinated; leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity)
  • UniProtKB: Tyrosine-phosphorylated by TEC
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_O00444

  • PLK4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PLK4 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001177728.1  NP_001177730.1  NP_055079.3  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000270861   ENSP00000421774   ENSP00000427554   ENSP00000423412   ENSP00000423582  
     ENSP00000427568  
    Reactome Protein details: O00444
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PLK4: 
    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant PLK4 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PLK4
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    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PLK4
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    Novus Biologicals PLK4 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PLK4 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PLK4 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005730nucleolus ISS--
    GO:0005813centrosome IDA--
    GO:0005814centriole IDA16244668
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0032154cleavage furrow IEA--

    PLK4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PLK4 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PLK4
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    Abcam antibodies for PLK4
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    ThermoFisher Antibody for PLK4
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PLK4 

    Assay Products for PLK4: 
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    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PLK4
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PLK4 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PLK4


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: polo-like kinase 4 
    Polo-like kinase (PLK) family

    5/6 InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_cat_dom
     IPR000959 POLO_box_duplicated_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O00444

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O00444

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB008266 Tyrosine protein kinase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 POLO box domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    PLK4 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLK4_HUMAN, O00444
    Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a central role in centriole duplication. Able to trigger
    procentriole formation on the surface of the parental centriole cylinder, leading to the recruitment of centriole
    biogenesis proteins such as SASS6, CENPJ/CPAP, CCP110, CEP135 and gamma-tubulin. When overexpressed, it is able
    to induce centrosome amplification through the simultaneous generation of multiple procentrioles adjoining each
    parental centriole during S phase. Phosphorylates 'Ser-151' of FBXW5 during the G1/S transition, leading to
    inhibit FBXW5 ability to ubiquitinate SASS6. Its central role in centriole replication suggests a possible role
    in tumorigenesis, centrosome aberrations being frequently observed in tumors. Also involved in trophoblast
    differentiation by phosphorylating HAND1, leading to disrupt the interaction between HAND1 and MDFIC and activate
    HAND1. Phosphorylates CDC25C and CHEK2
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Induction: Down-regulated in HCT 116 colorectal cancer cells, leading to aberrant centrioles composed of
    disorganized cylindrical microtubules and displaced appendages. Down-regulated by p53/TP53

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.211

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity ISS--
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16189514
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    PLK4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PLK4:
     Decreased substrate adherent c  Increased mitotic index  Reduced beta-catenin activity  

         8 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Plk4):
     cellular  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size  homeostasis/metabolism 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  reproductive system 

    PLK4 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Plk4tm1Jwd for PLK4

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PLK4 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PLK4

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PLK4 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PLK4 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PLK4
    3 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PLK4:
    hsa-miR-3163 hsa-miR-2117 hsa-miR-3662
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLK4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PLK4
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLK4

    Gene Editing
    Products:
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): PLK4 (NM_014264)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PLK4
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLK4
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PLK4 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PLK4


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PLK4 About   (see all 6)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.83
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.81
    Centrosome maturation0.83
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.78
    G2/M Transition0.83
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization,from the centrosome0.78
    2Cell Cycle
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic0.84
    Cell Cycle0.84
    3PLK2 and PLK4 events
    PLK2 and PLK4 events0.50
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle0.50
    4Sweet Taste Signaling
    Sperm Motility0.37
    5DNA Damage
    Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control0.32

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PLK4
        Selected targets of p53

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PLK4
        Sperm Motility

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PLK4
        Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control

    2 BioSystems Pathways for PLK4
        PLK2 and PLK4 events
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle


    5/8        Reactome Pathways for PLK4 (see all 8)
        Centrosome maturation
    Cell Cycle
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    G2/M Transition
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization,from the centrosome



    PLK4 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PLK4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/96 Interacting proteins for PLK4 (O004441, 2, 3 ENSP000002708614) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 96)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SFNP319471, 2, 3, ENSP000003409894EBI-746202,EBI-476295 MINT-66797 I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000340989
    FAM46CQ5VWP22, 3, ENSP000003584584MINT-67059 I2D: score=5 STRING: ENSP00000358458
    CHD3Q128732, 3, ENSP000003697164MINT-8267008 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000369716
    MTUS2Q5JR592, 3MINT-67204 I2D: score=5 
    ENSG00000168452Q9UMR53I2D: score=5 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation TAS10607900
    GO:0007099centriole replication IMP--
    GO:0046601positive regulation of centriole replication IMP16244668

    PLK4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PLK4 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PLK4

    2 HMDB Compounds for PLK4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLK4 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    microplasmin 82.5 20 10235424 (5), 10390345 (3)
    serine 21 4 9572854 (1), 10235424 (1), 10390345 (1), 10607900 (1)
    fibrinogen 11.4 2 8902993 (1), 9303026 (1)
    cysteine 2.31 1 17217429 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PLK4

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLK4 gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001190799.1  NM_001190801.1  NM_014264.4  

    Unigene Cluster for PLK4:

    Polo-like kinase 4
    Hs.172052  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_014264
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000270861(uc003ifo.3 uc011cgs.2 uc011cgt.2) ENST00000511942
    ENST00000503914 ENST00000515069 ENST00000513090 ENST00000507249 ENST00000514379
    ENST00000510605 ENST00000507454 ENST00000508113 ENST00000510192
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB006972.1 AK302858.1 AK303399.1 AK314238.1 BC036023.1 Y13115.1 Z25433.1 

    5 DOTS entries:

    DT.313781  DT.100680216  DT.86845924  DT.100021202  DT.97818382 

    24/79 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 79):

    BI829311 AI088969 AA328593 BU633758 BM759840 F09138 AA599731 BQ012426 
    AA732873 Z45951 Z41568 AU130274 BC036023 AI380324 AW274701 AI189463 
    AA825821 BU431553 NM_014264 BP363741 F11476 AA311939 AA761923 BX509657 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/6 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK4 (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
    SP1:                                                                                                                                                
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                
    SP3:                                -                                                                                                               
    SP4:                                                                                            -                                                   
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLK4

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PLK4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PLK4 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TATATTTGTT
    PLK4 Expression
    About this image


    PLK4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/7 selected tissues (see all 7) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
             Thoracic Rib
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)
             Prechondrocytic Mesenchymal Cells Zeugopod
     
     Choroid Plexus (Nervous System)
             Choroid Plexus Progenitor Cells Choroid Plexus
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Choroid Plexus Progenitor Cells Choroid Plexus

    See PLK4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PLK4

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.172052
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including PLK4: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PLK4 gene from 8/17 species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plk41 , 5 polo-like kinase 4 (Drosophila)5
    polo-like kinase 41
    85.25(n)1
    82.97(a)1
      3 (19.54 cM)5
    208731  NM_011495.21  NP_035625.21 
     408000195 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PLK46
    Uncharacterized protein
    67(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(33788159-33802241)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PLK46
    Uncharacterized protein
    64(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(136382434-136403939)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC687912 hypothetical protein MGC68791 75.75(n)    BC060363.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.115032 Danio rerio, Similar to serine/threonine kinase 18, more 73.8(n)    BC045337.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta SAK1 Sak kinase 51.26(n)
    46.53(a)
      40384  NM_141067.2  NP_649324.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea zyg-16
    Probable serine/threonine-protein kinase zyg-1
    16(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    II(5649737-5654422)
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC56
    Polo-like kinase with multiple functions in mitosi...
    17(a)
    1 → many
    XIII(269019-271136)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLK4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLK4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PLK4 gene
    PLK22  PLK12  PLK52  PLK32  
    18/58 SIMAP similar genes for PLK4 using alignment to 4 protein entries:     PLK4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    Plk-1 delta    AURKA    MKNK1    RPS6KA2    AURKC    RPS6KA3
    AURKB    PKN2    NUAK1    PkB-like 1    STK36    STK33
    BRAF    DKFZp564L2416    HUNK    KIAA0999    KIN27    MYO3A

    PLK4 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PLK4
    PGOHUM00000249627


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/459 SNPs in PLK4 are shown (see all 459)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1831840271,2
    --128800026(+) AAAGAC/TTAGTT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1412940901,2
    C--128800060(+) AATTG-/TTTGAGA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1878676241,2
    --128800157(+) CAATTA/TATACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1512429801,2
    C--128800159(+) ATTTAC/TACAGT 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1909881111,2
    --128800189(+) TAACAC/TCACTA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1437737521,2
    C--128800359(+) CCTTA-/ACACACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1821021591,2
    --128800364(+) ACACAC/TACACA 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1404638951,2
    --128800677(+) AAAATA/GTTAAA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1879124871,2
    --128800749(+) AATATC/TGTATC 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1925432351,2
    --128800847(+) GCATAC/GTGTAT 3 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLK4 (128802016 - 128820379 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for PLK4:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv879923CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5711n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv879915CNV Gain21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 605031    OMIM disorders: --

    8 diseases for PLK4:    About MalaCards
    acute myocardial infarction    myocardial infarction    tuberculosis    colorectal cancer
    breast cancer    hepatocellular carcinoma    prostate cancer    prostatitis


    PLK4 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    4 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLK4 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    acute myocardial infarction 5.22 1 8902993 (1)
    stroke 0 1 10769618 (1)
    tumors 0 4 15967108 (2), 20348415 (1)
    cancer 0 1 16652354 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLK4
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLK4 (3 documents)

    Export disorders for PLK4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PLK4 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 83):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLK4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. SAK, a new polo-like kinase, is transcriptionally repressed by p53 and induces apoptosis upon RNAi silencing. (PubMed id 15967108)1, 2, 9 Li J....Sun Y. (2005)
    2. Sak serine-threonine kinase acts as an effector of Tec tyrosine kinase. (PubMed id 11489907)1, 2, 9 Yamashita Y.... Mano H. (2001)
    3. SAK/PLK4 is required for centriole duplication and flagella development. (PubMed id 16326102)1, 2, 9 Bettencourt-Dias M.... Glover D.M. (2005)
    4. The SCF-FBXW5 E3-ubiquitin ligase is regulated by PLK4 and targets HsSAS-6 to control centrosome duplication. (PubMed id 21725316)1, 2 Puklowski A....Malek N.P. (2011)
    5. Centrosome-related genes, genetic variation, and risk of breast cancer. (PubMed id 20508983)1, 4 Olson J.E....Couch F.J. (2010)
    6. Cep152 acts as a scaffold for recruitment of Plk4 and CPAP to the centrosome. (PubMed id 21059844)1, 2 Cizmecioglu O....Hoffmann I. (2010)
    7. Gamma-tubulin-containing abnormal centrioles are induced by insufficient Plk4 in human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 19454482)1, 2 Kuriyama R.... Sandvig L. (2009)
    8. Human Plk4 phosphorylates Cdc25C. (PubMed id 18239451)1, 2 Bonni S.... Hudson J.W. (2008)
    9. Plk4-induced centriole biogenesis in human cells. (PubMed id 17681131)1, 2 Kleylein-Sohn J.... Nigg E.A. (2007)
    10. The Polo kinase Plk4 functions in centriole duplication. (PubMed id 16244668)1, 2 Habedanck R.... Nigg E.A. (2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 10733 HGNC: 11397 AceView: PLK4 Ensembl:ENSG00000142731 euGenes: HUgn10733
    ECgene: PLK4 H-InvDB: PLK4

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLK4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PLK4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PLK4

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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