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PLK2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC05M057749

Polo-Like Kinase 2

(Previous name: polo-like kinase 2 (Drosophila))
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
Polo-Like Kinase 21 2 3     hSNK2 3
Serum-Inducible Kinase1 2 3     EC 2.7.11.213 8
SNK2 3 5     Polo-Like Kinase 2 (Drosophila)1
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase SNK2 3     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PLK22
PLK-22 3     EC 2.7.118
hPlk22 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 196991   Entrez Gene: 107692   Ensembl: ENSG000001456327   OMIM: 6070235   UniProtKB: Q9NYY33   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for PLK2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05M057765 GC05M057785 GC05M054706


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PLK2 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the polo family of serine/threonine protein kinases that have a
role in normal cell division. This gene is most abundantly expressed in testis, spleen and fetal tissues, and its
expression is inducible by serum, suggesting that it may also play an important role in cells undergoing rapid
cell division. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this
gene. (provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PLK2 Gene:
PLK2 (polo-like kinase 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3
Function: Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication
and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already
phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2,
RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and
Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator
RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates
the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic
plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between
NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term
depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1,
respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following
stress

Gene Wiki entry for PLK2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000005.9  NC_018916.2  NT_034772.7  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLK2 gene promoter:
         SREBP-1c   FOXO3   GATA-1   SREBP-1b   FAC1   SREBP-1a   FOXO4   FOXO3a   Pax-4a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPLK2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PLK2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PLK2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5q12.1-q13.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5q11.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5q12.1-q13.2

PLK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLK2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05M057749:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
57,749,809 bp from pter      End:
57,756,087 bp from pter
Size:
6,279 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK2  
Size: 685 amino acids; 78237 Da
Subunit: Interacts with NSF; causing NSF dissociation from GRIA2. Interacts with CIB1 (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: There are indications that PLK2 might act as a tumor suppressor: PLK2 is significantly
down-regulated in a wide range of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and B-cell lymphomas due to aberrant cytosine
methylation in the CpG island located at the 5' of the PLK2 gene (PubMed:16160013, PubMed:21340720). Moreover,
miR-126, a microRNA that negatively regulates PLK2 is up-regulated in AMLs, suggesting that PLK2 down-regulation
by miR-126 could also contribute to leukemogenesis (PubMed:18832181)
5 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PLK2:
4I5M (3D)        4I5P (3D)        4I6B (3D)        4I6F (3D)        4I6H (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O60679 Q96CV7 Q9UE61

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLK2: NX_Q9NYY3

Explore proteomics data for PLK2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Catalytic activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of Thr-239 (By similarity)1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PLK2 (Q9NYY3) (see all 12)
     VLRGCLE  HHKHVVQ  ILHRDLK  LGKGGFA 


    See PLK2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001239155.1  NP_006613.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000274289  

    PLK2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals PLK2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PLK2 Lysate
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PLK2

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PLK2 (9 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PLK2

    PLK2 Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for PLK2 (36 products) 

    PLK2 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PLK2
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: polo-like kinase 2
    Polo-like kinase (PLK) family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NYY3

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NYY3

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000959 POLO box duplicated region

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3
    Domain: The POLO box domains act as phosphopeptide-binding module that recognize and bind
    serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs. PLK2 recognizes and binds docking proteins that are
    already phosphorylated on these motifs, and then phosphorylates them (By similarity)
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 2 POLO box domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3
    Function: Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication
    and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already
    phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2,
    RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and
    Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator
    RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates
    the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic
    plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between
    NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term
    depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1,
    respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following
    stress
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by phosphorylation of Thr-239. Once activated, activity is stimulated by binding
    target proteins (By similarity)
    Induction: Directly regulated by p53/TP53. Negatively regulated by miR-126

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.211 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity ----
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA19001868
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0004871signal transducer activity IMP12761501
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         5 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PLK2:
     Decreased 12E8 tau but not tot  G0/1 arrest  Increased G1 DNA content  Increased apoptosis 
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Plk2):
     cellular  embryogenesis  growth/size/body  integument  mortality/aging 
     skeleton  vision/eye 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PLK2: Plk2tm1Elan Plk2tm1Rle

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PLK2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PLK2:
    hsa-mir-126-3p (MIRT000344), hsa-mir-1 (MIRT023782), hsa-mir-98-5p (MIRT027672)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLK2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PLK2 (see all 16):
    hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-126 hsa-miR-137 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-561 hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-27a hsa-miR-320d
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLK2

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PLK2 (NM_006622)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PLK2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLK2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLK2
    Addgene plasmids for PLK2 

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PLK2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole. Cell
    projection, dendrite (By similarity). Note=Localizes to centrosomes during early G1 phase where it only
    associates to the mother centriole and then distributes equally to both mother and daughter centrioles at the
    onset of S phase
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    cytosol3
    nucleus2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005622intracellular ISS--
    GO:0005813centrosome IDA15242618
    GO:0005814centriole IDA19001868
    GO:0030425dendrite ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PLK2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1FoxO signaling pathway
    FoxO signaling pathway
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle0.00
    PLK2 and PLK4 events0.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 BioSystems Pathways for PLK2
        PLK2 and PLK4 events
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle



    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for PLK2):
        FoxO signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PLK2: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PLK2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PLK2 (Q9NYY31, 2, 3 ENSP000002742894) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 171)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CENPJQ9HC771, 2, 3, ENSP000003713084EBI-721354,EBI-946194 MINT-7994536 MINT-7994493 MINT-7994521 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000371308
    MPP3Q133682, 3MINT-64796 I2D: score=5 
    CIB1Q998283, ENSP000003338734I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000333873
    DLGAP4Q9Y2H03, ENSP000003630234I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000363023
    IKBKAPO951633, ENSP000003637794I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000363779
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000082G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP15242618
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle ----
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IDA--
    GO:0007052mitotic spindle organization IDA19001868
    GO:0007093mitotic cell cycle checkpoint ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
    8 ApexBio Compounds for PLK2     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    BI 2536PLK1 inhibitor[755038-02-9]
    BI6727 (Volasertib)highly potent Polo-like kinase inhibitor[755038-65-4]
    GSK461364inhibits purified Plk1[929095-18-1]
    GW843682Xselective inhibitor of PLK1 and PLK3[660868-91-7]
    HMN-214potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase (Plk)[173529-46-9]
    MLN0905small-molecule PLK1 inhibitor[1228960-69-7]
    Poloxinnon-ATP competitive Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor[321688-88-4]
    Rigosertib (ON-01910)PLK1 Inhibitor[1225497-78-8]

    Browse Tocris compounds for PLK2

    2 HMDB Compounds for PLK2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLK2 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001252226.1  NM_006622.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PLK2:

    Polo-like kinase 2
    Hs.398157  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AF059617
    14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000274289(uc021xyx.1 uc003jrn.3) ENST00000502671 ENST00000511326
    ENST00000503378 ENST00000505244 ENST00000503713 ENST00000510629 ENST00000503115
    ENST00000515415(uc011cql.1) ENST00000509555 ENST00000509422 ENST00000508300
    ENST00000514306 ENST00000504196
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PLK2 (see all 16):
    hsa-miR-320a hsa-miR-126 hsa-miR-137 hsa-miR-429 hsa-miR-561 hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-27a hsa-miR-320d
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      Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF059617.1 AF223574.1 AK027851.1 AK098163.1 AK297298.1 AK304746.1 AK312505.1 BC013879.2 
    U85755.1 

    20 DOTS entries:

    DT.100797906  DT.453774  DT.87079043  DT.100797908  DT.99935678  DT.100797912  DT.92450319  DT.97776713 
    DT.120858097  DT.87079041  DT.95164608  DT.97820063  DT.95164606  DT.99981146  DT.100797905  DT.100797910 
    DT.120858074  DT.120858077  DT.120858104  DT.95164612 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 392):

    AA122338 BM787884 BQ961386 AL600756 BF437296 CB135308 BM741661 BQ671833 
    F02508 BM979972 BI870182 AL709064 CB130338 AW960784 BM848578 BG677879 
    BM741356 BF222540 BP366256 AA421051 W60895 T09282 BM743063 CD243873 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK2 (see all 12)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a ·
    SP1:                          -           -     -           -                                                     -                 -     -                 -   
    SP2:                                                                                                                                -     -                 -   
    SP3:                                      -     -           -                                                                                                   
    SP4:                                                        -                                                                                                   
    SP5:              -           -           -     -                                                                                                               

    ExUns: 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17
    SP1:                                    
    SP2:                                    
    SP3:                                    
    SP4:                                    
    SP5:                                    


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLK2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PLK2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTGTTTAAAG
    PLK2 Expression
    About this image


    PLK2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 12) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Midbrain tegmentum
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             Autopod
     
     Inner Cell Mass (Early Embryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Line H9 (Naive)
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Telencephalon
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
    PLK2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PLK2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.398157

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK2_HUMAN, Q9NYY3
    Tissue specificity: Expressed at higher level in the fetal lung, kidney, spleen and heart

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PLK2: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PLK2 gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plk21 , 5 polo-like kinase 2 (Drosophila)5
    polo-like kinase 21
    89.98(n)1
    97.07(a)1
      13 (61.97 cM)5
    206201  NM_152804.21  NP_690017.21 
     1103950445 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PLK21 polo-like kinase 2 80.49(n)
    89.14(a)
      427150  XM_424739.4  XP_424739.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PLK26
    polo-like kinase 2
    86(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    2(10098977-10110660)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia AF357840.12   -- 80.48(n)    AF357840.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii cnk2 cytokine-inducible kinase 75.27(n)   334202  BC045487.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC56
    Polo-like kinase with multiple functions in mitosi...
    29(a)
    1 → many
    XIII(269019-271136) YMR001C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLK2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PLK2 gene
    PLK42  PLK12  PLK52  PLK32  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for PLK2 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     PLK2_HUMAN:
    PLK3    PLK1    TSSK3    NEK7

    Find genes that share paralogs with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PLK2
    PGOHUM00000259372


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PLK2 (see all 251)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0410234
    An ovarian Endometrioid carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0410232 S T mis40--------
    VAR_0410244
    A lung adenocarcinoma sample4--see VAR_0410242 G S mis40--------
    rs104714511,2
    C,F,A--57749395(+) AGGTTT/AATGCT 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.12NA 120
    rs1154631931,2
    F--57749463(+) TAAACT/CTCCTG 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NA 120
    rs24089461,2
    C,F,A,H--57749498(-) TTAAAT/CAGATC 2 -- ds500119Minor allele frequency- C:0.14NS EA NA WA 2304
    rs1851856731,2
    --57749534(+) AGTTTC/TGAAGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1379739721,2
    --57749543(+) GAAATA/GCTACA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1139987111,2
    C,F--57749561(+) ATTGGG/CTTTGG 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.09WA 118
    rs18485111,2
    C,F,O,H--57749769(-) ACATCG/ATTACA 2 -- ds500125Minor allele frequency- A:0.09NS EA NA WA 2906
    rs1425608011,2
    --57749780(+) GGTGAA/GGAGTT 2 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLK2 (57749809 - 57756087 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for PLK2: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PLK2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PLK2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 607023    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PLK2           About GenesLikeMe

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for PLK2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tumors 0 12 20054236 (5), 18544920 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLK2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLK2 (4 documents)

    Export disorders for PLK2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PLK2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 74):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLK2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Polo-like kinase-2 is required for centriole duplication in mammalian cells. (PubMed id 15242618)1, 2, 9 Warnke S.... Hoffmann I. (Curr. Biol. 2004)
    2. Identification of the human homologue of the early-growth response gene Snk, encoding a serum-inducible kinase. (PubMed id 11696980)1, 2, 9 Liby K.... Dai W. (DNA Seq. 2001)
    3. Plk2 regulated centriole duplication is dependent on its localization to the centrioles and a functional polo-box domain. (PubMed id 19001868)1, 2, 9 Cizmecioglu O.... Hoffmann I. (Cell Cycle 2008)
    4. Radiation-inducible hSNK gene is transcriptionally regulated by p53 binding homology element in human thyroid cells. (PubMed id 11716500)1, 2, 9 Shimizu-Yoshida Y.... Yamashita S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2001)
    5. Centrosome-related genes, genetic variation, and risk of breast cancer. (PubMed id 20508983)1, 4 Olson J.E....Couch F.J. (Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 2011)
    6. Polo-like kinase 2 (SNK/PLK2) is a novel epigenetically regulated gene in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: genetic and epigenetic interactions. (PubMed id 21340720)1, 2 Benetatos L.... Crook T. (Ann. Hematol. 2011)
    7. Polo-like kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of NPM/B23 on serine 4 triggers centriole duplication. (PubMed id 20352051)1, 2 Krause A. and Hoffmann I. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    8. PLK2 phosphorylation is critical for CPAP function in procentriole formation during the centrosome cycle. (PubMed id 20531387)1, 2 Chang J.... Rhee K. (EMBO J. 2010)
    9. Sequential use of transcriptional profiling, expression quantitative trait mapping, and gene association implicates MMP20 in human kidney aging. (PubMed id 19834535)1, 4 Wheeler H.E....Kim S.K. (PLoS Genet. 2009)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10769 HGNC: 19699 AceView: PLK2 Ensembl:ENSG00000145632 euGenes: HUgn10769
    ECgene: PLK2 Kegg: 10769 H-InvDB: PLK2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLK2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PLK2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PLK2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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