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PLK1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC16P023719

Polo-Like Kinase 1

(Previous name: polo-like kinase (Drosophila))
(Previous symbol: PLK)
  See PLK1-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Polo-Like Kinase 11 2 3     Polo-Like Kinase (Drosophila)1
PLK1 2 3     Cell Cycle Regulated Protein Kinase2
Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 132 3     Polo (Drosophia)-Like Kinase2
PLK-12 3     Polo Like Kinase2
STPK132 3     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PLK12
EC 2.7.11.213 8     EC 2.7.118

External Ids:    HGNC: 90771   Entrez Gene: 53472   Ensembl: ENSG000001668517   OMIM: 6020985   UniProtKB: P533503   

Export aliases for PLK1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16P023657 GC16P023658 GC16P023597 GC16P023690 GC16P021779 GC16P023691 GC16P023698 GC16P023706 GC16P023712


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for PLK1 Gene:
PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PLK1 include tetraploidy. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350
Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that performs several important functions throughout M phase of the cell
cycle, including the regulation of centrosome maturation and spindle assembly, the removal of cohesins from
chromosome arms, the inactivation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitors, and the regulation
of mitotic exit and cytokinesis. Polo-like kinase proteins acts by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that
already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates BORA, BUB1B/BUBR1,
CCNB1, CDC25C, CEP55, ECT2, ERCC6L, FBXO5/EMI1, FOXM1, KIF20A/MKLP2, CENPU, NEDD1, NINL, NPM1, NUDC, PKMYT1/MYT1,
PLK1S1/KIZ, PPP1R12A/MYPT1, PRC1, RACGAP1/CYK4, SGOL1, STAG2/SA2, TEX14, TOPORS, p73/TP73, TPT1 and WEE1. Plays a
key role in centrosome functions and the assembly of bipolar spindles by phosphorylating PLK1S1/KIZ, NEDD1 and
NINL. NEDD1 phosphorylation promotes subsequent targeting of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) to the
centrosome, an important step for spindle formation. Phosphorylation of NINL component of the centrosome leads to
NINL dissociation from other centrosomal proteins. Involved in mitosis exit and cytokinesis by phosphorylating
CEP55, ECT2, KIF20A/MKLP2, CENPU, PRC1 and RACGAP1. Recruited at the central spindle by phosphorylating and
docking PRC1 and KIF20A/MKLP2; creates its own docking sites on PRC1 and KIF20A/MKLP2 by mediating
phosphorylation of sites subsequently recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates RACGAP1, thereby
creating a docking site for the Rho GTP exchange factor ECT2 that is essential for the cleavage furrow formation.
Promotes the central spindle recruitment of ECT2. Plays a central role in G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle
by phosphorylating CCNB1, CDC25C, FOXM1, CENPU, PKMYT1/MYT1, PPP1R12A/MYPT1 and WEE1. Part of a regulatory
circuit that promotes the activation of CDK1 by phosphorylating the positive regulator CDC25C and inhibiting the
negative regulators WEE1 and PKMYT1/MYT1. Also acts by mediating phosphorylation of cyclin-B1 (CCNB1) on
centrosomes in prophase. Phosphorylates FOXM1, a key mitotic transcription regulator, leading to enhance FOXM1
transcriptional activity. Involved in kinetochore functions and sister chromatid cohesion by phosphorylating
BUB1B/BUBR1, FBXO5/EMI1 and STAG2/SA2. PLK1 is high on non-attached kinetochores suggesting a role of PLK1 in
kinetochore attachment or in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) regulation. Required for kinetochore localization
of BUB1B. Regulates the dissociation of cohesin from chromosomes by phosphorylating cohesin subunits such as
STAG2/SA2. Phosphorylates SGOL1: required for spindle pole localization of isoform 3 of SGOL1 and plays a role in
regulating its centriole cohesion function. Mediates phosphorylation of FBXO5/EMI1, a negative regulator of the
APC/C complex during prophase, leading to FBXO5/EMI1 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Acts as a
negative regulator of p53 family members: phosphorylates TOPORS, leading to inhibit the sumoylation of p53/TP53
and simultaneously enhance the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of p53/TP53. Phosphorylates the
transactivation domain of the transcription factor p73/TP73, leading to inhibit p73/TP73-mediated transcriptional
activation and pro-apoptotic functions. Phosphorylates BORA, and thereby promotes the degradation of BORA.
Contributes to the regulation of AURKA function. Also required for recovery after DNA damage checkpoint and entry
into mitosis. Phosphorylates MISP, leading to stabilization of cortical and astral microtubule attachments
required for proper spindle positioning

summary for PLK1 Gene:
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are a family of four serine/threonine protein kinases that are critical regulators
of cell cycle progression, mitosis, cytokinesis, and the DNA damage response. PLK1, -2 and -3 are
ubiquitously expressed, whereas PLK4 is restricted to a few tissues including the testes and the thymus. The
mRNA and protein expression of PLK1, -2 and -4 are coordinately regulated during cell cycle progression, but
PLK3 levels are independent of the other three family members. Furthermore, PLK3 is a much more stable
protein than PLK1, -2 or -4. PLK1 is the most well characterized member of this family and strongly promotes
the progression of cells through mitosis. During the various stages of mitosis PLK1 localizes to the
centrosomes, kinetochores and central spindle. PLKs are dysregulated in a variety of human cancers. PLK1
overexpression correlates with cellular proliferation and poor prognosis. PLK2 and PLK3 are involved in
checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest to ensure genetic stability. Loss-of-function mutations in these
enzymes can lead to oncogenic transformation.

Gene Wiki entry for PLK1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000016.9  NC_018927.2  NT_187260.1  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLK1 gene promoter:
         FOXD1   STAT5A   LCR-F1   AP-2gamma   E4BP4   AP-2beta   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 2): PLK1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PLK1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PLK1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16p12.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16p12.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16p

PLK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLK1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16P023719:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
23,688,977 bp from pter      End:
23,701,688 bp from pter
Size:
12,712 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1  
Size: 603 amino acids; 68255 Da
Subunit: Interacts with CEP170 and EVI5. Interacts and phosphorylates ERCC6L. Interacts with FAM29A. Interacts
with SLX4/BTBD12 and TTDN1. Interacts with BUB1B. Interacts (via POLO-box domain) with the phosphorylated form of
BUB1, CENPU and CDC25C. Interacts with isoform 3 of SGOL1. Interacts with BORA, KIF2A and AURKA. Interacts with
TOPORS and CYLD. Interacts with ECT2; the interaction is stimulated upon phosphorylation of ECT2 on 'Thr-444'.
Interacts with PRC1. Interacts with KIF20A/MKLP2 (when phosphorylated), leading to the recruitment at the central
spindle. Interacts (via POLO box domains) with PPP1R12A/MYPT1 (when previously phosphorylated by CDK1). Part of
an astrin (SPAG5)-kinastrin (SKAP) complex containing KNSTRN, SPAG5, PLK1, DYNLL1 and SGOL2. Interacts with
BIRC6/bruce. Interacts with CDK1-phosphorylated FRY; this interaction occurs in mitotic cells, but not in
interphase cells. FRY interaction facilitates AURKA-mediated PLK1 phosphorylation. Interacts with
CDK1-phosphorylated DCTN6 during mitotic prometaphase; the interaction facilitates recruitment to kinetochores
Developmental stage: Accumulates to a maximum during the G2 and M phases, declines to a nearly undetectable level
following mitosis and throughout G1 phase, and then begins to accumulate again during S phase
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PLK1 (see all 42):
1Q4K (3D)        1Q4O (3D)        1UMW (3D)        2OGQ (3D)        2OJX (3D)        2OU7 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15153 Q99746

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLK1: NX_P53350

Explore proteomics data for PLK1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Catalytic activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of Thr-210. Phosphorylation at Thr-210 is first detected on
    centrosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, peaks in prometaphase and gradually disappears from centrosomes
    during anaphase. Dephosphorylation at Thr-210 at centrosomes is probably mediated by protein phosphatase 1C
    (PP1C), via interaction with PPP1R12A/MYPT1. Autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of Ser-137 may not be
    significant for the activation of PLK1 during mitosis, but may enhance catalytic activity during recovery after
    DNA damage checkpoint. Phosphorylated in vitro by STK101
  • Ubiquitinated by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in anaphase and following DNA damage, leading to
    its degradation by the proteasome. Ubiquitination is mediated via its interaction with FZR1/CDH1. Ubiquitination
    and subsequent degradation prevents entry into mitosis and is essential to maintain an efficient G2 DNA damage
    checkpoint. Monoubiquitination at Lys-492 by the BCR(KLHL22) ubiquitin ligase complex does not lead to
    degradation: it promotes PLK1 dissociation from phosphoreceptor proteins and subsequent removal from
    kinetochores, allowing silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and chromosome segregation1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys9, Lys19, Lys272, Lys480, Lys492
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PLK1 (P53350) (see all 24)
     YIAPEVL  VIHRDLK  GHSFEVD  VFAGKIV 


    See PLK1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005021.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000300093   ENSP00000460266   ENSP00000459688   ENSP00000460084  
    Reactome Protein details: P53350

    PLK1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant PLK1 Protein
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    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PLK1
    Novus Biologicals PLK1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PLK1 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PLK1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PLK1
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PLK1

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PLK1 (5 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PLK1

    PLK1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PLK1
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PLK1
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PLK1
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    antibodies-online antibodies for PLK1 (179 products) 

    PLK1 Assay Products:

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    antibodies-online kits for PLK1 (6 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: polo-like kinase 1
    Polo-like kinase (PLK) family

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
     IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P53350

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P53350

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000959 POLO box duplicated region

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350
    Domain: The POLO box domains act as phosphopeptide-binding module that recognize and bind
    serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs. PLK1 recognizes and binds docking proteins that are
    already phosphorylated on these motifs, and then phosphorylates them. PLK1 can also create its own docking sites
    by mediating phosphorylation of serine-[phosphothreonine/phosphoserine]-(proline/X) motifs subsequently
    recognized by the POLO box domains
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC5/Polo subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 2 POLO box domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350
    Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase that performs several important functions throughout M phase of the cell
    cycle, including the regulation of centrosome maturation and spindle assembly, the removal of cohesins from
    chromosome arms, the inactivation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) inhibitors, and the regulation
    of mitotic exit and cytokinesis. Polo-like kinase proteins acts by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that
    already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates BORA, BUB1B/BUBR1,
    CCNB1, CDC25C, CEP55, ECT2, ERCC6L, FBXO5/EMI1, FOXM1, KIF20A/MKLP2, CENPU, NEDD1, NINL, NPM1, NUDC, PKMYT1/MYT1,
    PLK1S1/KIZ, PPP1R12A/MYPT1, PRC1, RACGAP1/CYK4, SGOL1, STAG2/SA2, TEX14, TOPORS, p73/TP73, TPT1 and WEE1. Plays a
    key role in centrosome functions and the assembly of bipolar spindles by phosphorylating PLK1S1/KIZ, NEDD1 and
    NINL. NEDD1 phosphorylation promotes subsequent targeting of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) to the
    centrosome, an important step for spindle formation. Phosphorylation of NINL component of the centrosome leads to
    NINL dissociation from other centrosomal proteins. Involved in mitosis exit and cytokinesis by phosphorylating
    CEP55, ECT2, KIF20A/MKLP2, CENPU, PRC1 and RACGAP1. Recruited at the central spindle by phosphorylating and
    docking PRC1 and KIF20A/MKLP2; creates its own docking sites on PRC1 and KIF20A/MKLP2 by mediating
    phosphorylation of sites subsequently recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates RACGAP1, thereby
    creating a docking site for the Rho GTP exchange factor ECT2 that is essential for the cleavage furrow formation.
    Promotes the central spindle recruitment of ECT2. Plays a central role in G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle
    by phosphorylating CCNB1, CDC25C, FOXM1, CENPU, PKMYT1/MYT1, PPP1R12A/MYPT1 and WEE1. Part of a regulatory
    circuit that promotes the activation of CDK1 by phosphorylating the positive regulator CDC25C and inhibiting the
    negative regulators WEE1 and PKMYT1/MYT1. Also acts by mediating phosphorylation of cyclin-B1 (CCNB1) on
    centrosomes in prophase. Phosphorylates FOXM1, a key mitotic transcription regulator, leading to enhance FOXM1
    transcriptional activity. Involved in kinetochore functions and sister chromatid cohesion by phosphorylating
    BUB1B/BUBR1, FBXO5/EMI1 and STAG2/SA2. PLK1 is high on non-attached kinetochores suggesting a role of PLK1 in
    kinetochore attachment or in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) regulation. Required for kinetochore localization
    of BUB1B. Regulates the dissociation of cohesin from chromosomes by phosphorylating cohesin subunits such as
    STAG2/SA2. Phosphorylates SGOL1: required for spindle pole localization of isoform 3 of SGOL1 and plays a role in
    regulating its centriole cohesion function. Mediates phosphorylation of FBXO5/EMI1, a negative regulator of the
    APC/C complex during prophase, leading to FBXO5/EMI1 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. Acts as a
    negative regulator of p53 family members: phosphorylates TOPORS, leading to inhibit the sumoylation of p53/TP53
    and simultaneously enhance the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of p53/TP53. Phosphorylates the
    transactivation domain of the transcription factor p73/TP73, leading to inhibit p73/TP73-mediated transcriptional
    activation and pro-apoptotic functions. Phosphorylates BORA, and thereby promotes the degradation of BORA.
    Contributes to the regulation of AURKA function. Also required for recovery after DNA damage checkpoint and entry
    into mitosis. Phosphorylates MISP, leading to stabilization of cortical and astral microtubule attachments
    required for proper spindle positioning
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Activated by phosphorylation of Thr-210 by AURKA; phosphorylation by AURKA is enhanced by BORA.
    Once activated, activity is stimulated by binding target proteins. Binding of target proteins has no effect on
    the non-activated kinase. Several inhibitors targeting PLKs are currently in development and are under
    investigation in a growing number of clinical trials, such as BI 2536, an ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor or BI
    6727, a dihydropteridinone that specifically inhibits the catalytic activity of PLK1
    Induction: By growth-stimulating agents

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.211 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity IDA17146433
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity IMP19473992
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI12493754
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         Selected GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PLK1 (see all 16):
     Abundance of large cells with   Cell cycle / mitosis defect  Cell division defect  Decreased Hepatitis C virus re 
     Decreased cell number, increas  Decreased substrate adherent c  Decreased viability  Decreased viability of wild-ty 
     Increased Salmonella enterica   Increased cell death in HCT116  Increased cell number in G2M,   Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 
     Increased number of cells in m  Increased number of mitotic ce  PARP inhibitor sensitization 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Plk1):
     cellular  embryogenesis  mortality/aging  tumorigenesis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PLK1
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PLK1
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PLK1

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PLK1:
    hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT051975), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT001430), hsa-mir-92a-1-5p (MIRT038920), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT020615), hsa-mir-877-5p (MIRT037217), hsa-mir-874-3p (MIRT037761), hsa-mir-100-5p (MIRT000382)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLK1 using miScript Target Protectors
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLK1 3' UTR sequence
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PLK1_HUMAN, P53350: Nucleus. Chromosome, centromere, kinetochore. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule
    organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Midbody. Note=During early stages of mitosis,
    the phosphorylated form is detected on centrosomes and kinetochores. Localizes to the outer kinetochore. Presence
    of SGOL1 and interaction with the phosphorylated form of BUB1 is required for the kinetochore localization.
    Localizes onto the central spindle by phosphorylating and docking at midzone proteins KIF20A/MKLP2 and PRC1.
    Colocalizes with FRY to separating centrosomes and spindle poles from prophase to metaphase in mitosis, but not
    in other stages of the cell cycle
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    golgi apparatus1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000776kinetochore IDA17617734
    GO:0000922spindle pole IDA--
    GO:0000942condensed nuclear chromosome outer kinetochore IDA18195732
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

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    SuperPaths for PLK1 About   (see all 23)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1PLK1 signaling events
    Mitotic Metaphase/Anaphase Transition0.00
    PLK1 signaling events
    Phosphorylation of Emi10.00
    2Cell cycle
    Cell cycle0.59
    Cell cycle0.59
    3FoxO signaling pathway
    FoxO signaling pathway
    Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle0.00
    4Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes0.86
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition0.77
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes0.86
    G2/M Transition0.70
    Centrosome maturation0.86
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases0.69
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome0.86
    Polo-like kinase mediated events0.00
    5CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6
    APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins0.94
    APC/C-Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C-Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G10.93
    Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase0.94
    Activation of APC/C and APC/C-Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins0.92
    Regulation of mitotic cell cycle0.94
    Phosphorylation of the APC/C0.00


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PLK1
        BRCA1 Pathway
    Mitotic Roles of Polo Like Kinases

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PLK1
        Cell Cycle / Checkpoint Control

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PLK1
        Cell cycle Role of APC in cell cycle regulation
    Cell cycle Role of SCF complex in cell cycle regulation

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PLK1 (see all 9)
        Cell cycle
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway
    Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway
    Prostate Cancer
    FOXM1 transcription factor network


    Selected Reactome Pathways for PLK1 (see all 17)
        Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion
    Mitotic Prometaphase
    Mitotic Telophase/Cytokinesis
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition


    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PLK1):
        FoxO signaling pathway
    Cell cycle
    Oocyte meiosis
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PLK1: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Telomeres & Telomerase in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PLK1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PLK1 (P533501, 2, 3 ENSP000003000934) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 1295)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MDM2Q009871, 2, 3, ENSP000004172814EBI-476768,EBI-389668 MINT-7266231 MINT-7266805 MINT-7266344 MINT-7266329 MINT-7266264 MINT-7266299 MINT-7266353 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000417281
    ENSG00000183311P074372, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224156P074372, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000227739P074372, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000229684P074372, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 35):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000070mitotic sister chromatid segregation IMP--
    GO:0000086G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IMP18174154
    GO:0000278mitotic cell cycle TAS--
    GO:0000281mitotic cytokinesis IDA19468302

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PLK1
    8 ApexBio Compounds for PLK1     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    BI 2536PLK1 inhibitor[755038-02-9]
    BI6727 (Volasertib)highly potent Polo-like kinase inhibitor[755038-65-4]
    GSK461364inhibits purified Plk1[929095-18-1]
    GW843682Xselective inhibitor of PLK1 and PLK3[660868-91-7]
    HMN-214potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase (Plk)[173529-46-9]
    MLN0905small-molecule PLK1 inhibitor[1228960-69-7]
    Poloxinnon-ATP competitive Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor[321688-88-4]
    Rigosertib (ON-01910)PLK1 Inhibitor[1225497-78-8]

    Compounds for PLK1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Cyclapolin 9 Selective, ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor [40533-25-3]
    SBE 13 hydrochloridePotent and selective PLK1 inhibitor[1052532-15-6]

    2 HMDB Compounds for PLK1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    5 DrugBank Compounds for PLK1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    (1S,6BR,9AS,11R,11BR)-9A,11B-DIMETHYL-1-[(METHYLOXY)METHYL]-3,6,9-TRIOXO-1,6,6B,7,8,9,9A,10,11,11B-DECAHYDRO-3H-FURO[4,3,2-DE]INDENO[4,5-H][2]BENZOPYRAN-11-YL ACETATE-- --target--10592235
    1-[5-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)furan-3-yl]-3-[(2Z)-5-(2-{[6-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]amino}ethyl)-1,3-thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]urea-- --target--10592235
    3-[3-(3-methyl-6-{[(1S)-1-phenylethyl]amino}-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-1-yl)phenyl]propanamide-- --target--10592235
    3-[3-chloro-5-(5-{[(1S)-1-phenylethyl]amino}isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-yl)phenyl]propan-1-ol-- --target--10592235
    4-(4-METHYLPIPERAZIN-1-YL)-N-[5-(2-THIENYLACETYL)-1,5-DIHYDROPYRROLO[3,4-C]PYRAZOL-3-YL]BENZAMIDE-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLK1 gene (see all 30)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    threonine 71.9 42 8127874 (2), 18095313 (2), 9370299 (1), 18793607 (1) (see all 37)
    serine 64.3 46 8127874 (2), 18095313 (2), 9370299 (1), 18793607 (1) (see all 42)
    scytonemin 60.9 2 15853646 (1), 12388673 (1)
    pyridoxine 5-phosphate 53.3 2 14568555 (1), 16207494 (1)
    pyridoxal 50.5 17 9354586 (6), 14568555 (1), 15381280 (1), 16207494 (1) (see all 6)
    nocodazole 44.7 4 18957422 (2), 15522227 (1), 18625707 (1)
    phosphothreonine 41.4 2 12595692 (1)
    pyridoxal 5-phosphate 26.2 12 9354586 (3), 14568555 (1), 15381280 (1), 16207494 (1) (see all 5)
    phosphoserine 26 4 12595692 (2), 15640845 (1)
    paclitaxel 22 4 16740723 (2), 12167714 (1), 19806032 (1), 17369857 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLK1 gene: 
    NM_005030.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PLK1:

    Polo-like kinase 1
    Hs.592049  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005030
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000562272 ENST00000300093(uc002dlz.1) ENST00000570220 ENST00000564202
    ENST00000567897 ENST00000568568 ENST00000562407 ENST00000564947 ENST00000564794

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLK1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PLK1
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLK1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLK1
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PLK1 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PLK1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PLK1 (NM_005030)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLK1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLK1
    Addgene plasmids for PLK1 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PLK1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PLK1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PLK1
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK1
      Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB084459.1 AK303263.1 AK308276.1 AK313227.1 BC002369.2 BC003002.1 BC014846.1 L19559.1 
    U01038.1 X73458.1 X75932.1 

    22 DOTS entries:

    DT.100811153  DT.448521  DT.101962928  DT.100828162  DT.97855606  DT.95269169  DT.95269176  DT.120706769 
    DT.95269171  DT.97855604  DT.100811154  DT.100828144  DT.100828147  DT.100828148  DT.100828155  DT.102833725 
    DT.120706807  DT.91641460  DT.91766000  DT.95280268  DT.95332953  DT.99977900 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 512):

    BM765820 BM758923 AL518167 BM795372 BF796224 CB114657 BG333716 BP338830 
    BQ070352 BX403425 BQ651328 R83027 CN482002 AW207180 BM757956 CB140258 
    BU541601 BE463980 BU193124 BC002369 BQ214762 BM786875 BM756631 BQ876883 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLK1 (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b · 12c
    SP1:                    -     -     -                                               -           -                                   -                     
    SP2:                                                                                -           -                                   -                     
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                      
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                      
    SP5:                                -                                                                                                                     


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLK1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PLK1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTCGGGTGTG
    PLK1 Expression
    About this image


    PLK1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 11) fully expand
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Proerythroblasts Hematopoietic Bone Marrow
             Umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Membranous Facial Bones
    PLK1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PLK1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.592049

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350
    Tissue specificity: Placenta and colon

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PLK1: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat
              Telomeres & Telomerase in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PLK1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PLK1
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PLK1
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK1
    Search QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLK1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PLK1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PLK1 gene from Selected species (see all 20)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plk11 , 5 polo-like kinase 1 (Drosophila)5
    polo-like kinase 11
    88.5(n)1
    95.02(a)1
      7 (65.52 cM)5
    188171  NM_011121.31  NP_035251.31 
     1221594375 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PLK11 polo-like kinase 1 76.44(n)
    82.69(a)
      416575  NM_001030639.1  NP_001025810.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PLK16
    polo-like kinase 1
    78(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344033.1(1203-20921)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia plk-prov2 polo-like kinase (Drosophila) 79.94(n)    BC046839.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii plk11 polo-like kinase 1 (Drosophila) 69.7(n)
    77.36(a)
      280649  NM_001003890.3  NP_001003890.3 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta polo1 polo 58.74(n)
    54.84(a)
      40232  NM_001014592.2  NP_001014592.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea plk-11 plk-1 56.93(n)
    55.9(a)
      176143  NM_001026002.2  NP_001021173.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC5(YMR001C)4
    CDC51
    Polo-like kinase with multiple functions in mitosis more4
    CDC51
    48.2(n)1
    43.19(a)1
      13(271136-269019)4
    8550131, 4  NP_013714.11, 4 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLK1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLK1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PLK1 gene
    PLK42  PLK22  PLK52  PLK32  
    7 SIMAP similar genes for PLK1 using alignment to 5 protein entries:     PLK1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    Plk-1 delta    AURKB    PLK5    PLK2    PLK3    STK11
    PRKAA1

    Find genes that share paralogs with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLK1
    PGOHUM00000249180 PGOHUM00000263198


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PLK1 (see all 329)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0410184
    A lung squamous cell carcinoma sample4--see VAR_0410182 R L mis40--------
    rs1487741901,2
    --23688204(+) ACTGTA/GCCTAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1874094911,2
    --23688343(+) ATGAGC/TTTCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs579732751,2
    C,F--23688548(+) GCTGAG/ATCTGT 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- A:0.12WA CSA NA 245
    rs340753511,2
    C--23688845(+) TTTTT-/TACCAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1916375741,2
    --23688873(+) TCTGGA/GAGCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1438713351,2
    --23689053(+) TCCAGA/GGTTGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1468866531,2
    --23689083(+) CAAACA/GGGTGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs784324251,2
    C,F--23689091(+) TGTAGC/TTGTAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03NA 120
    rs356647601,2
    C,F--23689217(+) TTACAA/GTGGCG 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- G:0.03MN NA 410

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLK1 (23688977 - 23701688 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for PLK1: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PLK1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PLK1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602098    OMIM disorders: --

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLK1_HUMAN, P53350
  • Note=Defects in PLK1 are associated with some cancers, such as gastric, thyroid or B-cell lymphomas.
    Expression is cancer increased in tumor tissues with a poor prognosis, suggesting a role in malignant
    transformations and carcinogenesis

  • 1 disease for PLK1:    
    About MalaCards
    tetraploidy

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PLK1:
    Cancer

    Find genes that share disorders with PLK1           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLK1 gene (see all 42)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 53.3 123 16507989 (6), 12488480 (5), 20139717 (3), 19652546 (3) (see all 63)
    tumors 44.3 146 11597015 (3), 16865274 (3), 19177004 (3), 20068088 (3) (see all 64)
    retinoblastoma 26.7 3 15105433 (2), 17454639 (1)
    multiple tumors 22.1 3 12639966 (1), 15105433 (1), 16837776 (1)
    ataxia telangiectasia 15.9 3 11572854 (1), 15280449 (1), 11514540 (1)
    gastric carcinoma 14.5 11 16645325 (4), 10493949 (3), 16865274 (2), 17253180 (1)
    prostate carcinoma 14.5 7 15176053 (2), 17265445 (2), 10660600 (1), 15661849 (1)
    gastric cancer 14.2 35 16865274 (6), 16440413 (4), 16875597 (3), 16630118 (2) (see all 7)
    colon cancer 11.7 6 16237758 (3), 16052696 (2), 12488480 (1), 19075689 (1)
    prostate cancer 11.6 5 15176053 (2), 17265445 (1), 14718382 (1), 16648550 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLK1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLK1 (8 documents)

    Export disorders for PLK1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PLK1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 604):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLK1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Induction and down-regulation of PLK, a human serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferating cells and tumors. (PubMed id 8127874)1, 2, 3, 9 Holtrich U.... Strebhardt K. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994)
    2. Phosphorylation- and polo-box-dependent binding of Plk1 to Bub1 is required for the kinetochore localization of Plk1. (PubMed id 16760428)1, 2, 9 Qi W.... Yu H. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2006)
    3. Identification of a consensus motif for Plk (Polo-like kinase) phosphorylation reveals Myt1 as a Plk1 substrate. (PubMed id 12738781)1, 2, 9 Nakajima H.... Nishida E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    4. Polo-like kinase 1 facilitates chromosome alignment during prometaphase through BubR1. (PubMed id 17376779)1, 2, 9 Matsumura S.... Nishida E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    5. Sequential phosphorylation of Nedd1 by Cdk1 and Plk1 is required for targeting of the gammaTuRC to the centrosome. (PubMed id 19509060)1, 2, 9 Zhang X....Zhang C. (J. Cell Sci. 2009)
    6. Expression of PLK1 and survivin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (PubMed id 17943598)1, 2, 9 Liu L.... Zou P. (Leuk. Lymphoma 2007)
    7. Self-regulated Plk1 recruitment to kinetochores by the Plk1-PBIP1 interaction is critical for proper chromosome segregation. (PubMed id 17081991)1, 2, 9 Kang Y.H.... Lee K.S. (Mol. Cell 2006)
    8. Cell cycle analysis and chromosomal localization of human Plk1, a putative homologue of the mitotic kinases Drosophila polo and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc5. (PubMed id 7962193)1, 2, 9 Golsteyn R.M....Nigg E.A. (J. Cell Sci. 1994)
    9. Choice of Plk1 docking partners during mitosis and cytokinesis is controlled by the activation state of Cdk1. (PubMed id 17351640)1, 2, 9 Neef R....Barr F.A. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2007)
    10. Stk10, a new member of the polo-like kinase kinase family highly expressed in hematopoietic tissue. (PubMed id 12639966)1, 2, 9 Walter S.A.... Hill R.J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5347 HGNC: 9077 AceView: PLK1 Ensembl:ENSG00000166851 euGenes: HUgn5347
    ECgene: PLK1 Kegg: 5347 H-InvDB: PLK1

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLK1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PLK1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    Patent Information for PLK1 gene:
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