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PLG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC06P161123

Plasminogen

  See PLG-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
plasminogen1 2
EC 3.4.21.73 8
plasmin2
EC 3.4.218

External Ids:    HGNC: 90711   Entrez Gene: 53402   Ensembl: ENSG000001221947   OMIM: 1733505   UniProtKB: P007473   

Export aliases for PLG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06P160476 GC06P160996 GC06P161032 GC06P161093 GC06P158569


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PLG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted blood zymogen that is activated by proteolysis and converted to
plasmin and angiostatin. Plasmin dissolves fibrin in blood clots and is an important protease in many other
cellular processes while angiostatin inhibits angiogenesis. Defects in this gene are likely a cause of
thrombophilia and ligneous conjunctivitis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found
for this gene.(provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009)

GeneCards Summary for PLG Gene:
PLG (plasminogen) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PLG include conjunctivitis, and conjunctivitis ligneous. GO annotations related to this gene include apolipoprotein binding and protein domain specific binding. An important paralog of this gene is PLAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
Function: Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other
processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation,
weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases
and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment
and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and
tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells
Function: Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental
primary and metastatic tumors in vivo

Gene Wiki entry for PLG (Plasmin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_025741.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLG gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-1   ATF-2   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha isoform 4   c-Jun   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): PLG promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PLG

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PLG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6q26   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6q26   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6q26

PLG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P161123:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
161,123,225 bp from pter      End:
161,175,086 bp from pter
Size:
51,862 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Plasminogen precursor  
Size: 810 amino acids; 90569 Da
Subunit: Interacts (both mature PLG and the angiostatin peptide) with CSPG4 and AMOT. Interacts (via the Kringle
domains) with HRG; the interaction tethers PLG to the cell surface and enhances its activation (By similarity)
Miscellaneous: Plasmin is inactivated by alpha-2-antiplasmin immediately after dissociation from the clot
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PLG (see all 29):
1B2I (3D)        1BML (3D)        1BUI (3D)        1CEA (3D)        1CEB (3D)        1DDJ (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15146 Q5TEH4 Q6PA00

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLG: NX_P00747

Explore proteomics data for PLG at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-linked glycan contains N-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid. O-linked glycans consist of Gal-GalNAc disaccharide
    modified with up to 2 sialic acid residues (microheterogeneity)1
  • In the presence of the inhibitor, the activation involves only cleavage after Arg-580, yielding two chains held
    together by two disulfide bonds. In the absence of the inhibitor, the activation involves additionally the
    removal of the activation peptide1
  • Glycosylation2 at Ser268, Thr365
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PLG (P00747) (see all 38)
     CRNPDGD  VLTAAHC  AQEPHRH  GDSGGPL 


    See PLG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000292.1  NP_001161810.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000355891   ENSP00000308938   ENSP00000389424  
    Reactome Protein details: P00747

    PLG Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PLG (Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for PLG
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PLG
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PLG
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PLG
    Novus Biologicals PLG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PLG Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PLG
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PLG 

    PLG Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PLG
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PLG (Plasminogen Kringle 5, Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    OriGene Antibodies for PLG
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PLG
    Novus Biologicals PLG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PLG
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PLG
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PLG

    PLG Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PLG
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PLG (Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PLG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PLG 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 10):
     IPR001314 Peptidase_S1A
     IPR018056 Kringle_CS
     IPR023317 Pept_S1A_plasmin
     IPR001254 Peptidase_S1
     IPR018114 Peptidase_S1_AS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00747

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00747

    5 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000001 Kringle
    IPB001254 Serine protease
    IPB001314 Chymotrypsin serine protease family (S1) signature
    IPB003014 N/apple PAN
    IPB003609 Apple-like


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Domain: Kringle domains mediate interaction with CSPG4
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 5 kringle domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 PAN domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain


    Find genes that share domains with PLG           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Function: Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other
    processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation,
    weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases
    and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment
    and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and
    tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells
    Function: Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental
    primary and metastatic tumors in vivo
    Catalytic activity: Preferential cleavage: Lys- -Xaa > Arg- -Xaa; higher selectivity than trypsin. Converts fibrin
    into soluble products
    Enzyme regulation: Converted into plasmin by plasminogen activators, both plasminogen and its activator being
    bound to fibrin. Activated with catalytic amounts of streptokinase. Plasmin activity inhibited by SERPINE2

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PLG:
    plasminogen

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.21.71 2 EC 3.4.212

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004175endopeptidase activity ----
    GO:0004252serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA14699093
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10077593
    GO:0019904protein domain specific binding IPI9786936
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PLG           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PLG:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Plg) (see all 17):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body 
     hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  liver/biliary system 
     mortality/aging  nervous system  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  respiratory system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PLG           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PLG: Plgtm1Dco Plgtm1Jld

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PLG
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PLG

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PLG
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PLG

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLG using miScript Target Protectors
    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate PLG:
    hsa-miR-543
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PLG
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PLG

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PLG (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PLG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PLG (NM_000301)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLG

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PLG
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PLG 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PLG


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PLMN_HUMAN, P00747: Secreted. Note=Locates to the cell surface where it is proteolytically cleaved to produce
    the active plasmin. Interaction with HRG tethers it to the cell surface
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    plasma membrane4
    cytoskeleton2
    cytosol2
    nucleus2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA6216475
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA14699093
    GO:0019897extrinsic component of plasma membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLG           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PLG About   (see all 25)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Complement and coagulation cascades
    Complement and coagulation cascades0.71
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades0.71
    2Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade)
    Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways0.51
    Blood Clotting Cascade0.42
    3Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+0.94
    Platelet degranulation0.94
    4Hemostasis
    Hemostasis0.43
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation0.43
    5Degradation of the extracellular matrix
    Degradation of the extracellular matrix0.43
    Extracellular matrix organization0.34


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PLG           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    2 R&D Systems Pathways for PLG
        Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways
    A-beta Plaque Formation & APP Metabolism

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PLG
        Glioma Invasiveness
    UPA-UPAR Pathway

    4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PLG
        Cell adhesion PLAU signaling
    Cell adhesion Cell-matrix glycoconjugates
    Cell adhesion ECM remodeling
    Cell adhesion Plasmin signaling

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for PLG (see all 7)
        Blood Clotting Cascade
    Selenium Pathway
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
    amb2 Integrin signaling

    Selected Reactome Pathways for PLG (see all 6)
        Platelet degranulation
    Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
    Signaling by PDGF
    Dissolution of Fibrin Clot
    Degradation of the extracellular matrix


    4 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PLG):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Complement and coagulation cascades
    Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Influenza A

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PLG (see all 8): 
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PLG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PLG (P007471, 2, 3 ENSP000003089384) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 109)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SPARCP094863, ENSP000002310614I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000231061
    CHGAP106453, ENSP000002164924I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000216492
    HMGB1P094293, ENSP000003430404I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000343040
    PAPPAQ132193, ENSP000003306584I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000330658
    S100A10P609033, ENSP000003577994I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000357799
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 22):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002576platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----
    GO:0006915apoptotic process ----
    GO:0007596blood coagulation TAS--
    GO:0008285negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS8910613

    Find genes that share ontologies with PLG           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PLG
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PLG (PLMN)

    10 DrugBank Compounds for PLG    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Aminocaproic Acid6-aminohexanoic acid (see all 7)60-32-2targetinhibitor11304653 11927133 1280065 10026282 11752352 12007600
    Streptokinase-- 9002-01-1targetactivator10631997 10664583 11752352 10569766 10581996 10726310
    Tranexamic AcidTranexamsaeure (see all 7)1197-18-8targetinhibitor10673876 11752352 10959704 10400410 12115473 10625440
    UrokinaseU-plasminogen activator (see all 3)9039-53-6targetactivator12666133 12745435 12719778 11752352 12658774 12720300
    Alteplaset-PA (see all 4)105857-23-6targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Anistreplaset- PA (see all 4)81669-57-0targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Reteplaset- PA (see all 4)133652-38-7targetactivator19436656 17963464 11752352 18673235
    Tenecteplaset- PA (see all 4)191588-94-0targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Bicine-- --target--17139284 17016423
    AprotininBayer A 128 (see all 5)9087-70-1target--15277296

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLG gene (see all 40)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    vegf 72.5 76 16735992 (5), 12883685 (5), 12375018 (4), 19932587 (4) (see all 44)
    epsilon aminocaproic acid 66.2 8 8533120 (1), 9792107 (1), 16097950 (1), 12453439 (1) (see all 7)
    microplasmin 65.9 3 10085135 (3)
    fumagillin 60.6 5 19863375 (1), 9157295 (1), 20022538 (1), 19217946 (1) (see all 5)
    matrigel 58.6 2 15828939 (1), 12954626 (1)
    fibrinogen 50.8 44 1284915 (2), 9156266 (2), 18714035 (2), 8148481 (2) (see all 21)
    thalidomide 49.3 14 15975645 (5), 10439927 (1), 16678057 (1), 8520966 (1) (see all 10)
    lysine 37.3 14 9792107 (2), 8533120 (1), 19581392 (1), 12658774 (1) (see all 8)
    serine 36.5 15 9698533 (3), 8895739 (2), 15792635 (1), 10889192 (1) (see all 11)
    benzamidine 29.1 2 9792107 (1), 16097950 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PLG           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLG gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000301.3  NM_001168338.1  

    Unigene Cluster for PLG:

    Plasminogen
    Hs.143436  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000301
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000366924(uc021zhr.1) ENST00000308192(uc003qtm.4) ENST00000418964
    ENST00000297289 ENST00000462918 ENST00000483038 ENST00000484367 ENST00000494325
    ENST00000471691 ENST00000493435 ENST00000467466 ENST00000461414
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PLG using miScript Target Protectors
    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate PLG:
    hsa-miR-543
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PLG
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLG
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PLG (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PLG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PLG (NM_000301)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLG
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PLG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PLG
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PLG
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PLG
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLG

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK298338.1 AK308036.1 AK312966.1 BC060513.1 BC115369.1 K02922.1 M74220.1 X05199.1 

    20 DOTS entries:

    DT.453213  DT.95162938  DT.121324519  DT.100891418  DT.91748451  DT.100891456  DT.91748444  DT.86855200 
    DT.121324584  DT.121324514  DT.121324563  DT.121324546  DT.91748442  DT.95162937  DT.100891422  DT.121324583 
    DT.91686404  DT.91748447  DT.91938200  DT.95162941 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 111):

    BF447999 CB141713 AI140566 R28928 AA700207 M74220 BX095666 N49661 
    K02922 T81942 T77573 T64119 BI759134 H74059 CB154226 AL579900 
    AI032989 AI695215 AA700651 BE326828 BV167996 BX498968 T89505 CD608133 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLG (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
    SP1:                          -                                                                                               -                                 
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLG

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PLG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    PLG Expression
    About this image


    PLG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Hepatocyte-like cells
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced embryoid bodies
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
    PLG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PLG Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.143436

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Tissue specificity: Present in plasma and many other extracellular fluids. It is synthesized in the liver

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PLG (see all 8): 
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for PLG gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plg1 , 5 plasminogen1, 5 78.89(n)1
    79.38(a)1
      17 (8.50 cM)5
    188151  NM_008877.31  NP_032903.31 
     123786095 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PLG1 plasminogen 66.62(n)
    63.66(a)
      421580  XM_419618.4  XP_419618.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    63(a)
    1 → many
    1(211778053-211817166)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.242672 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein spP00747 (H.sapiens) PLMN_HUMAN Plasminogen precursor [Contains Angiostatin] less 74.81(n)    CB200754.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii plg2 plasminogen 74.64(n)   322691  BC059801.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG12993 serine-type endopeptidase 39(a)
    (best of 4)
      64A8   --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C07G1.13
    try-11
    peptidase3
    try-11
    35(a)3
    46.19(n)1
    43.5(a)1
      IV(8212766-8213851)3
    1738561  NM_062509.51  NP_494910.21 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PLG gene
    PLAT2  HGFAC2  HABP22  LPA2  PLAU2  MST12  F122  HGF2  
    18 SIMAP similar genes for PLG using alignment to 4 protein entries:     PLMN_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp779M0222    PLGLB2    PLGLA    PLGLB1    PLGL    APOA
    LPAL2    LPA    ROR2    PLAT    KLK9    HGF
    MST1    MST1L    ROR1    GZMK    GZMA    PRSS48

    Find genes that share paralogs with PLG           About GenesLikeMe


    3 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLG
    PGOHUM00000240240 PGOHUM00000250196 PGOHUM00000243842


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PLG (see all 1457)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs730159651,2,,4
    C,FPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161135397(+) TCACTA/GAGAAG 4 K E mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1219180281,2,,4
    CPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161151363(+) CTGTGG/TTCCAG 2 V F mis10--------
    rs1219180271,2,,4
    CPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161167525(+) TGACTA/GCTGCC 2 T A mis10--------
    VAR_0066304
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0066302 G R mis40--------
    VAR_0186604
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186602 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0186584
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186582 L P mis40--------
    VAR_0066284
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0066282 S P mis40--------
    VAR_0186594
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186592 R H mis40--------
    rs1415392311,2
    Cuntested1161160698(+) AATGGA/G/TAAAGG 2 G syn11NA 4552
    rs1405377241,2
    C,Funtested1161160709(+) ATACCG/AAGGCA 2 /Q /R mis12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA EU 5875

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLG (161123225 - 161175086 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for PLG:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1302715CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv5571CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv522424CNV Loss19592680
    nsv522773CNV Loss19592680
    dgv2024e1CNV Complex17122850
    esv259630OTHER Complex20981092
    esv260008OTHER Complex20981092

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PLG
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PLG
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PLG

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 173350   
    OMIM disorders: 217090  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
  • Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]: A disorder characterized by decreased serum plasminogen
    activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by
    decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as
    dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical
    manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic
    mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common
    clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the
    palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency
    that replace the normal mucosa. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this
    entry

  • 16 diseases for PLG:    
    About MalaCards
    conjunctivitis    conjunctivitis ligneous    thrombophilia, dysplasminogenemic    congenital plasminogen deficiency
    intracranial thrombosis    plasminogen tochigi disease    plasminogen deficiency, types i and ii    corneal neovascularization
    pyogenic granuloma    intermediate coronary syndrome    hemangioendothelioma    thrombophilia
    acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis    invasive aspergillosis    artery disease    malaria

    18 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PLG:
    Myocardial infarction     Thrombophilia     Atherosclerosis     Cerebrovascular accident
    Pulmonary embolism     Hemorrhagic disease     Coronary heart disease     Hypertension
    Diabetes mellitus     Conjunctivitis     Kidney disease     Breast cancer
    Lung disease     Protein C deficiency     Intermediate coronary syndrome     Carcinoma
    Hypersensitivity reaction type II disease     Intracranial thrombosis

    Find genes that share disorders with PLG           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLG gene (see all 77)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    neovascularization 68.4 19 19932587 (2), 9102221 (1), 11126410 (1), 12375018 (1) (see all 16)
    conjunctivitis, ligneous 67.4 1 17701212 (1)
    corneal neovascularization 60.9 5 11029550 (1), 10342373 (1), 8895739 (1), 16270025 (1)
    tumors 60.3 218 9393749 (5), 16424020 (5), 9755235 (4), 16205930 (4) (see all 99)
    carcinoma lewis lung 57.9 4 14741778 (1), 17557110 (1), 12439600 (1), 7525077 (1)
    metastasis 56.2 40 7525077 (3), 12439600 (2), 10582698 (2), 12954626 (2) (see all 34)
    cancer 49.3 56 10762660 (7), 14719094 (4), 10629628 (2), 14996740 (2) (see all 35)
    primary tumor 42.9 12 14502219 (2), 9002223 (2), 8640562 (1), 9865747 (1) (see all 10)
    melanoma b16 42.2 1 16988811 (1)
    uveal melanoma 36.4 10 11735791 (5), 16735992 (2), 10596910 (1)

    Genatlas disease: PLG
    thrombosis,recurrent,dysplasminogenemic type

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLG (14 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): PLG

    Export disorders for PLG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PLG gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 692):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 10077593)1, 2, 9 Moser T.L.... Pizzo S.V. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999)
    2. Binding of the NG2 proteoglycan to kringle domains modulates the functional properties of angiostatin and plasmin(ogen). (PubMed id 10889192)1, 2, 9 Goretzki L.... Stallcup W.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000)
    3. A recombinant human angiostatin protein inhibits experimental primary and metastatic cancer. (PubMed id 9102221)1, 2, 9 Sim B.K.... Nacy C.A. (Cancer Res. 1997)
    4. Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. (PubMed id 7525077)1, 2, 9 O'Reilly M.S.... Folkman J. (Cell 1994)
    5. Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 21900290)1, 4 Qi Q....Qi L. (Eur. Heart J. 2012)
    6. Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth. (PubMed id 20140262)1, 4 Ryckman K.K....Jacobsson B. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    7. Genetic risk factors for hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with advanced liver disease. (PubMed id 20346360)1, 4 Roberts K.E....Fallon M.B. (Gastroenterology 2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    9. Regulation of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) function via plasmin- mediated proteolytic cleavage. (PubMed id 19712047)1, 2 Poon I.K.... Parish C.R. (Biochem. J. 2009)
    10. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis. (PubMed id 18566672)1, 4 Zaas A.K....Schwartz D.A. (PLoS Genet. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5340 HGNC: 9071 AceView: PLG Ensembl:ENSG00000122194 euGenes: HUgn5340
    ECgene: PLG Kegg: 5340 H-InvDB: PLG

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PLG Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmin
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/plg/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PLG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PLG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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