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Aliases for PLG Gene

Aliases for PLG Gene

  • Plasminogen 2 3
  • EC 3.4.21.7 4 64
  • EC 3.4.21 64
  • Plasmin 3

External Ids for PLG Gene

Summaries for PLG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted blood zymogen that is activated by proteolysis and converted to plasmin and angiostatin. Plasmin dissolves fibrin in blood clots and is an important protease in many other cellular processes while angiostatin inhibits angiogenesis. Defects in this gene are likely a cause of thrombophilia and ligneous conjunctivitis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PLG Gene

PLG (Plasminogen) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLG include congenital plasminogen deficiency and intracranial thrombosis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by FGFR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include protein domain specific binding and apolipoprotein binding. An important paralog of this gene is PLAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLG Gene

  • Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.

  • Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.

Gene Wiki entry for PLG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLG Gene

Genomics for PLG Gene

Genomic Location for PLG Gene

Start:
160,702,193 bp from pter
End:
160,754,054 bp from pter
Size:
51,862 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PLG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PLG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLG Gene

Proteins for PLG Gene

  • Protein details for PLG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00747-PLMN_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Plasminogen
    Protein Accession:
    P00747
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15146
    • Q5TEH4
    • Q6PA00

    Protein attributes for PLG Gene

    Size:
    810 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    90569 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (both mature PLG and the angiostatin peptide) with CSPG4 and AMOT. Interacts (via the Kringle domains) with HRG; the interaction tethers PLG to the cell surface and enhances its activation (By similarity).
    Miscellaneous:
    • Plasmin is inactivated by alpha-2-antiplasmin immediately after dissociation from the clot

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLG Gene

neXtProt entry for PLG Gene

Proteomics data for PLG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PLG Gene

  • In the presence of the inhibitor, the activation involves only cleavage after Arg-580, yielding two chains held together by two disulfide bonds. In the absence of the inhibitor, the activation involves additionally the removal of the activation peptide.
  • N-linked glycan contains N-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid. O-linked glycans consist of Gal-GalNAc disaccharide modified with up to 2 sialic acid residues (microheterogeneity).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Ser268 and Thr365

Other Protein References for PLG Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for PLG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PLMN_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Kringle domains mediate interaction with CSPG4.:
    • P00747
  • Contains 5 kringle domains.:
    • P00747
  • Contains 1 PAN domain.:
    • P00747
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.:
    • P00747
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily.:
    • P00747
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLG: view

No data available for Gene Families for PLG Gene

Function for PLG Gene

Molecular function for PLG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: plasminogen
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Preferential cleavage: Lys- -Xaa > Arg- -Xaa; higher selectivity than trypsin. Converts fibrin into soluble products.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Converted into plasmin by plasminogen activators, both plasminogen and its activator being bound to fibrin. Activated with catalytic amounts of streptokinase. Plasmin activity inhibited by SERPINE2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA 14699093
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 20028034
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10077593
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLG: view

Animal Models for PLG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLG:

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PLG Gene

Localization for PLG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLG Gene

Secreted. Note=Locates to the cell surface where it is proteolytically cleaved to produce the active plasmin. Interaction with HRG tethers it to the cell surface.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PLG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 16502470
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 14699093
GO:0019897 extrinsic component of plasma membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view

Pathways for PLG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLG: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS 8910613
GO:0010812 negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IDA 14699093
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view

Compounds for PLG Gene

(10) Drugbank Compounds for PLG Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Alteplase
  • t-PA
105857-23-6 target activator
Aminocaproic Acid
  • 6-aminohexanoic acid
60-32-2 target inhibitor
Anistreplase
  • t- PA
81669-57-0 target activator
Aprotinin
  • Bayer A 128
9087-70-1 target
Bicine
target

(40) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLG Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
vegf 72.5 67
epsilon aminocaproic acid 66.2 7
microplasmin 65.9 3
fumagillin 60.6 5
matrigel 58.6 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLG: view

Transcripts for PLG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLG Gene

Plasminogen:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for PLG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PLG

Expression for PLG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PLG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (50.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PLG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLG Gene Hs.143436

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLG Gene

P00747-PLMN_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Present in plasma and many other extracellular fluids. It is synthesized in the liver
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PLG: view

Orthologs for PLG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PLG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLG 36
  • 99.05 (n)
  • 98.52 (a)
PLG 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLG 36
  • 80.37 (n)
  • 78.63 (a)
PLG 37
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLG 36
  • 83.62 (n)
  • 83.21 (a)
PLG 37
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plg 36
  • 78.89 (n)
  • 79.38 (a)
Plg 16
Plg 37
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 62 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plg 36
  • 79.48 (n)
  • 79.23 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 37
  • 51 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 37
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
PLG 36
  • 66.62 (n)
  • 63.66 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 37
  • 63 (a)
OneToMany
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24267 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100496227 36
  • 62.28 (n)
  • 60.41 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8759 36
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii plg 36
  • 60.03 (n)
  • 58.23 (a)
plg 37
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Tequila 37
  • 6 (a)
OneToMany
CG11836 38
  • 37 (a)
Tequila 38
  • 36 (a)
CG1299 38
  • 39 (a)
CG13744 38
  • 35 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea svh-1 37
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
try-1 36
  • 46.19 (n)
  • 43.5 (a)
C07G1.1 38
  • 35 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PLG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PLG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLG (if available)

Paralogs for PLG Gene

Paralogs for PLG Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PLG Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLG: view

Variants for PLG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs4699 -- 160,731,225(+) CCTTC(C/T)GAAGA reference, synonymous-codon
rs4757 -- 160,711,114(+) AAGAA(C/T)TACAG reference, synonymous-codon
rs6690 -- 160,753,106(-) CACGT(C/T)CCAGC utr-variant-3-prime
rs11060 -- 160,752,914(+) GGAGG(G/T)CCTCT synonymous-codon, reference
rs11902 -- 160,753,839(-) CCTGT(C/G)ACCGT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2024e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv5571 CNV Insertion 18451855
esv259630 OTHER Complex 20981092
esv260008 OTHER Complex 20981092
esv1302715 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv522773 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv522424 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for PLG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PLG
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PLG

Disorders for PLG Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for PLG Gene (173350)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PLMN_HUMAN
  • Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]: A disorder characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10233898, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1427790, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1986355, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6216475, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6238949, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8392398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9242524, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9858247}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(77) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLG Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
neovascularization 68.4 17
conjunctivitis, ligneous 67.4 1
corneal neovascularization 60.9 4
tumors 60.3 153
carcinoma lewis lung 57.9 4

Genatlas disease for PLG Gene

thrombosis,recurrent,dysplasminogenemic type

Relevant External Links for PLG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PLG
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PLG
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
PLG
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLG: view

Publications for PLG Gene

  1. Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. (PMID: 7525077) O'Reilly M.S. … Folkman J. (Cell 1994) 3 4 23
  2. Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells. (PMID: 10077593) Moser T.L. … Pizzo S.V. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999) 3 4 23
  3. A recombinant human angiostatin protein inhibits experimental primary and metastatic cancer. (PMID: 9102221) Sim B.K. … Nacy C.A. (Cancer Res. 1997) 3 4 23
  4. Binding of the NG2 proteoglycan to kringle domains modulates the functional properties of angiostatin and plasmin(ogen). (PMID: 10889192) Goretzki L. … Stallcup W.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 4 23
  5. Disruption of interkringle disulfide bond of plasminogen kringle 1-3 changes the lysine binding capability of kringle 2, but not its antiangiogenic activity. (PMID: 10700393) Lee H. … Joe Y.A. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2000) 3 23

Products for PLG Gene

Sources for PLG Gene

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