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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PLG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 72
GCID: GC06P161123

Plasminogen

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
plasminogen1 2
EC 3.4.21.73 8
plasmin2
EC 3.4.218

External Ids:    HGNC: 90711   Entrez Gene: 53402   Ensembl: ENSG000001221947   OMIM: 1733505   UniProtKB: P007473   

Export aliases for PLG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06P160476 GC06P160996 GC06P161032 GC06P161093 GC06P158569


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PLG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted blood zymogen that is activated by proteolysis and converted to
plasmin and angiostatin. Plasmin dissolves fibrin in blood clots and is an important protease in many other
cellular processes while angiostatin inhibits angiogenesis. Defects in this gene are likely a cause of
thrombophilia and ligneous conjunctivitis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found
for this gene.(provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009)

GeneCards Summary for PLG Gene: 
PLG (plasminogen) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PLG include conjunctivitis, and congenital plasminogen deficiency, and among its related super-pathways are Complement and Coagulation Cascades and Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include cell surface binding and protein domain specific binding. An important paralog of this gene is PLAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
Function: Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other
processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation,
weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases
and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment
and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and
tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells
Function: Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental
primary and metastatic tumors in vivo

Gene Wiki entry for PLG (Plasmin) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000006.11  NC_018917.2  NT_025741.15  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PLG gene promoter:
         AP-2alpha isoform 3   AP-1   ATF-2   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)   AP-2alpha isoform 2   AP-2alpha isoform 4   c-Jun   AP-2alpha   AP-2alphaA   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): PLG promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PLG

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PLG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6q26   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6q26   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6q26

PLG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PLG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P161123:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
161,123,225 bp from pter      End:
161,175,086 bp from pter
Size:
51,862 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Plasminogen precursor  
Size: 810 amino acids; 90569 Da
Subunit: Interacts (both mature PLG and the angiostatin peptide) with CSPG4 and AMOT. Interacts (via the Kringle
domains) with HRG; the interaction tethers PLG to the cell surface and enhances its activation (By similarity)
Subcellular location: Secreted. Note=Locates to the cell surface where it is proteolytically cleaved to produce
the active plasmin. Interaction with HRG tethers it to the cell surface
Miscellaneous: Plasmin is inactivated by alpha-2-antiplasmin immediately after dissociation from the clot
6/29 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PLG (see all 29):
1B2I (3D)        1BML (3D)        1BUI (3D)        1CEA (3D)        1CEB (3D)        1DDJ (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q15146 Q5TEH4 Q6PA00

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PLG: NX_P00747

Explore proteomics data for PLG at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: N-linked glycan contains N-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid. O-linked glycans consist of Gal-GalNAc disaccharide
    modified with up to 2 sialic acid residues (microheterogeneity)
  • UniProtKB: In the presence of the inhibitor, the activation involves only cleavage after Arg-580, yielding two chains held
    together by two disulfide bonds. In the absence of the inhibitor, the activation involves additionally the
    removal of the activation peptide
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P00747

  • 4/38 DME Specific Peptides for PLG (P00747) (see all 38)
     CRNPDGD  VLTAAHC  AQEPHRH  GDSGGPL 

    PLG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PLG Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000292.1  NP_001161810.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000355891   ENSP00000308938   ENSP00000389424  
    Reactome Protein details: P00747
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PLG: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PLG (Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for PLG
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PLG
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PLG
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PLG
    Novus Biologicals PLG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PLG Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PLG
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp. 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/8 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA6216475
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0009986cell surface IDA14699093
    GO:0019897extrinsic to plasma membrane ----

    PLG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PLG Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PLG
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PLG (Plasminogen Kringle 5, Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    Browse OriGene Antibodies
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PLG
    GenScript Superior Antibodies for PLG
    Novus Biologicals PLG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PLG
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PLG
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PLG 

    Assay Products for PLG: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PLG
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PLG (Plasminogen, Angiostatin)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PLG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp. 
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    5/10 InterPro protein domains (see all 10):
     IPR001314 Peptidase_S1A
     IPR018056 Kringle_CS
     IPR023317 Pept_S1A_plasmin
     IPR001254 Peptidase_S1
     IPR018114 Peptidase_S1_AS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P00747

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P00747

    5 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000001 Kringle
    IPB001254 Serine protease
    IPB001314 Chymotrypsin serine protease family (S1) signature
    IPB003014 N/apple PAN
    IPB003609 Apple-like


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Domain: Kringle domains mediate interaction with CSPG4
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 5 kringle domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 PAN domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain


    PLG for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Function: Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other
    processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation,
    weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases
    and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment
    and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and
    tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells
    Function: Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental
    primary and metastatic tumors in vivo
    Catalytic activity: Preferential cleavage: Lys- -Xaa > Arg- -Xaa; higher selectivity than trypsin. Converts fibrin
    into soluble products
    Enzyme regulation: Converted into plasmin by plasminogen activators, both plasminogen and its activator being
    bound to fibrin. Activated with catalytic amounts of streptokinase. Plasmin activity inhibited by SERPINE2

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PLG:
    plasminogen

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 3.4.21.71 2 EC 3.4.212

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/6 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004175endopeptidase activity ----
    GO:0004252serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA14699093
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10077593
    GO:0019904protein domain specific binding IPI9786936
         
    PLG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PLG:
     Synthetic lethal with Ras 

         15/16 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Plg) (see all 16):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging 
     nervous system  renal/urinary system  reproductive system  respiratory system  tumorigenesis 

    PLG for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PLG: Plgtm1Dco Plgtm1Jld

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PLG 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PLG

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PLG 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PLG 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PLG
    1 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNA that regulate PLG:
    hsa-miR-543
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PLG
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PLG
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PLG

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PLG (see all 10)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PLG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PLG (NM_000301)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PLG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PLG 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PLG
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PLG
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PLG


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PLG About   (see all 26)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Complement and coagulation cascades
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades0.71
    Complement and coagulation cascades0.71
    2Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade)
    Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways0.51
    Blood Clotting Cascade0.42
    3Platelet degranulation
    Platelet degranulation 0.94
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+0.94
    4Degradation of the extracellular matrix
    Degradation of the extracellular matrix0.79
    Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases0.40
    5Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation
    Hemostasis0.43
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation0.43

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    3 EMD Millipore Pathways for PLG
        Cell adhesion PLAU signaling
    Cell adhesion ECM remodeling
    Cell adhesion Plasmin signaling

    2 R&D Systems Pathways for PLG
        Blood Coagulation Signaling Pathways
    A-beta Plaque Formation & APP Metabolism

    2 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PLG
        Glioma Invasiveness
    UPA-UPAR Pathway

    4 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PLG
        Cell adhesion PLAU signaling
    Cell adhesion Cell-matrix glycoconjugates
    Cell adhesion ECM remodeling
    Cell adhesion Plasmin signaling

    5/7 BioSystems Pathways for PLG (see all 7)
        Blood Clotting Cascade
    Selenium Pathway
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
    Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events

    5/12        Reactome Pathways for PLG (see all 12)
        Hemostasis
    Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) Transport and Uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+
    Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases
    Extracellular matrix organization


    4         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PLG):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
    Complement and coagulation cascades
    Staphylococcus aureus infection
    Influenza A


    PLG for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PLG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/108 Interacting proteins for PLG (P007471, 2, 3 ENSP000003089384) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 108)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SPARCP094863, ENSP000002310614I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000231061
    CHGAP106453, ENSP000002164924I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000216492
    HMGB1P094293, ENSP000003430404I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000343040
    PAPPAQ132193, ENSP000003306584I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000330658
    S100A10P609033, ENSP000003577994I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000357799
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/22 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 22):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002576platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----
    GO:0006915apoptotic process IEA--
    GO:0007596blood coagulation TAS--
    GO:0008285negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS8910613

    PLG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PLG for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    EMD Millipore small molecules for PLG:
    Small Molecule - inhibitor
    Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for PLG

    Browse Tocris compounds for PLG (PLMN)

    10 DrugBank Compounds for PLG    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Aminocaproic Acid6-aminohexanoic acid (see all 7)60-32-2targetinhibitor11304653 11927133 1280065 10026282 11752352 12007600
    Streptokinase-- 9002-01-1targetactivator10631997 10664583 11752352 10569766 10581996 10726310
    Tranexamic AcidTranexamsaeure (see all 7)1197-18-8targetinhibitor10673876 11752352 10959704 10400410 12115473 10625440
    UrokinaseU-plasminogen activator (see all 3)9039-53-6targetactivator12666133 12745435 12719778 11752352 12658774 12720300
    Alteplaset-PA (see all 4)105857-23-6targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Anistreplaset- PA (see all 4)81669-57-0targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Reteplaset- PA (see all 4)133652-38-7targetactivator19436656 17963464 11752352 18673235
    Tenecteplaset- PA (see all 4)191588-94-0targetactivator17963464 19436656 11752352 18673235
    Bicine-- --target--17139284 17016423
    AprotininBayer A 128 (see all 5)9087-70-1target--15277296

    10/40 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PLG gene (see all 40)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    vegf 72.5 76 16735992 (5), 12883685 (5), 12375018 (4), 19932587 (4) (see all 44)
    epsilon aminocaproic acid 66.2 8 8533120 (1), 9792107 (1), 16097950 (1), 12453439 (1) (see all 7)
    microplasmin 65.9 3 10085135 (3)
    fumagillin 60.6 5 19863375 (1), 9157295 (1), 20022538 (1), 19217946 (1) (see all 5)
    matrigel 58.6 2 15828939 (1), 12954626 (1)
    fibrinogen 50.8 44 1284915 (2), 9156266 (2), 18714035 (2), 8148481 (2) (see all 21)
    thalidomide 49.3 14 15975645 (5), 10439927 (1), 16678057 (1), 8520966 (1) (see all 10)
    lysine 37.3 14 9792107 (2), 8533120 (1), 19581392 (1), 12658774 (1) (see all 8)
    serine 36.5 15 9698533 (3), 8895739 (2), 15792635 (1), 10889192 (1) (see all 11)
    benzamidine 29.1 2 9792107 (1), 16097950 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PLG / PLMN

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PLG gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000301.3  NM_001168338.1  

    Unigene Cluster for PLG:

    Plasminogen
    Hs.143436  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000301
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000366924(uc021zhr.1) ENST00000308192(uc003qtm.4) ENST00000418964
    ENST00000297289 ENST00000462918 ENST00000483038 ENST00000484367 ENST00000494325
    ENST00000471691 ENST00000493435 ENST00000467466 ENST00000461414
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PLG
    1 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNA that regulate PLG:
    hsa-miR-543
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPLG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PLG
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PLG
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PLG (see all 10)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PLG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PLG (NM_000301)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PLG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PLG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PLG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PLG 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PLG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PLG
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PLG
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PLG
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PLG

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK298338.1 AK308036.1 AK312966.1 BC060513.1 BC115369.1 K02922.1 M74220.1 X05199.1 

    20 DOTS entries:

    DT.453213  DT.95162938  DT.121324519  DT.100891418  DT.91748451  DT.100891456  DT.91748444  DT.86855200 
    DT.121324584  DT.121324514  DT.121324563  DT.121324546  DT.91748442  DT.95162937  DT.100891422  DT.121324583 
    DT.91686404  DT.91748447  DT.91938200  DT.95162941 

    24/111 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 111):

    BX095666 H74059 T81942 N49661 BF447999 M74220 AA700207 R28928 
    CB141713 BI759134 T64119 AI140566 CB154226 T77573 K02922 BE326828 
    AV700701 CD608133 BF511059 BV167656 H63293 AI695215 CB161593 BV168084 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/6 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLG (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
    SP1:                          -                                                                                               -                                 
    SP2:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                    -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                                               


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PLG

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PLG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PLG embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    PLG Expression
    About this image


    PLG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/4 selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Human Hepatocyte (HH)   
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Embryoid bodies ( Two-step protocol for endothelial differentiation by embryoid...
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)

    See PLG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PLG

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.143436

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
    Tissue specificity: Present in plasma and many other extracellular fluids. It is synthesized in the liver

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PLG (see all 8): 
              Fibrosis in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Angiogenesis in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for PLG gene from 6/15 species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Plg1 , 5 plasminogen1, 5 78.89(n)1
    79.38(a)1
      17 (8.50 cM)5
    188151  NM_008877.31  NP_032903.31 
     123786095 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PLG1 plasminogen 66.54(n)
    63.41(a)
      421580  XM_419618.3  XP_419618.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    63(a)
    1 → many
    1(211778053-211817166)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.242672 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 74.81(n)    CB200754.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii plg2 plasminogen 74.64(n)   322691  BC059801.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea C07G1.13 peptidase 35(a)   IV(8212766-8213851)   --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PLG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PLG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PLG gene
    PLAT2  HGFAC2  HABP22  PLAU2  LPA2  MST12  F122  HGF2  
    18 SIMAP similar genes for PLG using alignment to 4 protein entries:     PLMN_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    DKFZp779M0222    PLGLB2    PLGLA    PLGLB1    PLGL    APOA
    LPAL2    LPA    ROR2    PLAT    KLK9    HGF
    MST1    MST1L    ROR1    GZMK    GZMA    PRSS48

    PLG for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    3 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLG
    PGOHUM00000240240 PGOHUM00000250196 PGOHUM00000243842


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/1457 SNPs in PLG are shown (see all 1457)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0066304
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0066302 G R mis40--------
    VAR_0186604
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186602 R H mis40--------
    VAR_0186584
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186582 L P mis40--------
    VAR_0066284
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0066282 S P mis40--------
    VAR_0186594
    Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4--see VAR_0186592 R H mis40--------
    rs730159651,2,4
    C,FPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161135397(+) TCACTA/GAGAAG 4 K E mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5873
    rs1219180281,2,4
    CPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161151363(+) CTGTGG/TTCCAG 2 V F mis10--------
    rs1219180271,2,4
    CPlasminogen deficiency (PLGD)4 pathogenic1161167525(+) TGACTA/GCTGCC 2 T A mis10--------
    rs1415392311,2
    Cuntested1161160698(+) AATGGA/G/TAAAGG 2 G syn11NA 4552
    rs1405377241,2
    C,Funtested1161160709(+) ATACCG/AAGGCA 2 /Q /R mis12Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA EU 5875

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PLG (161123225 - 161175086 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 7 variations for PLG:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv1302715CNV Insertion17803354
    nsv5571CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv522424CNV Loss19592680
    nsv522773CNV Loss19592680
    dgv2024e1CNV Complex17122850
    esv259630OTHER Complex20981092
    esv260008OTHER Complex20981092


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PLG
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PLG
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PLG

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 173350   
    OMIM disorders: 217090  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLMN_HUMAN, P00747
  • Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]: A disorder characterized by decreased serum plasminogen
    activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by
    decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as
    dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical
    manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic
    mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common
    clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the
    palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency
    that replace the normal mucosa. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this
    entry

  • 20/106 diseases for PLG (see all 106):    About MalaCards
    conjunctivitis    congenital plasminogen deficiency    conjunctivitis ligneous    corneal neovascularization
    hemangioendothelioma    pyogenic granuloma    acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis    blood clots
    thrombophilia    intermediate coronary syndrome    invasive aspergillosis    antithrombin iii deficiency
    ocular melanoma    hereditary angioedema    paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria    angioedema
    osteonecrosis    hemoglobinuria    alcoholic hepatitis    thromboembolism

    18 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PLG:
    Myocardial infarction     Thrombophilia     Atherosclerosis     Cerebrovascular accident
    Pulmonary embolism     Hemorrhagic disease     Coronary heart disease     Hypertension
    Diabetes mellitus     Conjunctivitis     Kidney disease     Breast cancer
    Lung disease     Protein C deficiency     Intermediate coronary syndrome     Carcinoma
    Hypersensitivity reaction type II disease     Intracranial thrombosis

    PLG for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/77 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PLG gene (see all 77)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    neovascularization 68.4 19 19932587 (2), 9102221 (1), 11126410 (1), 12375018 (1) (see all 16)
    conjunctivitis, ligneous 67.4 1 17701212 (1)
    corneal neovascularization 60.9 5 11029550 (1), 10342373 (1), 8895739 (1), 16270025 (1)
    tumors 60.3 218 9393749 (5), 16424020 (5), 9755235 (4), 16205930 (4) (see all 99)
    carcinoma lewis lung 57.9 4 14741778 (1), 17557110 (1), 12439600 (1), 7525077 (1)
    metastasis 56.2 40 7525077 (3), 12439600 (2), 10582698 (2), 12954626 (2) (see all 34)
    cancer 49.3 56 10762660 (7), 14719094 (4), 10629628 (2), 14996740 (2) (see all 35)
    primary tumor 42.9 12 14502219 (2), 9002223 (2), 8640562 (1), 9865747 (1) (see all 10)
    melanoma b16 42.2 1 16988811 (1)
    uveal melanoma 36.4 10 11735791 (5), 16735992 (2), 10596910 (1)

    Genatlas disease: PLG
    thrombosis,recurrent,dysplasminogenemic type

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PLG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PLG (14 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): PLG

    Export disorders for PLG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PLG gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 686):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PLG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells. (PubMed id 10077593)1, 2, 9 Moser T.L....Pizzo S.V. (1999)
    2. Binding of the NG2 proteoglycan to kringle domains modulates the functional properties of angiostatin and plasmin(ogen). (PubMed id 10889192)1, 2, 9 Goretzki L.... Stallcup W.B. (2000)
    3. A recombinant human angiostatin protein inhibits experimental primary and metastatic cancer. (PubMed id 9102221)1, 2, 9 Sim B.K.... Nacy C.A. (1997)
    4. Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. (PubMed id 7525077)1, 2, 9 O'Reilly M.S.... Folkman J. (1994)
    5. Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and ri sk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of ty pe 2 diabetes. (PubMed id 21900290)1, 4 Qi Q....Qi L. (2012)
    6. Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth. (PubMed id 20140262)1, 4 Ryckman K.K....Jacobsson B. (2010)
    7. Genetic Risk Factors for Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in Patients With Advanced Liver Disease. (PubMed id 20346360)1, 4 Roberts K.E....Fallon M.B. (2010)
    8. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of t hiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipr il and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (2010)
    9. Regulation of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) funct ion via plasmin-mediated proteolytic cleavage. (PubMed id 19712047)1, 2 Poon I.K....Parish C.R. (2009)
    10. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis. (PubMed id 18566672)1, 4 Zaas A.K....Schwartz D.A. (2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5340 HGNC: 9071 AceView: PLG Ensembl:ENSG00000122194 euGenes: HUgn5340
    ECgene: PLG Kegg: 5340 H-InvDB: PLG

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PLG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PLG Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmin
    SeattleSNPshttp://pga.gs.washington.edu/data/plg/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PLG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PLG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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