Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PLG Gene

Aliases for PLG Gene

  • Plasminogen 2 3 3 5
  • EC 3.4.21.7 4 61
  • EC 3.4.21 61
  • Plasmin 3

External Ids for PLG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLG Gene

  • GC06P160476
  • GC06P160996
  • GC06P161032
  • GC06P161093
  • GC06P161123
  • GC06P158569

Summaries for PLG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted blood zymogen that is activated by proteolysis and converted to plasmin and angiostatin. Plasmin dissolves fibrin in blood clots and is an important protease in many other cellular processes while angiostatin inhibits angiogenesis. Defects in this gene are likely a cause of thrombophilia and ligneous conjunctivitis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PLG Gene

PLG (Plasminogen) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLG include Plasminogen Deficiency, Type I and Conjunctivitis. Among its related pathways are Cell adhesion_Cell-matrix glycoconjugates and RET signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding and serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LPA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLG Gene

  • Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.

  • Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.

Gene Wiki entry for PLG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLG Gene

Genomics for PLG Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLG Gene

Enhancers for PLG Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH06F160703 0.2 ENCODE 0.8 +2.6 2557 2.0 SOX5 RNF2 MLX RARA YY1 HNF4G CREB1 HNF4A NR2F6 HOMEZ PLG GC06P160742
GH06F160714 0.2 ENCODE 0.4 +12.8 12811 1.3 TFAP4 TBX21 NFIL3 POLR2A ETV4 CEBPA NR2F6 BCL6 SMAD4 ZBTB33 PLG GC06P160742
GH06F160742 0.2 ENCODE 0.3 +39.0 38971 0.2 SP1 MCM3 CBX5 EED JUNB CREM RELA GC06P160742 PLG
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PLG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PLG Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
160,702,193 bp from pter
End:
160,754,054 bp from pter
Size:
51,862 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PLG Gene

Genes around PLG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLG Gene

Proteins for PLG Gene

  • Protein details for PLG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00747-PLMN_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Plasminogen
    Protein Accession:
    P00747
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15146
    • Q5TEH4
    • Q6PA00

    Protein attributes for PLG Gene

    Size:
    810 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    90569 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (both mature PLG and the angiostatin peptide) with CSPG4 and AMOT (PubMed:10889192, PubMed:16043488). Interacts (via the Kringle domains) with HRG; the interaction tethers PLG to the cell surface and enhances its activation (PubMed:9102401, PubMed:19712047). Interacts (via Kringle 4 domain) with ADA; the interaction stimulates PLG activation when in complex with DPP4 (PubMed:15016824). Angiostatin: Interacts with ATP5A1; the interaction inhibits most of the angiogenic effects of angiostatin (PubMed:10077593).
    Miscellaneous:
    • Plasmin is inactivated by alpha-2-antiplasmin immediately after dissociation from the clot.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLG Gene

neXtProt entry for PLG Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PLG Gene

P00747:
  • CRNPDGD
  • LEENYCRNP
  • PGVYVRVS
  • PSKFPNKNLK
  • GCARPNKPGVY
  • PWCYTTDP
  • CDIPRCTTPPP
  • TMSGLECQ
  • VLTAAHC
  • HFCGGTLISPEWV
  • YRGTSSTT
  • DSCQGDSGG
  • LPVIENKVCNR
  • AQEPHRH
  • GDSGGPL
  • TNPRAGLEKNYCRNPDGD
  • CQSWSSM
  • YLSECKTGNGKNYRGT
  • HNRTPENFPC
  • FQYHSKEQQCV
  • LQGVTSWG
  • VRWEYCNL
  • PNKPGVY
  • VQDCYHGDG
  • NYCRNPD
  • CQGDSGGP
  • YKVILGAH
  • TGWGETQ
  • SQSPHAHGY
  • GQSYRGT
  • WVLTAAH
  • DIALLKLSSP
  • SGGPLVC
  • RDVVLFEK
  • WGETQGT
  • PWCFTTDP
  • WPWQVSL
  • CRAFQYHSK

Post-translational modifications for PLG Gene

  • In the presence of the inhibitor, the activation involves only cleavage after Arg-580, yielding two chains held together by two disulfide bonds. In the absence of the inhibitor, the activation involves additionally the removal of the activation peptide.
  • N-linked glycan contains N-acetyllactosamine and sialic acid. O-linked glycans consist of Gal-GalNAc disaccharide modified with up to 2 sialic acid residues (microheterogeneity).
  • Glycosylation at Ser 268, Asn 308, and Thr 365
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLG Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PLG (Plasminogen)

Domains & Families for PLG Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLG Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P00747

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PLMN_HUMAN :
  • Kringle domains mediate interaction with CSPG4.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily.
Domain:
  • Kringle domains mediate interaction with CSPG4.
  • Contains 5 kringle domains.
  • Contains 1 PAN domain.
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLG: view

No data available for Gene Families for PLG Gene

Function for PLG Gene

Molecular function for PLG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
plasminogen
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Preferential cleavage: Lys- -Xaa > Arg- -Xaa; higher selectivity than trypsin. Converts fibrin into soluble products.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Converted into plasmin by plasminogen activators, both plasminogen and its activator being bound to fibrin. Activated with catalytic amounts of streptokinase. Plasmin activity inhibited by SERPINE2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005102 receptor binding IPI 20028034
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 134998
GO:0008233 peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0008236 serine-type peptidase activity IEA,TAS 24263861
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLG: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PLG Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PLG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLG:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PLG

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLG Gene

Localization for PLG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLG Gene

Secreted. Note=Locates to the cell surface where it is proteolytically cleaved to produce the active plasmin. Interaction with HRG tethers it to the cell surface.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PLG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
lysosome 2
nucleus 2
vacuole 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 6216475
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 14699093
GO:0031093 platelet alpha granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view

Pathways & Interactions for PLG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLG: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation IEA,IMP 1986355
GO:0007599 hemostasis IEA --
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation TAS 8910613
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PLG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PLG Gene

(41) Drugs for PLG Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Tranexamic Acid Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 257
Aprotinin Approved, Withdrawn Pharma inhibitor, Target Inhibitor of bovine pancreatic trypsin 24
Alteplase Approved Pharma activator, Target 0
Aminocaproic Acid Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 26
Anistreplase Approved Pharma activator, Target 0

(14) Additional Compounds for PLG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLG: view

Transcripts for PLG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLG Gene

Plasminogen:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PLG

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for PLG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PLG

Expression for PLG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PLG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x50.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (23.8), Plasma (18.2), and Synovial fluid (10.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PLG Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLG Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLG Gene:

PLG

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLG Gene:

Hs.143436

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLG Gene:

P00747-PLMN_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Present in plasma and many other extracellular fluids. It is synthesized in the liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLG: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for PLG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PLG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLG 34 35
  • 99.05 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLG 34 35
  • 83.62 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLG 34 35
  • 80.37 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plg 34
  • 79.48 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plg 34 16 35
  • 78.89 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 62 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLG 34
  • 66.62 (n)
-- 35
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 35
  • 51 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 63 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100496227 34
  • 62.28 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24267 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii plg 34 35
  • 60.03 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8759 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1299 36
  • 39 (a)
CG11836 36
  • 37 (a)
Tequila 36 35
  • 36 (a)
CG13744 36
  • 35 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea try-1 34
  • 46.19 (n)
C07G1.1 36
  • 35 (a)
svh-1 35
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PLG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PLG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLG (if available)

Paralogs for PLG Gene

Paralogs for PLG Gene

(18) SIMAP similar genes for PLG Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PLG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLG: view

Variants for PLG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121918027 Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090], Pathogenic 160,738,593(+) TGACT(A/G)CTGCC reference, missense
rs121918028 Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090], Pathogenic 160,722,431(+) CTGTG(G/T)TCCAG reference, missense
rs121918029 Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090], Pathogenic 160,736,976(+) CACAT(C/T)CCTGG reference, missense
rs121918030 Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090], Pathogenic 160,716,680(+) CTGTC(A/G)TAACC reference, missense
rs121918033 Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090], Pathogenic 160,752,240(+) TGGCC(A/G)GAGGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1845e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv1302715 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2759484 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv3302656 CNV tandem duplication 20981092
esv3303034 CNV tandem duplication 20981092
esv3332475 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3342512 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3422389 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3611443 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1019113 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1026543 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1125893 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1129273 CNV insertion 24896259
nsv522424 CNV loss 19592680
nsv522773 CNV loss 19592680
nsv5571 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv605005 CNV gain 21841781
nsv965782 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965783 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965784 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv969466 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv970189 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PLG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 64.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.85; 58.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PLG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PLG
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PLG

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLG Gene

Disorders for PLG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(40) MalaCards diseases for PLG Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
plasminogen deficiency, type i
  • dysplasminogenemia
conjunctivitis
  • madras eye
ligneous conjunctivitis
  • conjunctivitis lignosa
congenital plasminogen deficiency
  • plasminogen deficiency, type i
pseudomembranous conjunctivitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PLG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PLMN_HUMAN
  • Plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]: A disorder characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10233898, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1427790, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1986355, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6216475, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6238949, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8392398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9242524, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9858247}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for PLG Gene

thrombosis,recurrent,dysplasminogenemic type

Relevant External Links for PLG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PLG
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PLG
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
PLG
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PLG
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLG: view

Publications for PLG Gene

  1. Binding of the NG2 proteoglycan to kringle domains modulates the functional properties of angiostatin and plasmin(ogen). (PMID: 10889192) Goretzki L. … Stallcup W.B. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 4 22 64
  2. Angiostatin binds ATP synthase on the surface of human endothelial cells. (PMID: 10077593) Moser T.L. … Pizzo S.V. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999) 3 4 22 64
  3. A recombinant human angiostatin protein inhibits experimental primary and metastatic cancer. (PMID: 9102221) Sim B.K. … Nacy C.A. (Cancer Res. 1997) 3 4 22 64
  4. Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 21900290) Qi Q. … Qi L. (Eur. Heart J. 2012) 3 46 64
  5. Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth. (PMID: 20140262) Ryckman K.K. … Jacobsson B. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64

Products for PLG Gene

Sources for PLG Gene

Content
Loading form....