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Aliases for PLAU Gene

Aliases for PLAU Gene

  • Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase 2 3 5
  • U-Plasminogen Activator 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • UPA 3 4
  • Plasminogen Activator, Urinary 3
  • EC 3.4.21 63
  • BDPLT5 3
  • U-PA 3
  • ATF 3
  • QPD 3
  • URK 3

External Ids for PLAU Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLAU Gene

  • GC10P074625
  • GC10P074774
  • GC10P075561
  • GC10P075015
  • GC10P075340
  • GC10P075668
  • GC10P069666

Summaries for PLAU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLAU Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate A and B polypeptide chains. These chains associate via a single disulfide bond to form the catalytically inactive high molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (HMW-uPA). HMW-uPA can be further processed into the catalytically active low molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (LMW-uPA). This low molecular weight form does not bind to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Quebec platelet disorder and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for PLAU Gene

PLAU (Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLAU include Quebec Platelet Disorder and Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Endochondral Ossification and Development HGF signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene

  • Specifically cleaves the zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin.

Tocris Summary for PLAU Gene

Gene Wiki entry for PLAU Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLAU Gene

Genomics for PLAU Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLAU Gene

Enhancers for PLAU Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PLAU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PLAU gene promoter:

Genomic Location for PLAU Gene

73,909,177 bp from pter
73,917,501 bp from pter
8,325 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PLAU Gene

Genes around PLAU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLAU Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLAU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLAU Gene

Proteins for PLAU Gene

  • Protein details for PLAU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DPZ2
    • Q15844
    • Q16618
    • Q53XS3
    • Q5SWW9
    • Q969W6

    Protein attributes for PLAU Gene

    431 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    48507 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Found in high and low molecular mass forms. Each consists of two chains, A and B. The high molecular mass form contains a long chain A which is cleaved to yield a short chain A. Forms heterodimer with SERPINA5. Binds LRP1B; binding is followed by internalization and degradation. Interacts with MRC2. Interacts with PLAUR.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLAU Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PLAU Gene


neXtProt entry for PLAU Gene

Proteomics data for PLAU Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PLAU Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-158 and Ser-323 abolishes proadhesive ability but does not interfere with receptor binding.
  • Glycosylation at Thr 38, Ser 158, and Asn 322
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLAU Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for PLAU (u-Plasminogen Activator (uPA)/Urokinase)

Assay Products

Domains & Families for PLAU Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLAU Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.
  • Contains 1 kringle domain.
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLAU: view

No data available for Gene Families for PLAU Gene

Function for PLAU Gene

Molecular function for PLAU Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
plasminogen activator,urokinase serine protease,involved in plasminogen activation to plasmin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Specific cleavage of Arg- -Val bond in plasminogen to form plasmin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by SERPINA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Specifically cleaves the zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLAU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLAU: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PLAU Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PLAU Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLAU:

Animal Model Products

Transcription Factor Targets for PLAU Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for PLAU

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function and HOMER Transcription for PLAU Gene

Localization for PLAU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PLAU Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLAU gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
lysosome 2
nucleus 2
vacuole 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLAU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IDA 21423176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLAU: view

Pathways & Interactions for PLAU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLAU: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PLAU Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLAU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis IEA --
GO:0007566 embryo implantation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLAU: view

Drugs & Compounds for PLAU Gene

(109) Drugs for PLAU Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Amiloride Approved Pharma Channel blocker, Target, inhibitor 47
Urokinase Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma activator, Target 0
4-Iodobenzo[B]Thiophene-2-Carboxamidine Experimental Pharma Target 0
benzamidine Experimental Pharma Target 0
(2R)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(79) Additional Compounds for PLAU Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride
Amiloride hydrochloride
BC 11 hydrobromide

(3) Tocris Compounds for PLAU Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride Urokinase inhibitor 14279-91-5
Amiloride hydrochloride Na+ channel blocker; also I2 imidazoline ligand 2016-88-8
BC 11 hydrobromide Selective urokinase (uPA) inhibitor 443776-49-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLAU: view

Transcripts for PLAU Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLAU Gene

Plasminogen activator, urokinase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLAU Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PLAU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PLAU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PLAU Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLAU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLAU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (59.7) and Amniocyte (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PLAU Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLAU Gene Hs.77274

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLAU Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the prostate gland and prostate cancers.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLAU: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLAU Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for PLAU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PLAU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLAU 35
  • 82.93 (n)
  • 75.48 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLAU 35
  • 84.66 (n)
  • 79.34 (a)
  • 62 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plau 35
  • 77.75 (n)
  • 71.22 (a)
Plau 16
Plau 36
  • 69 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLAU 35
  • 99.15 (n)
  • 99.07 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plau 35
  • 78.26 (n)
  • 72.22 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLAU 36
  • 56 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLAU 36
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLAU 35
  • 56.8 (n)
  • 50.13 (a)
  • 43 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLAU 36
  • 44 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii plaua 35
  • 51.2 (n)
  • 43.98 (a)
plaua 36
  • 39 (a)
plaub 36
  • 36 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11836 37
  • 37 (a)
CG6041 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PLAU:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLAU Gene

Gene Tree for PLAU (if available)
Gene Tree for PLAU (if available)

Paralogs for PLAU Gene

Paralogs for PLAU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLAU: view

Variants for PLAU Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLAU Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_006722 -
VAR_013102 -
VAR_038730 -
VAR_038731 -
rs2227551 -- 73,909,432(+) GCATC(C/G/T)CTGAC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLAU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv825468 CNV Gain 20364138
dgv46n21 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv521018 CNV Gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for PLAU Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.53; 44.14% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PLAU Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene

Disorders for PLAU Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(30) MalaCards diseases for PLAU Gene - From: OMIM, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
quebec platelet disorder
  • factor v quebec
alzheimer disease
  • alzheimer disease, late-onset
ureter cancer
  • malignant tumour of ureter
endometrial adenosquamous carcinoma
  • adenosquamous carcinoma of endometrium
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PLAU in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) [MIM:601709]: An autosomal dominant bleeding disorder due to a gain-of-function defect in fibrinolysis. Although affected individuals do not exhibit systemic fibrinolysis, they show delayed onset bleeding after challenge, such as surgery. The hallmark of the disorder is markedly increased PLAU levels within platelets, which causes intraplatelet plasmin generation and secondary degradation of alpha-granule proteins. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20007542}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for PLAU

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLAU: view

No data available for Genatlas for PLAU Gene

Publications for PLAU Gene

  1. Persons with Quebec platelet disorder have a tandem duplication of PLAU, the urokinase plasminogen activator gene. (PMID: 20007542) Paterson A.D. … Hayward C.P. (Blood 2010) 3 4 48 67
  2. Urokinase is required for the formation of mactinin, an alpha-actinin fragment that promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation. (PMID: 12183060) Luikart S. … Oegema T. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2002) 3 25 26
  3. Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasmin efficiently convert hemofiltrate CC chemokine 1 into its active. (PMID: 11544332) Vakili J. … Parmentier M. (J. Immunol. 2001) 23 25 26
  4. Binding site of amiloride to urokinase plasminogen activator depends on species. (PMID: 11562773) Jankun J. … Skrzypczak-Jankun E. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2001) 23 25 26
  5. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a marker of aggressive phenotype and an independent prognostic factor in mismatch repair-proficient colorectal cancer. (PMID: 19740518) Minoo P. … Zlobec I. (Hum. Pathol. 2010) 3 23

Products for PLAU Gene

Sources for PLAU Gene