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Aliases for PLA2G16 Gene

Aliases for PLA2G16 Gene

  • Phospholipase A2 Group XVI 2 3 5
  • Adipose-Specific Phospholipase A2 3 4
  • Renal Carcinoma Antigen NY-REN-65 3 4
  • Group XVI Phospholipase A1/A2 3 4
  • H-Rev 107 Protein Homolog 3 4
  • HRAS-Like Suppressor 1 3 4
  • HRAS-Like Suppressor 3 2 3
  • Adipose-Specific PLA2 2 3
  • HREV107-1 3 4
  • HREV107-3 3 4
  • H-REV107 3 4
  • HRASLS3 3 4
  • HREV107 3 4
  • AdPLA 3 4
  • HRSL3 3 4
  • Ca-Independent Phospholipase A1/2 3
  • Phospholipase A2, Group XVI 2
  • Group XVI Phospholipase A2 3
  • EC 3.1.1.32 4
  • H-REV107-1 3
  • EC 3.1.1.4 4

External Ids for PLA2G16 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PLA2G16 Gene

  • HRASLS3

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G16 Gene

  • GC11M063100
  • GC11M063341
  • GC11M059671

Summaries for PLA2G16 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PLA2G16 Gene

PLA2G16 (Phospholipase A2 Group XVI) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G16 include Monofixation Syndrome and Abnormal Retinal Correspondence. Among its related pathways are Linoleic acid metabolism and Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes. GO annotations related to this gene include phospholipase A2 activity and phosphatidylserine 1-acylhydrolase activity. An important paralog of this gene is HRASLS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G16 Gene

  • Lipid-modifying enzyme that acts as major regulator of adipocyte lipolysis by catalyzing the release of fatty acids from phospholipids in adipose tissue (PubMed:19615464, PubMed:19047760, PubMed:20837014, PubMed:22605381, PubMed:22923616). Shows phospholipase A1 and A2 activity, catalyzing the calcium-independent hydrolysis of acyl groups in various phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (PubMed:19615464, PubMed:19047760, PubMed:20837014, PubMed:22605381, PubMed:22923616). For most substrates, phospholipase A1 activity is much higher than phospholipase A2 activity (PubMed:19047760). Phospholipase activity causes decreased intracellular levels of ether-type lipids, affecting peroxisome metabolism (By similarity). May also have acyltransferase activity: catalyzes both N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and O-acylation of lyso-phosphatidylcholines to form phosphatidylcholines (PubMed:22605381, PubMed:25383759). The relevance of acyltransferase activity in vivo is however unclear and would require additional evidences (PubMed:22605381, PubMed:25383759). Also has weak lysophospholipase activity (By similarity).

  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a host factor for picornaviruses: required during early infection to promote viral genome release into the cytoplasm (PubMed:28077878). May act as a cellular sensor of membrane damage at sites of virus entry, which relocalizes to sites of membrane rupture upon virus unfection (PubMed:28077878). Facilitates safe passage of the RNA away from LGALS8, enabling viral genome translation by host ribosome (PubMed:28077878). May also be involved in initiating pore formation, increasing pore size or in maintaining pores for genome delivery (PubMed:28077878). The lipid-modifying enzyme activity is required for this process (PubMed:28077878).

Gene Wiki entry for PLA2G16 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLA2G16 Gene

Genomics for PLA2G16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLA2G16 Gene

Enhancers for PLA2G16 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11G063612 1.2 ENCODE dbSUPER 30.6 +3.0 2979 2.1 ATF1 SIN3A ZBTB7B YY1 TCF12 SP3 CREB3 HNF4A KDM1A GTF2E2 PLA2G16 ATL3 ENSG00000203520 LOC105369335
GH11G063602 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.2 +13.7 13727 1.6 ELF3 ATF1 MLX DMAP1 ZNF48 RARA EGR1 CREM MIXL1 EGR2 PLA2G16 ATL3 RTN3 ENSG00000203520 LOC105369335
GH11G063608 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 +7.1 7136 3.2 ELF3 CTCF KLF1 ZMYM3 MAX ZIC2 RAD21 RARA YY1 ZFHX2 LGALS12 PLA2G16 HRASLS5 ENSG00000203520 LOC105369335
GH11G063530 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 +81.9 81908 8.4 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT YY1 ETS1 ZNF766 GATA2 ELK1 FOS KLF13 HRASLS2 ATL3 ENSG00000203520 PLA2G16 ENSG00000256789 AHNAK OTUB1 RARRES3 MARK2 PIR35897
GH11G063563 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 +50.9 50921 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 ARNT WRNIP1 TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 ZNF207 RARRES3 PLA2G16 ENSG00000203520 ENSG00000256789 OTUB1 HRASLS2 LOC105369335
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PLA2G16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PLA2G16 Gene

Chromosome:
11
Start:
63,573,195 bp from pter
End:
63,616,926 bp from pter
Size:
43,732 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLA2G16 Gene

Genes around PLA2G16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLA2G16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLA2G16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLA2G16 Gene

Proteins for PLA2G16 Gene

  • Protein details for PLA2G16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P53816-PA216_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    HRAS-like suppressor 3
    Protein Accession:
    P53816
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R7Q4
    • B7XAK5
    • Q3SYI3
    • Q9HDD1

    Protein attributes for PLA2G16 Gene

    Size:
    162 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17937 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PPP2R1A; this interaction might decrease PP2A activity.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLA2G16 Gene

neXtProt entry for PLA2G16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PLA2G16 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=7373 and posLast=9191
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLA2G16 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PLA2G16 Gene

Domains & Families for PLA2G16 Gene

Gene Families for PLA2G16 Gene

Protein Domains for PLA2G16 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLA2G16 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P53816

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PA216_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the H-rev107 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the H-rev107 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLA2G16: view

Function for PLA2G16 Gene

Molecular function for PLA2G16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=300 uM for dipalmitoyl-PC {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19615464}; Vmax=2.57 umol/min/mg enzyme with dipalmitoyl-PC as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19615464}; Vmax=267 nmol/min/mg enzyme with dipalmitoyl-PE as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19615464}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 9. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19615464};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 2-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Lipid-modifying enzyme that acts as major regulator of adipocyte lipolysis by catalyzing the release of fatty acids from phospholipids in adipose tissue (PubMed:19615464, PubMed:19047760, PubMed:20837014, PubMed:22605381, PubMed:22923616). Shows phospholipase A1 and A2 activity, catalyzing the calcium-independent hydrolysis of acyl groups in various phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (PubMed:19615464, PubMed:19047760, PubMed:20837014, PubMed:22605381, PubMed:22923616). For most substrates, phospholipase A1 activity is much higher than phospholipase A2 activity (PubMed:19047760). Phospholipase activity causes decreased intracellular levels of ether-type lipids, affecting peroxisome metabolism (By similarity). May also have acyltransferase activity: catalyzes both N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to form N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and O-acylation of lyso-phosphatidylcholines to form phosphatidylcholines (PubMed:22605381, PubMed:25383759). The relevance of acyltransferase activity in vivo is however unclear and would require additional evidences (PubMed:22605381, PubMed:25383759). Also has weak lysophospholipase activity (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a host factor for picornaviruses: required during early infection to promote viral genome release into the cytoplasm (PubMed:28077878). May act as a cellular sensor of membrane damage at sites of virus entry, which relocalizes to sites of membrane rupture upon virus unfection (PubMed:28077878). Facilitates safe passage of the RNA away from LGALS8, enabling viral genome translation by host ribosome (PubMed:28077878). May also be involved in initiating pore formation, increasing pore size or in maintaining pores for genome delivery (PubMed:28077878). The lipid-modifying enzyme activity is required for this process (PubMed:28077878).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By IFNG and IRF1.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLA2G16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLA2G16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0008970 phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase activity IDA,IEA 19047760
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups TAS --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLA2G16: view

Animal Models for PLA2G16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLA2G16:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PLA2G16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PLA2G16

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLA2G16 Gene

Localization for PLA2G16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G16 Gene

Membrane; Single-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Peroxisome membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLA2G16 gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
cytosol 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLA2G16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005777 peroxisome ISS --
GO:0005778 peroxisomal membrane IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G16: view

Pathways & Interactions for PLA2G16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLA2G16: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PLA2G16 Gene

Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLA2G16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006641 triglyceride metabolic process ISS --
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process IDA 20100577
GO:0007031 peroxisome organization ISS --
GO:0008654 phospholipid biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G16: view

Drugs & Compounds for PLA2G16 Gene

(4) Drugs for PLA2G16 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Water Approved Pharma 0
alpha-linolenic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
arachidonic acid Experimental Nutra Activator 30
linoleic acid Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLA2G16: view

Transcripts for PLA2G16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLA2G16 Gene

Phospholipase A2, group XVI:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLA2G16 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4:
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for PLA2G16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLA2G16
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PLA2G16

Expression for PLA2G16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PLA2G16 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLA2G16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x5.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLA2G16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (16.7), Breast (16.2), Spinal cord (11.5), Frontal cortex (8.3), and Retina (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PLA2G16 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLA2G16 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLA2G16 Gene:

PLA2G16

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLA2G16 Gene:

Hs.502775

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLA2G16 Gene:

P53816-PA216_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. low expression, if any, in hematopoietic cells and thymus. In testis, confined to round spermatids. Expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cells. Down-regulated in some ovarian carcinomas and testicular germ cell tumors. Highly expressed in white adipose tissue (PubMed:19136964).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLA2G16 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.3)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Muscle(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLA2G16: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLA2G16 Gene

Orthologs for PLA2G16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PLA2G16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLA2G16 34 35
  • 97.33 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC476045 34
  • 87.24 (n)
-- 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLA2G16 34 35
  • 84.7 (n)
-- 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pla2g16 34 16 35
  • 83.74 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pla2g16 34
  • 83.23 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch211-229n2.6 35
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PLA2G16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLA2G16 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLA2G16 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLA2G16 (if available)

Paralogs for PLA2G16 Gene

Paralogs for PLA2G16 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for PLA2G16 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLA2G16: view

Variants for PLA2G16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLA2G16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000036247 -- 63,614,173(+) GCCTC(-/G)GACCC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1000073148 -- 63,604,260(+) GGGAT(A/T)CAGAA intron-variant
rs1000227954 -- 63,587,678(+) GCCTC(A/C)CCAGT intron-variant
rs1000357723 -- 63,600,804(+) TCACC(A/G)TGTTG intron-variant
rs1000429992 -- 63,613,913(+) TCTCG(C/G)AAGCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLA2G16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv32927 CNV gain 17666407
esv33275 CNV loss 17666407
esv3626646 CNV gain 21293372
esv3626647 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1138041 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv352 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv472513 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878

Variation tolerance for PLA2G16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.05; 21.46% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PLA2G16 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PLA2G16

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G16 Gene

Disorders for PLA2G16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for PLA2G16 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
monofixation syndrome
abnormal retinal correspondence
binocular vision disease
  • simultaneous visual perception without fusion
aniseikonia
accommodative esotropia
  • esotropia with accommodative compensation
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for PLA2G16

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PLA2G16
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLA2G16: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PLA2G16 Gene

Publications for PLA2G16 Gene

  1. Transcriptional and translational downregulation of H-REV107, a class II tumour suppressor gene located on human chromosome 11q11-12. (PMID: 9771974) Husmann K. … Schafer R. (Oncogene 1998) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Characterization of the human tumor suppressors TIG3 and HRASLS2 as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. (PMID: 19615464) Uyama T. … Ueda N. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2009) 3 4 22 64
  3. The class II tumour suppressor gene H-REV107-1 is a target of interferon-regulatory factor-1 and is involved in IFNgamma-induced cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells. (PMID: 11973642) Sers C. … Schafer R. (Oncogene 2002) 3 4 22 64
  4. PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae. (PMID: 28077878) Staring J. … Brummelkamp T.R. (Nature 2017) 3 4 64
  5. LRAT-specific domain facilitates vitamin A metabolism by domain swapping in HRASLS3. (PMID: 25383759) Golczak M. … Palczewski K. (Nat. Chem. Biol. 2015) 3 4 64

Products for PLA2G16 Gene

Sources for PLA2G16 Gene

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