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Aliases for PKN2 Gene

Aliases for PKN2 Gene

  • Protein Kinase N2 2 3 5
  • Protein Kinase C-Like 2 2 3 4
  • Cardiolipin-Activated Protein Kinase Pak2 2 3
  • Protein-Kinase C-Related Kinase 2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.13 4 63
  • PKN Gamma 3 4
  • PRKCL2 3 4
  • PRK2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11 63
  • PRO2042 3
  • PAK-2 3
  • STK7 3
  • PAK2 3

External Ids for PKN2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PKN2 Gene

  • PRKCL2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PKN2 Gene

  • GC01P088862
  • GC01P089149
  • GC01P087267

Summaries for PKN2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PKN2 Gene

PKN2 (Protein Kinase N2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKN2 Gene

  • PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein that participates in specific signal transduction responses in the cell. Plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, actin cytoskeleton assembly, cell migration, cell adhesion, tumor cell invasion and transcription activation signaling processes. Phosphorylates CTTN in hyaluronan-induced astrocytes and hence decreases CTTN ability to associate with filamentous actin. Phosphorylates HDAC5, therefore lead to impair HDAC5 import. Direct RhoA target required for the regulation of the maturation of primordial junctions into apical junction formation in bronchial epithelial cells. Required for G2/M phases of the cell cycle progression and abscission during cytokinesis in a ECT2-dependent manner. Stimulates FYN kinase activity that is required for establishment of skin cell-cell adhesion during keratinocytes differentiation. Regulates epithelial bladder cells speed and direction of movement during cell migration and tumor cell invasion. Inhibits Akt pro-survival-induced kinase activity. Mediates Rho protein-induced transcriptional activation via the c-fos serum response factor (SRF). Phosphorylates HCV NS5B leading to stimulation of HCV RNA replication.

Gene Wiki entry for PKN2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PKN2 Gene

Genomics for PKN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PKN2 Gene

Promoters for PKN2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PKN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PKN2 Gene

Chromosome:
1
Start:
88,684,193 bp from pter
End:
88,836,255 bp from pter
Size:
152,063 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PKN2 Gene

Genes around PKN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PKN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PKN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PKN2 Gene

Proteins for PKN2 Gene

  • Protein details for PKN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q16513-PKN2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase N2
    Protein Accession:
    Q16513
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DQ21
    • B4DTP5
    • B4DVG1
    • D3DT24
    • Q08AF4
    • Q9H1W4

    Protein attributes for PKN2 Gene

    Size:
    984 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    112035 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (via the REM repeats) with RHOA (GTP-bound form preferentially). Interacts (via the REM repeats) with RAC1 (GTP-bound form preferentially). Interacts with NCK1 (via SH3 domains). Interacts with CD44 (By similarity). Interacts with RHOA (GTP-bound form preferentially) and RAC1 (GTP-bound form preferentially); the interactions induce its autophosphorylation. Interacts (via C-terminal kinase domain) with PDPK1; the interaction stimulates PDPK1 kinase activity. Interacts with MAP3K2; the interaction activates PRK2 kinase activity in a MAP3K2-independent kinase activity. Interacts (via C-terminal domain) with AKT1; the interaction occurs with the C-terminal cleavage product of PRK2 in apoptotic cells. Interacts (via C-terminus) with PTPN13 (via PDZ 3 domain). Interacts with HCV NS5B (via N-terminal finger domain). Interacts with NCK1, NCK2 and RHOC.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PKN2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PKN2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PKN2 Gene

Proteomics data for PKN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PKN2 Gene

  • Activated by limited proteolysis with trypsin (By similarity). Proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 during the induction of apoptotic cell death.
  • Autophosphorylated. Phosphorylated during mitosis.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PKN2 (PKN2)

Domains & Families for PKN2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q16513

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PKN2_HUMAN :
  • The N-terminal regioninterferes with the interaction between AKT1 and the C-terminal regionof PKN2.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
  • Contains 3 REM (Hr1) repeats.
Domain:
  • The N-terminal regioninterferes with the interaction between AKT1 and the C-terminal regionof PKN2.
  • The C1 domain does not bind the diacylglycerol (DAG).
  • The apoptotic C-terminal cleavage product inhibits EGF-induced kinase activity of AKT1 phosphorylation at Thr-308 and Ser-473 sites, PDPK1 autophosphorylation and kinases PRKCD and PRKCZ phosphorylations.
  • Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 C2 domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily.
Similarity:
  • Contains 3 REM (Hr1) repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PKN2: view

Function for PKN2 Gene

Molecular function for PKN2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=15.83 uM for HDAC5 {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20188095};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Kinase activity is activated upon binding to GTP-bound Rhoa/Rac1 GTPases. Activated by caspase-3 (CASP3) cleavage during apoptosis. Activated by lipids, particularly cardiolipin and to a lesser extent by other acidic phospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids. Two specific sites, Thr-816 (activation loop of the kinase domain) and Thr-958 (turn motif), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein that participates in specific signal transduction responses in the cell. Plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, actin cytoskeleton assembly, cell migration, cell adhesion, tumor cell invasion and transcription activation signaling processes. Phosphorylates CTTN in hyaluronan-induced astrocytes and hence decreases CTTN ability to associate with filamentous actin. Phosphorylates HDAC5, therefore lead to impair HDAC5 import. Direct RhoA target required for the regulation of the maturation of primordial junctions into apical junction formation in bronchial epithelial cells. Required for G2/M phases of the cell cycle progression and abscission during cytokinesis in a ECT2-dependent manner. Stimulates FYN kinase activity that is required for establishment of skin cell-cell adhesion during keratinocytes differentiation. Regulates epithelial bladder cells speed and direction of movement during cell migration and tumor cell invasion. Inhibits Akt pro-survival-induced kinase activity. Mediates Rho protein-induced transcriptional activation via the c-fos serum response factor (SRF). Phosphorylates HCV NS5B leading to stimulation of HCV RNA replication.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PKN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PKN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004697 protein kinase C activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 10026169
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PKN2: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PKN2 Gene

Localization for PKN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKN2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Membrane. Cell projection, lamellipodium. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Cell junction. Note=Colocalizes with PTPN13 in lamellipodia-like structures, regions of large actin turnover. Accumulates during telophase at the cleavage furrow and concentrates finally around the midbody in cytokinesis. Recruited to nascent cell-cell contacts at the apical surface of cells. In the course of viral infection, colocalizes with HCV NS5B at perinuclear region in the cytoplasm. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11356191, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17332740}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PKN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PKN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PKN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 11356191
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0043296 apical junction complex IDA 20974804
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKN2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PKN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PKN2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PKN2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PKN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA,TAS 7851406
GO:0045070 positive regulation of viral genome replication IMP 15364941
GO:0045931 positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle IMP 17332740
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKN2: view

Drugs & Compounds for PKN2 Gene

(5) Drugs for PKN2 Gene - From: HMDB, DGIdb, ApexBio, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ingenol Mebutate Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
[Ser25] Protein Kinase C (19-31) Pharma PKC substrate 0
sophoretin Pharma inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PKN2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PKN2: view

Transcripts for PKN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PKN2 Gene

Protein kinase N2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PKN2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PKN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PKN2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PKN2

Expression for PKN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PKN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PKN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (22.3) and Lung (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PKN2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PKN2 Gene Hs.440833

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PKN2 Gene

Q16513-PKN2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous. Expressed in numerous tumor cell lines, especially in bladder tumor cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PKN2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PKN2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PKN2 Gene

Orthologs for PKN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PKN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PKN2 35
  • 99.76 (n)
  • 99.7 (a)
PKN2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PKN2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
PKN2 35
  • 94.8 (n)
  • 97.35 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PKN2 35
  • 94.97 (n)
  • 96.71 (a)
PKN2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pkn2 16
Pkn2 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
Pkn2 35
  • 90.4 (n)
  • 94.81 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PKN2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PKN2 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pkn2 35
  • 90.71 (n)
  • 94.61 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PKN2 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
PKN2 35
  • 84.37 (n)
  • 90.89 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PKN2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.21437 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pkn2 35
  • 77.88 (n)
  • 85.69 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pkn2 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
PKN2 (2 of 2) 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToMany
pkn2 35
  • 70.11 (n)
  • 79.66 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP007587 35
  • 56.54 (n)
  • 64.94 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pkn 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
Pkn 35
  • 56.21 (n)
  • 62.25 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pkn-1 35
  • 49.44 (n)
  • 41.48 (a)
pkn-1 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PKC1 36
  • 25 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.7005 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PKN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PKN2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PKN2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PKN2 (if available)

Paralogs for PKN2 Gene

Paralogs for PKN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PKN2: view

Variants for PKN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PKN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs167364 -- 88,724,954(-) gtgcc(A/C)ccgta intron-variant
rs167365 -- 88,715,162(-) gaact(C/G)agcag intron-variant
rs170038 -- 88,771,011(-) AAGTA(C/T)TTGAT intron-variant
rs170039 -- 88,714,281(-) tcata(C/T)ggaac intron-variant
rs305221 -- 88,733,302(-) cactg(C/T)tggtg intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PKN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830514 CNV Loss 17160897
esv272654 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv830525 CNV Loss 17160897
esv272267 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv270672 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv830537 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv871171 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv22n27 CNV Gain 19166990
esv2665922 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv462450 CNV Gain 19166990

Variation tolerance for PKN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 30.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.64; 45.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PKN2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PKN2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKN2 Gene

Disorders for PKN2 Gene

Relevant External Links for PKN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PKN2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PKN2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PKN2

No disorders were found for PKN2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PKN2 Gene

Publications for PKN2 Gene

  1. Cloning and expression patterns of two members of a novel protein- kinase-C-related kinase family. (PMID: 7851406) Palmer R.H. … Parker P.J. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1995) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Protein kinase C-related kinase targets nuclear localization signals in a subset of class IIa histone deacetylases. (PMID: 20188095) Harrison B.C. … McKinsey T.A. (FEBS Lett. 2010) 3 23
  3. The C-terminus of PRK2/PKNgamma is required for optimal activation by RhoA in a GTP-dependent manner. (PMID: 18835241) Lim W.G. … Duan W. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008) 3 23
  4. The yersinia virulence factor YopM forms a novel protein complex with two cellular kinases. (PMID: 12626518) McDonald C. … Dixon J.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 23
  5. A 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) docking site is required for the phosphorylation of protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta ) and PKC-related kinase 2 by PDK1. (PMID: 10764742) Balendran A. … Alessi D.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 23

Products for PKN2 Gene

Sources for PKN2 Gene

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