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PKN2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC01P089149

Protein Kinase N2

(Previous name: protein kinase C-like 2)
(Previous symbol: PRKCL2)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Protein Kinase N21 2     EC 2.7.11.133 8
PRKCL21 2 3 5     PAK22 5
Protein Kinase C-Like 21 2 3     PRO20422
PRK22 3 5     Pak-22
Cardiolipin-Activated Protein Kinase Pak21 2     Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase N22
Protein-Kinase C-Related Kinase 22 3     EC 2.7.118
PKN Gamma2 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 94061   Entrez Gene: 55862   Ensembl: ENSG000000652437   OMIM: 6025495   UniProtKB: Q165133   

Export aliases for PKN2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01P088618 GC01P088862 GC01P087267


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for PKN2 Gene:
PKN2 (protein kinase N2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include histone deacetylase binding and protein serine/threonine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCQ.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513
Function: PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein that participates in specific
signal transduction responses in the cell. Plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, actin
cytoskeleton assembly, cell migration, cell adhesion, tumor cell invasion and transcription activation signaling
processes. Phosphorylates CTTN in hyaluronan-induced astrocytes and hence decreases CTTN ability to associate
with filamentous actin. Phosphorylates HDAC5, therefore lead to impair HDAC5 import. Direct RhoA target required
for the regulation of the maturation of primordial junctions into apical junction formation in bronchial
epithelial cells. Required for G2/M phases of the cell cycle progression and abscission during cytokinesis in a
ECT2-dependent manner. Stimulates FYN kinase activity that is required for establishment of skin cell-cell
adhesion during keratinocytes differentiation. Regulates epithelial bladder cells speed and direction of movement
during cell migration and tumor cell invasion. Inhibits Akt pro-survival-induced kinase activity. Mediates Rho
protein-induced transcriptional activation via the c-fos serum response factor (SRF). Phosphorylates HCV NS5B
leading to stimulation of HCV RNA replication

Gene Wiki entry for PKN2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NT_032977.10  NC_018912.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PKN2 gene promoter:
         c-Fos   AP-1   Olf-1   FOXD3   Nkx2-5   CREB   MEF-2A   deltaCREB   aMEF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPKN2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PKN2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PKN2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p22.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p22.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p22

PKN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PKN2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01P089149:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
89,149,905 bp from pter      End:
89,301,938 bp from pter
Size:
152,034 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase N2  
Size: 984 amino acids; 112035 Da
Subunit: Interacts (via the REM repeats) with RHOA (GTP-bound form preferentially). Interacts (via the REM
repeats) with RAC1 (GTP-bound form preferentially). Interacts with NCK1 (via SH3 domains). Interacts with CD44
(By similarity). Interacts with RHOA (GTP-bound form preferentially) and RAC1 (GTP-bound form preferentially);
the interactions induce its autophosphorylation. Interacts (via C-terminal kinase domain) with PDPK1; the
interaction stimulates PDPK1 kinase activity. Interacts with MAP3K2; the interaction activates PRK2 kinase
activity in a MAP3K2-independent kinase activity. Interacts (via C-terminus domain) with AKT1; the interaction
occurs with the C-terminus cleavage product of PRK2 in apoptotic cells. Interacts (via C-terminus) with PTPN13
(via PDZ 3 domain). Interacts with HCV NS5B (via N-terminus finger domain). Interacts with NCK1, NCK2 and RHOC
Secondary accessions: B4DQ21 B4DTP5 B4DVG1 D3DT24 Q08AF4 Q9H1W4
Alternative splicing: 5 isoforms:  Q16513-1   Q16513-2   Q16513-3   Q16513-4   Q16513-5   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PKN2: NX_Q16513

Explore proteomics data for PKN2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Autophosphorylated. Phosphorylated during mitosis1
  • Activated by limited proteolysis with trypsin (By similarity). Proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 during the
    induction of apoptotic cell death1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PKN2 (Q16513) (see all 19)
     EELRHHF  DFGLCKE  PVIERRP  EFTSEAP 


    See PKN2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_006247.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000317851   ENSP00000359552   ENSP00000401125   ENSP00000389076   ENSP00000359544  
     ENSP00000359536   ENSP00000439643  

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    Novus Biologicals PKN2 Protein
    Novus Biologicals PKN2 Lysate
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PKN2

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PKN2 (11 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PKN2

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    PKN2 Assay Products:

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    antibodies-online kits for PKN2 (6 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: protein kinase N2
    Protein kinase N (PKN) family
    Other AGC kinases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
     IPR002290 Ser/Thr_dual-sp_kinase_dom
     IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom
     IPR017892 Pkinase_C
     IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q16513

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q16513

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000008 C2 domain
    IPB000861 PKN/rhophilin/rhotekin rho-binding repeat
    IPB000961 Protein kinase C-terminal domain
    IPB011072 Protein kinase PKN/PRK1


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513
    Domain: The N-terminus region interferes with the interaction between AKT1 and the C-terminus region of PKN2
    Domain: The C1 domain does not bind the diacylglycerol (DAG)
    Domain: The apoptotic C-terminus cleavage product inhibits EGF-induced kinase activity of AKT1 phosphorylation at
    'Thr-308' and 'Ser-473' sites, PDPK1 autophosphorylation and kinases PRKCD and PRKCZ phosphorylations
    Similarity: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 C2 domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 protein kinase domain
    Similarity: Contains 3 REM (Hr1) repeats


    Find genes that share domains with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513
    Function: PKC-related serine/threonine-protein kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein that participates in specific
    signal transduction responses in the cell. Plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, actin
    cytoskeleton assembly, cell migration, cell adhesion, tumor cell invasion and transcription activation signaling
    processes. Phosphorylates CTTN in hyaluronan-induced astrocytes and hence decreases CTTN ability to associate
    with filamentous actin. Phosphorylates HDAC5, therefore lead to impair HDAC5 import. Direct RhoA target required
    for the regulation of the maturation of primordial junctions into apical junction formation in bronchial
    epithelial cells. Required for G2/M phases of the cell cycle progression and abscission during cytokinesis in a
    ECT2-dependent manner. Stimulates FYN kinase activity that is required for establishment of skin cell-cell
    adhesion during keratinocytes differentiation. Regulates epithelial bladder cells speed and direction of movement
    during cell migration and tumor cell invasion. Inhibits Akt pro-survival-induced kinase activity. Mediates Rho
    protein-induced transcriptional activation via the c-fos serum response factor (SRF). Phosphorylates HCV NS5B
    leading to stimulation of HCV RNA replication
    Catalytic activity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
    Enzyme regulation: Kinase activity is activated upon binding to GTP-bound Rhoa/Rac1 GTPases. Activated by
    caspase-3 (CASP3) cleavage during apoptosis. Activated by lipids, particularly cardiolipin and to a lesser extent
    by other acidic phospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids. Two specific sites, Thr-816 (activation loop of the
    kinase domain) and Thr-958 (turn motif), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=15.83 uM for HDAC5;
    Induction: Up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.131 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity TAS7851406
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA--
    GO:0004697protein kinase C activity IEA--
    GO:0004713protein tyrosine kinase activity ----
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10026169
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         7 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PKN2:
     Decreased melanin production  Decreased substrate adherent c  Decreased viability  Increased cell death in HCC-19 
     Increased cell transformation  Increases Tamoxifen sensitivit  Synthetic lethal with gemcitab 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PKN2

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PKN2:
    hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT001524)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PKN2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PKN2 (see all 55):
    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-93
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPKN2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PKN2

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PKN2 (NM_006256)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PKN2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PKN2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PKN2
    Addgene plasmids for PKN2 

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PKN2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Membrane (By similarity). Cell projection, lamellipodium. Cytoplasm,
    cytoskeleton. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Cell junction. Note=Colocalizes with PTPN13 in lamellipodia-like
    structures, regions of large actin turnover. Accumulates during telophase at the cleavage furrow and concentrates
    finally around the midbody in cytokinesis. Recruited to nascent cell-cell contacts at the apical surface of
    cells. In the course of viral infection, colocalizes with HCV NS5B at perinuclear region in the cytoplasm
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    nucleus5
    cytosol3

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA17332740
    GO:0005813centrosome IDA--
    GO:0005856cytoskeleton ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PKN2 About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Salmonella infection (KEGG)
    Salmonella infection0.30
    2RhoA signaling pathway
    RhoA signaling pathway
    3PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    4EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    5Cytoskeletal Signaling
    Cytoskeletal Signaling


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PKN2 (see all 36)
        Paxillin Interactions
    JNK Pathway
    PDGF Pathway
    Tec Kinases Signaling
    TNFR1 Pathway

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for PKN2
        Ca, cAMP and Lipid Signaling
    Cytoskeletal Signaling

    2 BioSystems Pathways for PKN2
        EGFR1 Signaling Pathway
    RhoA signaling pathway



    2 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PKN2):
        PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Salmonella infection

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PKN2: 
              Cardiotoxicity in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PKN2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PKN2 (Q165131, 2, 3 ENSP000003595524) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 855)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PDK1Q151181, 2, 3, ENSP000002820774EBI-2511350,EBI-7016221 MINT-3390515 MINT-3390536 MINT-3390583 MINT-3390627 MINT-3390561 MINT-3390605 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000282077
    EEF1A1P681042, 3MINT-7945693 MINT-8266678 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=2 
    EIF3GO758212, 3MINT-8266689 MINT-7945693 MINT-7947479 I2D: score=2 
    NCK2O436392, 3, ENSP000002331544MINT-7136634 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000233154
    CCDC136Q96JN22, 3, ENSP000002977884MINT-8266656 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000297788
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006351transcription, DNA-templated IEA--
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation IDA17332740
    GO:0006915apoptotic process IEA--
    GO:0007049cell cycle IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PKN2

    2 HMDB Compounds for PKN2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for PKN2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 0 2 10026169 (1), 11777936 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PKN2 gene: 
    NM_006256.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PKN2:

    Protein kinase N2
    Hs.440833  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006256
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000316005 ENST00000370521(uc001dmn.3 uc010osp.2 uc010osq.2 uc009wcv.3 uc010osr.2)
    ENST00000436111 ENST00000449189 ENST00000495119 ENST00000370513 ENST00000370505
    ENST00000544045
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    hsa-miR-520e hsa-miR-302d hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-4328 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-372 hsa-miR-93
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Addgene plasmids for PKN2 
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PKN2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PKN2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF118089.2 AK023692.1 AK298595.1 AK300304.1 AK301066.1 BC006993.1 BC029749.1 BC038832.1 
    BC046146.1 BC062620.1 BC125199.1 S75548.1 U33052.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.114439  DT.40278991  DT.95330823  DT.99947643  DT.92452472  DT.99976184 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 204):

    AA970191 U33052 BC006993 AI476608 BC062620 CB132754 AL708612 BC046146 
    AA776404 CB131866 AA018656 AI803566 AV725625 BI438567 BQ024300 S75548 
    BU677852 BQ023095 CB135700 BM667662 BU633303 AU119685 AA035285 AA992720 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PKN2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AAAAAGCACA
    PKN2 Expression
    About this image


    PKN2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)
             Granulocytes Peripheral Blood
    PKN2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PKN2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.440833

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PKN2_HUMAN, Q16513
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous. Expressed in numerous tumor cell lines, especially in bladder tumor cells

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PKN2: 
              Cardiotoxicity in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PKN2 gene from Selected species (see all 18)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pkn21 , 5 protein kinase N21, 5 90.4(n)1
    94.81(a)1
      3 (66.69 cM)5
    1093331  NM_178654.41  NP_848769.21 
     1427909025 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PKN21 protein kinase N2 84.37(n)
    90.89(a)
      424519  XM_422357.3  XP_422357.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PKN26
    protein kinase N2
    88(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(95914332-95988033)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.214372 Xenopus laevis protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2) more 81.38(n)    AF027183.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii pkn21 protein kinase N2 70.11(n)
    79.66(a)
      571965  XM_695612.6  XP_700704.3 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Pkn1 Protein kinase related to protein kinase N 56.21(n)
    62.25(a)
      35950  NM_176112.2  NP_788292.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea pkn-11 pkn-1 49.44(n)
    41.48(a)
      181244  NM_001270173.1  NP_001257102.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PKC16
    Protein serine/threonine kinase essential for cell...
    25(a)
    1 → many
    II(14241-17696) YBL105C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PKN2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PKN2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PKN2 gene
    PRKCQ2  PRKCH2  PRKCB2  PRKCI2  PRKCE2  PKN12  PRKCA2  PRKCZ2  
    PRKCD2  PKN32  PRKCG2  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for PKN2 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PKN2_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    RPS6KA3    PRKCZ    PKN1    PRKACA    RPS6KA2    AKT2
    PRKCG    SGK2    SGK1    SGK494    AKT1    PRKCD
    MAP3K11    RPS6KA1    RPS6KB1    IKBKB    AURKC    MARK2

    Find genes that share paralogs with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PKN2 (see all 2899)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1919461421,2
    --89148109(+) CTAACA/GCTGTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1118576831,2
    C,F--89148115(+) CTGTAT/CCTATT 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- C:0.03CSA WA 120
    rs1828654001,2
    --89148142(+) TTGTTC/GTTCGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs343153151,2
    C--89148200(+) TTTTT-/TGAGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs124021511,2
    C,H--89148387(+) ACTCCC/TGACCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1380636451,2
    --89148456(+) CGCCTA/GGCCGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs75187501,2
    C,F,A,H--89148503(+) TAGGAC/AACCAT 1 -- us2k132Minor allele frequency- A:0.42NS EA NA WA CSA 2758
    rs1875453011,2
    --89148745(+) AGACTA/TGAGAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1924270481,2
    --89148748(+) CTTGAA/GAAGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs38063401,2
    C,F,A,H--89148793(-) TGTAAA/CTCTGT 1 -- us2k130Minor allele frequency- C:0.44EA NS NA WA CSA 4199

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PKN2 (89149905 - 89301938 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 10 variations for PKN2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2665922CNV Deletion23128226
    esv272267CNV Insertion20981092
    esv272654CNV Insertion20981092
    esv270672CNV Insertion20981092
    nsv830514CNV Loss17160897
    nsv830525CNV Loss17160897
    dgv22n27CNV Gain19166990
    nsv871171CNV Gain21882294
    nsv830537CNV Gain17160897
    nsv462450CNV Gain19166990

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PKN2
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602549    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PKN2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PKN2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PKN2 (10 documents)

    Export disorders for PKN2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PKN2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 92):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PKN2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and expression patterns of two members of a novel protein- kinase-C-related kinase family. (PubMed id 7851406)1, 2, 3, 9 Palmer R.H.... Parker P.J. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1995)
    2. Identification of multiple, novel, protein kinase C-related gene products. (PubMed id 7988719)1, 2, 3 Palmer R.H.... Parker P.J. (FEBS Lett. 1994)
    3. Specific proteolysis of the kinase protein kinase C-related kinase 2 by caspase-3 during apoptosis. Identification by a novel, small pool expression cloning strategy. (PubMed id 9368003)1, 2, 9 Cryns V.L.... Yuan J. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    4. The C-terminus of PRK2/PKNgamma is required for optimal activation by RhoA in a GTP-dependent manner. (PubMed id 18835241)1, 2, 9 Lim W.G.... Duan W. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008)
    5. Protein kinase C-related kinase targets nuclear localization signals in a subset of class IIa histone deacetylases. (PubMed id 20188095)1, 2, 9 Harrison B.C....McKinsey T.A. (FEBS Lett. 2010)
    6. Identification of Grb4/Nckbeta, a src homology 2 and 3 domain- containing adapter protein having similar binding and biological properties to Nck. (PubMed id 10026169)1, 2, 9 Braverman L.E. and Quilliam L.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999)
    7. The Rho target PRK2 regulates apical junction formation in human bronchial epithelial cells. (PubMed id 20974804)1, 2 Wallace S.W.... Hall A. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2011)
    8. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN- dependence of cell migration. (PubMed id 21754995)1, 2 Lachmann S.... Parker P.J. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    9. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    10. Polymorphisms identified through genome-wide association studies and their associations with type 2 diabetes in Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians in Singapore. (PubMed id 19892838)1, 4 Tan J.T....Tai E.S. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5586 HGNC: 9406 AceView: PKN2 Ensembl:ENSG00000065243 euGenes: HUgn5586
    ECgene: PKN2 Kegg: 5586 H-InvDB: PKN2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PKN2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PKN2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PKN2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PKN2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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