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PKM Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 58
GCID: GC15M072492

Pyruvate Kinase, Muscle


(Previous symbol: PKM2)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Pyruvate Kinase, Muscle1 2     OIP32 3
PKM21 2 3 5     p582 3
PK32 3 5     EC 2.7.1.403 8
THBP12 3 5     HEL-S-302
Cytosolic Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein2 3     TCB2
Opa-Interacting Protein 32 3     Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 302
Pyruvate Kinase 2/32 3     PK, Muscle Type2
Pyruvate Kinase Muscle Isozyme2 3     Pyruvate Kinase Isozymes M1/M22
Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein 12 3     Pyruvate Kinase PKM2
Tumor M2-PK2 3     Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein, Cytosolic2
CTHBP2 3     PK23
OIP-32 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 90211   Entrez Gene: 53152   Ensembl: ENSG000000672257   OMIM: 1790505   UniProtKB: P146183   

Export aliases for PKM gene to outside databases


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PKM Gene:
This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the
transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has
been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid
hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in
gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis.
Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. (provided
by RefSeq, May 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PKM Gene:
PKM (pyruvate kinase, muscle) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PKM include pyruvate kinase deficiency, and myotilinopathy. GO annotations related to this gene include pyruvate kinase activity and magnesium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PKLR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618
Function: Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to
ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase
independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive
dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic
ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for
tumor cell proliferation and survival

Gene Wiki entry for PKM (PKM2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000015.10  NT_010194.18  NC_018926.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for PKM
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPKM promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PKM

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PKM


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 15q22   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  15q23   HGNC cytogenetic band: 15q23

PKM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PKM gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 15         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC15M072492:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
72,491,370 bp from pter      End:
72,524,164 bp from pter
Size:
32,795 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Pyruvate kinase PKM  
Size: 531 amino acids; 57937 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium
Cofactor: Potassium
Subunit: Monomer and homotetramer. Exists as a monomer in the absence of FBP, and reversibly associates to form a
homotetramer in the presence of FBP. The monomeric form binds T3. Tetramer formation induces pyruvate kinase
activity. The tetrameric form has high affinity for the substrate and is associated within the glycolytic enzyme
complex. Exists in a nearly inactive dimeric form in tumor cells and the dimeric form has less affinity for the
substrate. Binding to certain oncoproteins such as HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein can trigger dimerization. FBP stimulates
the formation of tetramers from dimers. Interacts with HERC1, POU5F1 and PML. Interacts (isoform M2) with EGLN3;
the interaction hydroxylates PKM under hypoxia and enhances binding to HIF1A. Interacts (isoform M2) with HIF1A;
the interaction is enhanced by binding of EGLN3, promoting enhanced transcription activity under hypoxia
Miscellaneous: There are 4 isozymes of pyruvate kinase in mammals (L, R, M1, M2) encoded by 2 different genes:
PKLR and PKM. The L and R isozymes are generated from the PKLR by differential splicing of RNA; the M1 and M2
forms are produced from the PKM gene by differential splicing. L type is major isozyme in the liver, R is found
in red cells, M1 is the main form in muscle, heart and brain, and M2 is found in early fetal tissues as well as
in most cancer cells
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAG57589.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PKM (see all 18):
1T5A (3D)        1ZJH (3D)        3BJF (3D)        3BJT (3D)        3G2G (3D)        3GQY (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A6NFK3 B2R5N8 B3KRY0 B4DFX8 B4DUU6 P14786 Q53GK4 Q96E76 Q9BWB5 Q9UCV6
Q9UPF2
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P14618-1   P14618-2, P14786-1   P14618-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PKM: NX_P14618

Explore proteomics data for PKM at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • ISGylated1
  • Under hypoxia, hydroxylated by EGLN31
  • Acetylation at Lys-305 is stimulated by high glucose concentration, it decreases enzyme activity and promotes its
    lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys3, Lys62, Lys66, Lys89, Lys115, Lys125, Lys151, Lys166, Lys188, Lys207,
                                 Lys266, Lys270, Lys305, Lys311, Lys322, Lys367, Lys475, Lys498
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PKM (P14618) (see all 31)
     TEVENGG  DDGLISL  RLNFSHG  GSKKGVN 


    See PKM Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001193725.1  NP_001193726.1  NP_001193727.1  NP_001193728.1  NP_002645.3  NP_872270.1  NP_872271.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000455736   ENSP00000334983   ENSP00000456100   ENSP00000456004   ENSP00000455901  
     ENSP00000456970   ENSP00000457253   ENSP00000455584   ENSP00000457198   ENSP00000457830  
     ENSP00000456984   ENSP00000457420   ENSP00000454668   ENSP00000403365   ENSP00000320171  
     ENSP00000373745  

    PKM Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    OriGene MassSpec for PKM
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PKM
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    Novus Biologicals PKM Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PKM Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PKM
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PKM
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    PKM Antibody Products:

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    OriGene Antibodies for PKM
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PKM
    Novus Biologicals PKM Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PKM
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PKM

    PKM Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PKM
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 8):
     IPR015806 Pyrv_Knase_insert_dom
     IPR015794 Pyrv_Knase_a/b
     IPR015795 Pyrv_Knase_C
     IPR018209 Pyrv_Knase_AS
     IPR015813 Pyrv/PenolPyrv_Kinase-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P14618

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P14618

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001697 Pyruvate kinase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618
    Similarity: Belongs to the pyruvate kinase family


    PKM for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618
    Function: Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to
    ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase
    independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive
    dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic
    ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for
    tumor cell proliferation and survival
    Catalytic activity: ATP + pyruvate = ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate
    Enzyme regulation: Isoform M2 is allosterically activated by D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Inhibited by
    oxalate and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3). The activity of the tetrameric form is inhibited by PML. Selective
    binding to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides releases the allosteric activator FBP, leading to inhibition of PKM
    enzymatic activity, this diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are
    stimulated by certain growth factors. Glycolytic flux are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of serine and
    glycine, and serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of isoform M2
    Biophysicochemical properties: Kinetic parameters: KM=2.7 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH
    8.0); KM=0.17 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0); KM=0.34 mM
    for ADP (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0); KM=0.24 mM for ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 32 degrees Celsius,
    pH 8.0); KM=0.13 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius); KM=0.63 mM for
    ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius); pH dependence: Optimum pH for T3 binding is 6.0-6.5.
    Increase in pH causes T3 binding to drop, does not bind T3 above pH 9.0 or below pH 5.0;

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.7.1.401 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0003824catalytic activity ----
    GO:0004743pyruvate kinase activity TAS2040271
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI12620389
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    PKM for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PKM:
     Decreased BPV1 E2 protein expr  Increased HPV18 LCR reporter a  Increased cell death in HCC-19 

         4 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Pkm):
     mortality/aging  no phenotypic analysis  normal  tumorigenesis 

    PKM for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PKM
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PKM

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PKM
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PKM

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PKM:
    hsa-mir-1260b (MIRT052783), hsa-mir-23a-3p (MIRT050390), hsa-mir-296-3p (MIRT038436), hsa-mir-30a-5p (MIRT028653), hsa-mir-769-5p (MIRT039183), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT036965), hsa-mir-30c-5p (MIRT047865), hsa-mir-324-3p (MIRT042876), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049024), hsa-mir-330-3p (MIRT043843), hsa-mir-484 (MIRT041665), hsa-mir-766-3p (MIRT039032), hsa-mir-935 (MIRT036697), hsa-mir-221-3p (MIRT046929), hsa-mir-133b (MIRT001815), hsa-mir-222-3p (MIRT046680), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038155), hsa-mir-1301-3p (MIRT036045), hsa-mir-18a-3p (MIRT040961), hsa-mir-326 (MIRT005520), hsa-mir-328-3p (MIRT043754), hsa-mir-125b-5p (MIRT046067), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044585), hsa-mir-122-5p (MIRT023396), hsa-mir-3187-3p (MIRT052808), hsa-mir-423-3p (MIRT042646), hsa-mir-133a-3p (MIRT001816)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PKM using miScript Target Protectors
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPKM 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Gene Editing
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PKM


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    KPYM_HUMAN, P14618: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to different apoptotic
    stimuli. Nuclear translocation is sufficient to induce cell death that is caspase independent, isoform-specific
    and independent of its enzymatic activity

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA17308100
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane IDA--

    PKM for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PKM About   (see all 14)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map 0.60
    Glycolysis0.40
    Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis0.60
    glycolysis0.00
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    2Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    3Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38
    Biosynthesis of amino acids0.38
    4MPS VI - Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome
    Metabolism of carbohydrates0.45
    5Glucose metabolism
    Glucose metabolism0.44

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for PKM
        Glucose / Energy Metabolism

    2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for PKM
        G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-s signaling cascades
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for PKM
        Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis
    glycolysis
    HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    1 PharmGKB Pathway for PKM
        Abacavir Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PKM) (see all 8):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Purine metabolism
    Pyruvate metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618
    Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 5/5


    PKM for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PKM
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PKM

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PKM (P146181, 2, 3 ENSP000003201714) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 454)

    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PIN1Q135262, 3, ENSP000002479704MINT-8266535 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000247970
    NAGKQ9UJ702, 3, ENSP000002442044MINT-8263489 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000244204
    SMN1Q166372, 3MINT-8271399 I2D: score=2 
    SMN2Q166372, 3MINT-8271399 I2D: score=2 
    HIF1AQ166651, 3, ENSP000003380184EBI-4304679,EBI-447269 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000338018
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005975carbohydrate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006096glycolytic process TAS--
    GO:0012501programmed cell death IDA17308100
    GO:0044281small molecule metabolic process TAS--

    PKM for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PKM (KPYM)

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PKM gene (see all 20)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pyruvate 89.9 124 1532331 (3), 10470199 (3), 2176882 (3), 18191611 (3) (see all 87)
    fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 79.6 3 1885610 (1), 18337815 (1)
    phosphoenolpyruvate 69.3 5 18298799 (1), 11336658 (1), 19920249 (1)
    cellulose acetate 36.9 1 2220762 (1)
    glucose 35.8 18 9854017 (2), 16132722 (2), 1640060 (1), 18298799 (1) (see all 11)
    lactate 34.8 8 19920249 (2), 18298799 (1), 20213678 (1)
    adp 30.3 1 1846303 (1)
    pyrophosphate 24 3 1343845 (2), 12204438 (1)
    atp 17.9 3 2385106 (1), 20360867 (1), 19996282 (1)
    phenylalanine 16.8 3 2176882 (3)



    PKM for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PKM gene (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001206796.1  NM_001206797.1  NM_001206798.1  NM_001206799.1  NM_002654.4  NM_182470.2  NM_182471.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PKM:

    Pyruvate kinase, muscle
    Hs.534770  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001206796
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 25):
    ENST00000564440(uc002atr.1) ENST00000565184 ENST00000335181(uc002aty.2 uc010ukk.2)
    ENST00000568883 ENST00000565143 ENST00000567118 ENST00000565154 ENST00000568459
    ENST00000561609(uc010biu.1) ENST00000563986 ENST00000569857 ENST00000570166
    ENST00000564993 ENST00000563275 ENST00000568743 ENST00000562784 ENST00000564178
    ENST00000562997
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF025439.1 AK092369.1 AK222927.1 AK294315.1 AK297951.1 AK299413.1 AK300800.1 AK307855.1 
    AK308264.1 AK309781.1 AK312253.1 BC000481.2 BC007640.1 BC007952.2 BC012811.2 BC019265.2 
    BC023328.1 BC023592.2 BC035198.1 BC094767.1 BC096823.1 BX648597.1 M23725.1 M26252.1 
    Z36831.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 172):

    DT.100706021  DT.92473475  DT.99926520  DT.95077138  DT.100705992  DT.95311322  DT.100871692  DT.100706029 
    DT.98083703  DT.91726913  DT.100705949  DT.91890612  DT.92039033  DT.100870628  DT.100705983  DT.121043384 
    DT.91915413  DT.100705945  DT.121043415  DT.91717161  DT.100705947  DT.92473316  DT.99926522  DT.95270163 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 3712):

    BQ688933 BU734661 BQ230098 BQ674140 BQ052806 BQ279188 AA305133 BM558561 
    BG423336 BG254864 BF810279 BQ925614 AU125017 CB150429 BG575561 BQ653074 
    BM467689 CF142409 BQ651526 BQ639036 BP342086 BF445700 BU180906 BM561388 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PKM (see all 13)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^
    SP1:                          -                                   -                       -     -                                               -     -     -   
    SP2:        -     -     -     -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                   -               
    SP3:                                                                                      -     -                             -     -           -     -     -   
    SP4:                                                                                      -     -                                               -               
    SP5:                                                                                      -     -                                               -     -     -   

    ExUns: 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d ^ 15
    SP1:        -     -                           
    SP2:  -     -     -                           
    SP3:        -     -                           
    SP4:                                          
    SP5:  -     -     -                           


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PKM

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PKM expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    PKM Expression
    About this image


    PKM expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Double Negative 2 Thymocytes Thymus
             Thymus
     
     Lung (Respiratory System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Stem Bronchi
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Mandibular Condyle
    PKM Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PKM Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.534770

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: KPYM_HUMAN, P14618
    Tissue specificity: Specifically expressed in proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells, embryonic
    carcinoma cells, as well as cancer cells

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PKM

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PKM gene from Selected species (see all 26)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pkm1 , 5 pyruvate kinase, muscle1, 5 87.19(n)1
    93.79(a)1
      9 (32.03 cM)5
    187461  NM_011099.31  NP_035229.21 
     596563685 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PKM21 pyruvate kinase, muscle 80.19(n)
    87.92(a)
      396456  NM_205469.1  NP_990800.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PKM6
    pyruvate kinase, muscle
    87(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343479.1(286150-307076)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia U03878.12   -- 80.43(n)    U03878.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii pkm22 pyruvate kinase, muscle 78.66(n)   335817  BC045421.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta PyK1 Pyruvate kinase 65.3(n)
    65.5(a)
      42620  NM_079724.2  NP_524448.3 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea pyk-11 pyk-1 57.53(n)
    59.36(a)
      172744  NM_001264085.1  NP_001251014.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes CDC19(YAL038W)4
    CDC191
    Pyruvate kinase, functions as a homotetramer in glycolysis more4
    CDC191
    55.42(n)1
    51.87(a)1
      1(71786-73288)4
    8511931, 4  NP_009362.11, 4 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT5G636801 AT5G63680 53.35(n)
    50.22(a)
      836488  NM_125763.2  NP_201173.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os04g06775001 Os04g0677500 54.59(n)
    49.78(a)
      4337406  NM_001060800.1  NP_001054265.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PKM (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PKM (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PKM gene
    PKLR2  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for PKM using alignment to 9 protein entries:     KPYM_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PKM2    PKLR

    PKM for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    5 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PKM
    PGOHUM00000259573 PGOHUM00000243274 PGOHUM00000262463 PGOHUM00000249718 PGOHUM00000260968


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for PKM (see all 767)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 15 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs583235231,2
    C--49328580(+) TTTTT-/TT/TTT
            
    CTGTT
    7 -- int11NA 2
    rs1380316981,2
    C--52540928(+) TCTCCC/TCCAGC 6 -- ds50010--------
    rs1494840081,2
    --52541067(+) ACAGCA/CCCCAT 6 -- ds50010--------
    rs124430601,2
    C,F,H--52541170(+) CCTTGT/CCCCTG 6 -- ds50014Minor allele frequency- C:0.03NS NA 202
    rs58136781,2
    C--52541244(+) AACCCC/-TAAGA 6 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- -:0.25NA CSA 4
    rs768369951,2
    --52541244(+) CTGTAC/ACCCTA 6 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1439179251,2
    --52541372(+) CAGAGA/GGCAGG 6 -- ds50010--------
    rs601492621,2
    C,F--52541397(+) CCCTCC/ACCAGC 6 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- A:0.04CSA WA 120
    rs1472906381,2
    C--52541405(+) GCAGA-/AAAG  
            
    AAAGA
    6 -- ds50010--------
    rs1398197091,2
    --52541491(+) GTAGTC/GGGGGA 6 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PKM (72491370 - 72524164 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for PKM: --
    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PKM
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PKM
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PKM

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 179050    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for PKM (see all 58):    
    About MalaCards
    pyruvate kinase deficiency    myotilinopathy    thyroiditis    granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
    polyploidy    chordoma    breast adenocarcinoma    adrenocortical carcinoma
    glycogen storage disease    hemolytic anemia    meningioma    papilloma
    adenoid cystic carcinoma    adenoiditis    age related macular degeneration    duodenitis
    oral cancer    pancreatic cancer    colorectal cancer    esophageal squamous cell carcinoma


    PKM for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PKM gene (see all 13)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pyruvate kinase deficiency 63.2 1 9127121 (1)
    colorectal cancer 41.5 6 17649802 (1), 17301655 (1), 12820312 (1), 16315127 (1) (see all 6)
    cancer 39.9 7 17552551 (1), 18337823 (1), 18191611 (1), 11138278 (1) (see all 7)
    tumors 38.6 25 18298799 (2), 1532331 (2), 12566817 (1), 15908230 (1) (see all 20)
    carcinoma renal cell 25.7 3 8180780 (2), 10470199 (1)
    pancreatic cancer 22.3 3 18795715 (1), 17632316 (1)
    meningioma 21.5 3 1343845 (2), 8299208 (1)
    adenoma 15.2 3 12820312 (1), 19240248 (1)
    shock 4.34 6 18797883 (1), 16765071 (1), 15143536 (1), 20213678 (1) (see all 5)
    carcinoma squamous cell 0 1 1854723 (1), 18464261 (1)


    Export disorders for PKM gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PKM gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 291):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PKM)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and characterization of the human pyruvate kinase M gene. (PubMed id 2040271)1, 2, 3 Takenaka M.... Tanaka T. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1991)
    2. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. (PubMed id 18191611)1, 2, 9 Lee J.... Kim J. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2008)
    3. Modulation of M2-type pyruvate kinase activity by the cytoplasmic PML tumor suppressor protein. (PubMed id 18298799)1, 2, 9 Shimada N.... Ishii S. (Genes Cells 2008)
    4. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. (PubMed id 18337815)1, 2, 9 Christofk H.R.... Cantley L.C. (Nature 2008)
    5. Interaction between HERC1 and M2-type pyruvate kinase. (PubMed id 12650930)1, 2, 9 Garcia-Gonzalo F.R.... Rosa J.L. (FEBS Lett. 2003)
    6. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis. (PubMed id 15996096)1, 2, 9 Dombrauckas J.D.... Mesecar A.D. (Biochemistry 2005)
    7. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2. (PubMed id 23064226)1, 2 Chaneton B.... Gottlieb E. (Nature 2012)
    8. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia- inducible factor 1. (PubMed id 21620138)1, 2 Luo W.... Semenza G.L. (Cell 2011)
    9. Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. (PubMed id 17308100)1, 2 Stetak A.... Ullrich A. (Cancer Res. 2007)
    10. A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization. (PubMed id 16964243)1, 2 Beausoleil S.A.... Gygi S.P. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2006)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section

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    Entrez Gene: 5315 HGNC: 9021 AceView: PKM2 Ensembl:ENSG00000067225 euGenes: HUgn5315
    ECgene: PKM Kegg: 5315 H-InvDB: PKM

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PKM Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PKM Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/pkm2/
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyruvate_kinase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PKM gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PKM

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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