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Aliases for PKM Gene

Aliases for PKM Gene

  • Pyruvate Kinase, Muscle 2 3
  • THBP1 3 4 6
  • PKM2 3 4 6
  • PK3 3 4 6
  • Cytosolic Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein 3 4
  • Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein 1 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase Muscle Isozyme 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase 2/3 3 4
  • Tumor M2-PK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.1.40 4 63
  • CTHBP 3 4
  • OIP-3 3 4
  • OIP3 3 4
  • P58 3 4
  • Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein, Cytosolic 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 30 3
  • Pyruvate Kinase Isozymes M1/M2 3
  • OPA-Interacting Protein 3 3
  • Opa-Interacting Protein 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase PKM 3
  • PK, Muscle Type 3
  • HEL-S-30 3
  • TCB 3
  • PK2 4

External Ids for PKM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PKM Gene

  • PKM2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PKM Gene

  • GC15M072492

Summaries for PKM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PKM Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PKM Gene

PKM (Pyruvate Kinase, Muscle) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PKM include pyruvate kinase deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Carbon metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and pyruvate kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PKLR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKM Gene

  • Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.

Gene Wiki entry for PKM Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PKM Gene

Genomics for PKM Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PKM Gene

Start:
72,199,029 bp from pter
End:
72,231,822 bp from pter
Size:
32,794 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PKM Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PKM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PKM Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for PKM Gene

Proteins for PKM Gene

  • Protein details for PKM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P14618-KPYM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Pyruvate kinase PKM
    Protein Accession:
    P14618
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NFK3
    • B2R5N8
    • B3KRY0
    • B4DFX8
    • B4DUU6
    • P14786
    • Q53GK4
    • Q96E76
    • Q9BWB5
    • Q9UCV6
    • Q9UPF2

    Protein attributes for PKM Gene

    Size:
    531 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57937 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=K(+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29103;
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homotetramer. Exists as a monomer in the absence of FBP, and reversibly associates to form a homotetramer in the presence of FBP. The monomeric form binds T3. Tetramer formation induces pyruvate kinase activity. The tetrameric form has high affinity for the substrate and is associated within the glycolytic enzyme complex. Exists in a nearly inactive dimeric form in tumor cells and the dimeric form has less affinity for the substrate. Binding to certain oncoproteins such as HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein can trigger dimerization. FBP stimulates the formation of tetramers from dimers. Interacts with HERC1, POU5F1 and PML. Interacts (isoform M2) with EGLN3; the interaction hydroxylates PKM under hypoxia and enhances binding to HIF1A. Interacts (isoform M2) with HIF1A; the interaction is enhanced by binding of EGLN3, promoting enhanced transcription activity under hypoxia.
    Miscellaneous:
    • There are 4 isozymes of pyruvate kinase in mammals (L, R, M1, M2) encoded by 2 different genes: PKLR and PKM. The L and R isozymes are generated from the PKLR by differential splicing of RNA; the M1 and M2 forms are produced from the PKM gene by differential splicing. L type is major isozyme in the liver, R is found in red cells, M1 is the main form in muscle, heart and brain, and M2 is found in early fetal tissues as well as in most cancer cells
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAG57589.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PKM Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PKM Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PKM Gene

Proteomics data for PKM Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PKM Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-305 is stimulated by high glucose concentration, it decreases enzyme activity and promotes its lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy.
  • ISGylated.
  • Under hypoxia, hydroxylated by EGLN3.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys3, Lys62, Lys66, Lys89, Lys115, Lys125, Lys151, Lys166, Lys188, Lys207, Lys266, Lys270, Lys305, Lys311, Lys322, Lys367, Lys475, and Lys498
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PKM (PKM2)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PKM (PKM2 iso2)

Domains for PKM Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P14618

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KPYM_HUMAN :
  • P14618
Family:
  • Belongs to the pyruvate kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PKM: view

No data available for Gene Families and Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PKM Gene

Function for PKM Gene

Molecular function for PKM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=2.7 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.17 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.34 mM for ADP (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.24 mM for ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.13 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.63 mM for ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; pH dependence: Optimum pH for T3 binding is 6.0-6.5. Increase in pH causes T3 binding to drop, does not bind T3 above pH 9.0 or below pH 5.0. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + pyruvate = ADP + phosphoenolpyruvate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isoform M2 is allosterically activated by D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Inhibited by oxalate and 3,3,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3). The activity of the tetrameric form is inhibited by PML. Selective binding to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides releases the allosteric activator FBP, leading to inhibition of PKM enzymatic activity, this diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Glycolytic flux are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of serine and glycine, and serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of isoform M2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PKM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004743 pyruvate kinase activity TAS 2040271
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12620389
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PKM: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PKM

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PKM Gene

Localization for PKM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKM Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to different apoptotic stimuli. Nuclear translocation is sufficient to induce cell death that is caspase independent, isoform-specific and independent of its enzymatic activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 17308100
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 20833797
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS for PKM Gene

Pathways for PKM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PKM: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P14618-KPYM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 5/5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process --
GO:0012501 programmed cell death IDA 17308100
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view

Compounds for PKM Gene

(20) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PKM Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pyruvate 89.9 114
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 79.6 2
phosphoenolpyruvate 69.3 3
cellulose acetate 36.9 1
glucose 35.8 13
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PKM: view

Transcripts for PKM Gene

Unigene Clusters for PKM Gene

Pyruvate kinase, muscle:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PKM

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PKM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: - - -
SP13:

ExUns: 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d ^ 15
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4:
SP5: - - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:

Relevant External Links for PKM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PKM
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PKM

Expression for PKM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PKM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for PKM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (9.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PKM Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PKM Gene Hs.534770

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PKM Gene

P14618-KPYM_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Specifically expressed in proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma cells, as well as cancer cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PKM: view

Expression partners for PKM Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PKM Gene

Orthologs for PKM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PKM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PKM 35
  • 88.83 (n)
  • 93.97 (a)
PKM2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PKM 35
  • 89.57 (n)
  • 92.87 (a)
-- 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pkm 35
  • 87.19 (n)
  • 93.79 (a)
Pkm 16
Pkm 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PKM 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 99.5 (a)
PKM 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pkm 35
  • 90.02 (n)
  • 96.61 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PKM 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PKM2 35
  • 80.19 (n)
  • 87.92 (a)
PKM 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PKM 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pkm 35
  • 77.69 (n)
  • 88.97 (a)
Str.373 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pkm2 35
pkma 35
  • 75.37 (n)
  • 81.33 (a)
pkma 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
pkmb 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7227 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004596 35
  • 61.02 (n)
  • 63.39 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta PyK 35
  • 65.3 (n)
  • 65.5 (a)
CG2964 36
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7069 36
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7362 36
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
PyK 36
  • 63 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pyk-1 35
  • 57.53 (n)
  • 59.36 (a)
pyk-1 36
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
pyk-2 36
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR368W 35
  • 54.3 (n)
  • 50.2 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F23397g 35
  • 54.82 (n)
  • 52.39 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC19 35
  • 55.42 (n)
  • 51.87 (a)
CDC19 36
  • 49 (a)
ManyToMany
PYK2 36
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
CDC19 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G63680 35
  • 53.35 (n)
  • 50.22 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1458 35
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0677500 35
  • 54.59 (n)
  • 49.78 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4710 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06075 35
  • 57.53 (n)
  • 51.8 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pyk1 35
  • 58.85 (n)
  • 56.22 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PKM:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PKM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PKM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PKM (if available)

Paralogs for PKM Gene

Paralogs for PKM Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PKM Gene using alignment to 9 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PKM: view

Variants for PKM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PKM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs10514 -- 72,209,800(-) GATAA(C/T)GCCTA reference, synonymous-codon
rs762804 -- 72,201,808(-) CAGGG(C/G)AGCAA intron-variant
rs916133 -- 72,202,287(-) TTCCC(A/T)GGGCC intron-variant
rs1037680 -- 72,221,978(+) GTTAG(C/T)TACAT intron-variant
rs2001033 -- 72,205,851(-) GTTAC(A/G)TAGGT intron-variant

Relevant External Links for PKM Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PKM
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PKM

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PKM Gene

Disorders for PKM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for PKM Gene in MalaCards »

(1) Diseases for PKM Gene including...

(13) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PKM Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pyruvate kinase deficiency 63.2 1
colorectal cancer 41.5 6
cancer 39.9 7
tumors 38.6 22
carcinoma renal cell 25.7 3
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PKM: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES , Genatlas and External Links for PKM Gene

Publications for PKM Gene

  1. Interaction between HERC1 and M2-type pyruvate kinase. (PMID: 12650930) Garcia-Gonzalo F.R. … Rosa J.L. (FEBS Lett. 2003) 3 4 23
  2. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis. (PMID: 15996096) Dombrauckas J.D. … Mesecar A.D. (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. (PMID: 18191611) Lee J. … Kim J. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2008) 3 4 23
  4. Modulation of M2-type pyruvate kinase activity by the cytoplasmic PML tumor suppressor protein. (PMID: 18298799) Shimada N. … Ishii S. (Genes Cells 2008) 3 4 23
  5. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. (PMID: 18337815) Christofk H.R. … Cantley L.C. (Nature 2008) 3 4 23

Products for PKM Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PKM

Sources for PKM Gene

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