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PI15 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC08P075773

Peptidase Inhibitor 15

(Previous name: protease inhibitor 15)
  See PI15-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Peptidase Inhibitor 151 2     P25TI2 3
Protease Inhibitor 151 2     PI-152 3
Cysteine-Rich Secretory Protein 82 3     P24TI2
25 KDa Trypsin Inhibitor2 3     sugarCrisp2
CRISP-82 3     SugarCrisp3
CRISP82 3     p25TI3

External Ids:    HGNC: 89461   Entrez Gene: 510502   Ensembl: ENSG000001375587   OMIM: 6070765   UniProtKB: O436923   

Export aliases for PI15 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08P074766 GC08P075724 GC08P075460 GC08P075786 GC08P075899 GC08P071227


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PI15 Gene:
This gene encodes a trypsin inhibitor. The protein shares similarity to insect venom allergens, mammalian
testis-specific proteins and plant pathogenesis-related proteins. It is frequently expressed in human
neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines, and thus may play a role in the central nervous system. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PI15 Gene:
PI15 (peptidase inhibitor 15) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PI15 include neuroblastoma. GO annotations related to this gene include peptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CLEC18B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PI15_HUMAN, O43692
Function: Serine protease inhibitor which displays weak inhibitory activity against trypsin




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000008.10  NT_008183.20  NC_018919.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PI15 gene promoter:
         SRF   SRF (504 AA)   FOXL1   c-Rel   PPAR-gamma1   FOXJ2 (long isoform)   HOXA5   PPAR-gamma2   FOXJ2   Ik-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPI15 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PI15

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PI15


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q21.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q21.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q13.3

PI15 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PI15 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08P075773:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
75,736,772 bp from pter      End:
75,767,264 bp from pter
Size:
30,493 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PI15_HUMAN, O43692 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Peptidase inhibitor 15 precursor  
Size: 258 amino acids; 29065 Da
Secondary accessions: Q68CY1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PI15: NX_O43692

Explore proteomics data for PI15 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-glycosylated (Probable)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn26, Asn36, Asn124

  • See PI15 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_056970.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000260113   ENSP00000428567  

    PI15 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PI15

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PI15 (5 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PI15

    PI15 Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for PI15 (31 products) 

    PI15 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PI15
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    antibodies-online kits for PI15 (6 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR014044 CAP_domain
     IPR001283 Allrgn_V5/Tpx1
     IPR018244 Allrgn_V5/Tpx1_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O43692

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O43692

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001283 Allergen V5/Tpx-1 related

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PI15_HUMAN, O43692
    Similarity: Belongs to the CRISP family
    Similarity: Contains 1 SCP domain


    Find genes that share domains with PI15           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PI15_HUMAN, O43692
    Function: Serine protease inhibitor which displays weak inhibitory activity against trypsin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0030414peptidase inhibitor activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PI15           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PI15

    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PI15 (see all 62):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3130-5p hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-4254 hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-29a
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    Addgene plasmids for PI15 

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PI15_HUMAN, O43692: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005576extracellular region IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PI15           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PI15
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PI15

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0008150biological_process ND--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PI15           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PI15



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PI15 gene: 
    NM_015886.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PI15:

    Peptidase inhibitor 15
    Hs.98558  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: CR749657
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000260113(uc003yal.3 uc003yam.3) ENST00000523773
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PI15 (see all 62):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3130-5p hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-607 hsa-miR-4254 hsa-miR-376b hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-29a
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
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    Addgene plasmids for PI15 
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PI15
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PI15

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK130318.1 AK130386.1 BC074931.2 BC074932.2 BC126290.1 BC126292.1 CR749657.1 D45027.1 

    3 DOTS entries:

    DT.40119398  DT.92071939  DT.75167727 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 43):

    BM555525 AI913435 AI696838 AI307145 BC074932 AI264197 BC074931 AK130386 
    AA442089 AK130318 AI803475 AI088609 AI568779 BF055516 AA428062 AL602500 
    AI129474 AI249368 NM_015886 BQ015744 AW058403 CR749657 AA442196 AI760116 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PI15 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGTAACTATT
    PI15 Expression
    About this image


    PI15 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Neural Crest (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             PureStem MEL2, NCr-fac Progenitor
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Outer Root Sheath Cells Outer Root Sheath
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)
             Mature Cardiac Fibroblasts Myocardium
     
     Hair (Integumentary System)
             Outer Root Sheath Cells Outer Root Sheath
     
     Fibroblasts
             Mature Cardiac Fibroblasts Myocardium
    PI15 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PI15 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.98558

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PI15_HUMAN, O43692
    Tissue specificity: Weakly expressed. Expressed at low level in prostate, mammary gland, salivary gland and
    thyroid gland

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PI15

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for PI15 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pi151 , 5 peptidase inhibitor 151, 5 87.6(n)1
    93.41(a)1
      1 (5.32 cM)5
    942271  NM_053191.21  NP_444421.21 
     176019015 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PI151 peptidase inhibitor 15 84.63(n)
    90.31(a)
      374241  NM_204334.1  NP_989665.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PI156
    peptidase inhibitor 15
    86(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(34094538-34120224)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia pi151 peptidase inhibitor 15 75.06(n)
    81.01(a)
      100489915  XM_002937074.2  XP_002937120.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii pi15a1 peptidase inhibitor 15a 73.12(n)
    76.61(a)
      561978  NM_001159977.1  NP_001153449.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG84836
    --
    17(a)
    1 → many
    3R(9034470-9040187)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea scl-236
    scl-226
    (see all 3)
    Protein SCL-22 (scl-22) mRNA, complete cds
    (see all 3)
    17(a)
    12(a)
    (see all 3)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    IV(86875-90082) WBGene00015246
    X(10789678-10792018) WBGene00011462


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PI15 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PI15 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PI15 gene
    CLEC18B2  CRISPLD22  CLEC18C2  PI162  GLIPR12  CRISP22  CRISP12  CRISPLD12  
    CRISP32  GLIPR1L12  CLEC18A2  GLIPR1L22  R3HDML2  
    5 SIMAP similar genes for PI15 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     PI15_HUMAN:
    CRISPLD2    R3HDML    CRISPLD1    GLIPR1    PI16

    Find genes that share paralogs with PI15           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PI15 (see all 591)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1505154541,2
    --75734792(+) ACAAAC/GGGTGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs796346901,2
    F--75734853(+) TCACCC/TTGGAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs360863221,2
    C,F--75735030(+) TCTAAC/TCTCTG 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NA WA EA 364
    rs1832992291,2
    --75735085(+) AAGGTA/GCCATG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1859101121,2
    --75735138(+) TTGTTA/CAGATC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1395978061,2
    --75735178(+) TCTAGC/TTGCTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1149289721,2
    F--75735193(+) GTTTCA/TTAATA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 118
    rs1898936621,2
    --75735305(+) AAATGA/TTTTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1831605661,2
    --75735477(+) AGAACA/GTGAAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1134475531,2
    F--75735538(+) TTTGAC/TCACAC 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.03CSA WA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PI15 (75736772 - 75767264 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for PI15:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv891018CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891019CNV Loss21882294
    nsv519265CNV Loss19592680
    nsv524736CNV Loss19592680
    esv28358CNV Gain+Loss19812545

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 607076    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for PI15:    
    About MalaCards
    neuroblastoma


    Find genes that share disorders with PI15           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PI15

    Export disorders for PI15 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PI15 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PI15)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. cDNA cloning of a novel trypsin inhibitor with similarity to pathogenesis-related proteins, and its frequent expression in human brain cancer cells. (PubMed id 9473672)1, 2, 3 Yamakawa T.... Miyazaki K. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998)
    2. Purification and identification of a novel and four known serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by human glioblastoma cells. (PubMed id 8882727)1, 2, 3 Koshikawa N.... Miyazaki K. (J. Biochem. 1996)
    3. A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs). (PubMed id 18464913)1, 4 Melzer D....Ferrucci L. (PLoS Genet. 2008)
    4. Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome. (PubMed id 18029348)1 Barbe L....Andersson-Svahn H. (amp 2008)
    5. The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA consortium. (PubMed id 17974005)2 Bechtel S.... Schupp I. (BMC Genomics 2007)
    6. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    7. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    8. Cloning and expression of a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein family member expressed in thyroid and pancreatic mesoderm within the chicken embryo. (PubMed id 11287197)2 Smith D.M....Tabin C.J. (Mech. Dev. 2001)
    9. A novel developmentally regulated gene in lung mesenchyme: homology to a tumor-derived trypsin inhibitor. (PubMed id 10362728)1 Kaplan F....Sweezey N.B. (Am. J. Physiol. 1999)
    10. The CAP superfamily: cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins--roles in reproduction, cancer, and immune defense. (PubMed id 18824526)9 Gibbs G.M....O'Bryan M.K. (Endocr. Rev. 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 51050 HGNC: 8946 AceView: PI15 Ensembl:ENSG00000137558 euGenes: HUgn51050
    ECgene: PI15 H-InvDB: PI15

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PI15 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PI15 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PI15

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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