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PGF Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 64
GCID: GC14M075408

Placental Growth Factor

(Previous names: placental growth factor-like, placental growth factor, vascular...)
(Previous symbol: PGFL)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Placental Growth Factor1 2     Placental Growth Factor-Like1
PGFL1 2 3     D12S19002
PLGF2 3 5     PlGF-22
Placental Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related
Protein1 2
     SHGC-107602
Placenta Growth Factor1 2     PlGF3

External Ids:    HGNC: 88931   Entrez Gene: 52282   Ensembl: ENSG000001196307   OMIM: 6011215   UniProtKB: P497633   

Export aliases for PGF gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14M072935 GC14M069225 GC14M073398 GC14M074478 GC14M055576


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PGF Gene:
This gene encodes a growth factor found in placenta which is homologous to vascular endothelial growth factor.
Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.(provided by RefSeq,
Jun 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PGF Gene:
PGF (placental growth factor) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PGF include cancer-associated retinopathy, and placental insufficiency. GO annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and protein homodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is VEGFA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLGF_HUMAN, P49763
Function: Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and
migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in
a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth

Gene Wiki entry for PGF (Placental growth factor) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000014.9  NT_026437.13  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PGF gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   p53   STAT3   PPAR-gamma2   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPGF promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PGF

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PGF


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q24.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q24.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q24.3

PGF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PGF gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14M075408:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
75,408,533 bp from pter      End:
75,422,487 bp from pter
Size:
13,955 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLGF_HUMAN, P49763 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Placenta growth factor precursor  
Size: 221 amino acids; 24789 Da
Subunit: Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also found as heterodimer with VEGFA/VEGF. Isoform PlGF-3 is
found both as homodimer and as monomer
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PGF:
1FZV (3D)        1RV6 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q07101 Q9BV78 Q9Y6S8
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P49763-1   P49763-2   P49763-3   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PGF: NX_P49763

Explore proteomics data for PGF at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • N-glycosylated1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn33, Asn101

  • See PGF Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001193941.1  NP_002623.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000451040   ENSP00000451413   ENSP00000238607   ENSP00000385365  
    Reactome Protein details: P49763

    PGF Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PGF (PlGF-2, PlGF-3, PlGF)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PGF
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PGF
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PGF
    Novus Biologicals PGF Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PGF Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PGF
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PGF
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PGF
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    PGF Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PGF
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PGF (PlGF-2, PlGF)
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    Novus Biologicals PGF Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PGF
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    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PGF
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PGF

    PGF Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    R&D Systems ELISAs for PGF (PlGF)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PGF
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR023581 PD_growth_factor_CS
     IPR000072 PDGF/VEGF_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P49763

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P49763

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000072 Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLGF_HUMAN, P49763
    Domain: Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal
    Similarity: Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family


    PGF for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PLGF_HUMAN, P49763
    Function: Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and
    migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in
    a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PGF:
    placenta growth factor,angiogenic,vascular endothelial growth factor related

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI14684734
    GO:0008083growth factor activity IMP--
    GO:0008201heparin binding IEA--
    GO:0042803protein homodimerization activity IEA--
    GO:0046982protein heterodimerization activity IEA--
         
    PGF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PGF:
     Increased G1 DNA content 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Pgf):
     adipose tissue  cardiovascular system  embryogenesis  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  integument  respiratory system  tumorigenesis  vision/eye 

    PGF for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pgftm1Pec for PGF

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PGF
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PGF

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PGF
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PGF

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PGF using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PGF (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-520a-5p hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-149 hsa-miR-506 hsa-miR-3121-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPGF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PGF
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PGF

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PGF

    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PGF (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PGF
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PGF (NM_002632)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PGF
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PGF
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PGF

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PGF 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PGF


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PLGF_HUMAN, P49763: Secreted. Note=The three isoforms are secreted but PlGF-2 appears to remain cell attached
    unless released by heparin
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    cytoskeleton1
    cytosol1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane IEA--

    PGF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PGF About   (see all 21)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Focal adhesion
    Focal adhesion0.65
    Focal Adhesion0.65
    2VEGF Pathway
    VEGF Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions0.66
    Development VEGF family signaling0.36
    3Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis0.85
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Cellular Apoptosis Pathway0.85
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts0.84
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    p53 Mediated Apoptosis0.84
    ERK5 Signaling0.61
    4GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    5ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PGF (see all 55)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PGF
        Development VEGF-family signaling

    2 BioSystems Pathways for PGF
        Focal Adhesion
    VEGFR1 specific signals

    1 Sino Biological Pathway for PGF
        VEGF Signaling

    2 Reactome Pathways for PGF
        VEGF ligand-receptor interactions
    VEGF binds to VEGFR leading to receptor dimerization


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PGF):
        Ras signaling pathway
    Rap1 signaling pathway
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
    Focal adhesion
    Pathways in cancer


    PGF for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PGF (see all 7): 
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Cancer PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              VEGF Signaling in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PGF

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 15)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PGF (P497633 ENSP000002386074) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 17)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    FLT1P179483, ENSP000002823974I2D: score=6 STRING: ENSP00000282397
    NRP2O604623, ENSP000003535824I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000353582
    VEGFAP156923, ENSP000003611254I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000361125
    NRP1O147863, ENSP000002653714I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000265371
    NFICP086513I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 16):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001658branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA--
    GO:0001666response to hypoxia IEA--
    GO:0001938positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IEA--
    GO:0002040sprouting angiogenesis IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS9467961

    PGF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PGF (PLGF)

    1 DrugBank Compound for PGF    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    AfliberceptAVE 0005 (see all 6)862111-32-8targetbinder22813448

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PGF gene (see all 21)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    vegf 89.6 529 10606981 (9), 16814647 (8), 11254400 (6), 11470864 (5) (see all 99)
    tyrosine 69.7 100 19943826 (7), 8919031 (1), 15284201 (1), 15886253 (1) (see all 80)
    sunitinib 41 3 19513511 (1), 17605814 (1), 18669461 (1)
    matrigel 23.1 1 12673673 (1)
    pd 98,059 22.2 4 19035132 (1), 17028267 (1), 18558410 (1)
    heparin 21.5 18 10527820 (3), 8148155 (2), 9712843 (1), 12613545 (1) (see all 9)
    nitric oxide 7.95 17 17028267 (4), 19035132 (2), 11750869 (1), 18558410 (1) (see all 9)
    wortmannin 5.61 3 12689930 (1), 18558410 (1)
    oxygen 4.94 18 15284201 (3), 7541940 (2), 17956952 (2), 19712973 (2) (see all 8)
    lipid 1.72 1 17159877 (1)



    PGF for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PGF gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001207012.1  NM_002632.5  

    Unigene Cluster for PGF:

    Placental growth factor
    Hs.252820  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: AK023843
    8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000555567(uc001xqz.3 uc001xrb.3) ENST00000553716 ENST00000238607
    ENST00000557748 ENST00000405431 ENST00000555253 ENST00000556939(uc010ase.2 uc010asf.2)
    ENST00000555234
    miRNA
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    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PGF (see all 23):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-449a hsa-miR-520a-5p hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-149 hsa-miR-506 hsa-miR-3121-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPGF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PGF (NM_002632)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PGF
    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PGF
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PGF
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PGF
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PGF

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK023843.1 AK057973.1 AK309886.1 AK310608.1 AK310886.1 BC001422.2 BC007255.1 BC007789.2 
    BT007182.1 BX248289.1 S72960.1 X54936.1 

    8 DOTS entries:

    DT.454164  DT.100787535  DT.91997668  DT.120764292  DT.100025837  DT.75161740  DT.100807163  DT.95275183 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 201):

    CR604743 AA369322 CF529499 CR626064 CR620888 AL543185 CR592863 CR593434 
    CR625775 R66396 BE301780 BQ893335 T53764 BQ014455 AA908179 BU150305 
    AI379465 T54157 CR621337 BX248289 CR598213 AW771163 BQ070531 CR612112 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    3 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGF    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
    SP1:              -                                       
    SP2:              -                                       
    SP3:                                                      


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PGF

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PGF expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CAGCTCCTAA
    PGF Expression
    About this image


    PGF expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Zeugopod Periosteum
             HyStem+BMP4-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced E15 cells
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             HyStem+BMP4-induced E15 cells
     
     Placenta (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Villous Cytotrophoblast Cells Chorionic Villus
             Syncytiotrophoblast-like cells
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ureteric Bud Cells Ureteric Bud
    PGF Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PGF Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.252820

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PLGF_HUMAN, P49763
    Tissue specificity: While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8
    week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PGF (see all 7): 
              Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat
              Angiogenic Growth Factors in human mouse rat
              Cancer PathwayFinder in human mouse rat
              VEGF Signaling in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PGF
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PGF

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PGF gene from Selected species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pgf1 , 5 placental growth factor1, 5 73.28(n)1
    68.38(a)1
      12 (39.58 cM)5
    186541  NM_008827.31  NP_032853.11 
     851666415 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PGF1 placental growth factor 71.58(n)
    58.91(a)
      771832  XM_001235058.3  XP_001235059.3 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PGF6
    placental growth factor
    48(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(22691163-22697207)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC5574681 vascular endothelial growth factor A-like 63.91(n)
    57.85(a)
      557468  XM_680548.5  XP_685640.5 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PGF (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PGF (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PGF gene
    VEGFA2  VEGFB2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for PGF using alignment to 3 protein entries:     PLGF_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    VEGF    VEGFA    VEGFB

    PGF for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PGF (see all 398)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs617594141,2
    C--56399810(-) GAGACT/CGTTCC 2 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- C:0.01NS 92
    rs1913239041,2
    --56399836(+) GCCACC/TGAGAC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1821315891,2
    --56399924(+) GTGAAA/GGCAGA 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1383004051,2
    C--56399970(+) AGCCAA/GGCCTC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1496420951,2
    C--56400002(+) TAACTC/TTCCAT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1443184701,2
    C--56400035(+) CTAAGC/TGTCCT 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1179133451,2
    F--56400079(+) AACATG/ATTGTC 2 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.01EA 120
    rs1409521451,2
    C--56400107(+) CTCTCA/GTCGAC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs1865620641,2
    --56400117(+) CTGAGC/TGAGGC 2 -- ds50010--------
    rs617594131,2
    C,F--56400147(-) TCTCCG/AAGCCT 2 -- ds50013Minor allele frequency- A:0.03NS WA 210

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PGF (75408533 - 75422487 bp)

    Structural Variations
          Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) variations for PGF: --
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PGF
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PGF

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 601121    OMIM disorders: --

    Selected diseases for PGF (see all 89):    
    About MalaCards
    cancer-associated retinopathy    placental insufficiency    severe pre-eclampsia    epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
    myxoid liposarcoma    placental abruption    hemangioendothelioma    sickle cell disease
    twin twin transfusion syndrome    intermittent claudication    twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome    eclampsia
    critical limb ischemia    middle ear cholesteatoma    pre-eclampsia    diabetic retinopathy
    hemangiopericytoma    ectopic pregnancy    proteinuria    endometritis

    4 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PGF:
    Hypertension     Endometritis     Proteinuria     Cancer

    PGF for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PGF gene (see all 48)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    preeclampsia 86.7 255 17460385 (7), 17403407 (7), 15117604 (6), 15632339 (6) (see all 87)
    neovascularization 70.1 24 12714333 (1), 16754748 (1), 19505392 (1), 15312686 (1) (see all 20)
    intrauterine growth retardation 62.2 4 19536710 (1), 19996864 (1), 15591804 (1), 18058842 (1)
    pregnancy complications 56.4 2 19536710 (1), 18175241 (1)
    proteinuria 50.1 10 19165674 (2), 15632339 (2), 15117604 (1), 17553534 (1) (see all 5)
    severe pre-eclampsia 48.8 1 15938782 (1)
    sickle cell disease 39.7 3 20351105 (1), 20040765 (1), 19010294 (1)
    tumors 35.1 84 12673673 (5), 19805167 (4), 16618713 (4), 7478581 (4) (see all 39)
    systemic hypertension 34.2 5 17371983 (1), 15663401 (1), 16711023 (1), 18648513 (1) (see all 5)
    inflammation 33.6 29 16412852 (3), 18411415 (2), 17157858 (2), 19010294 (2) (see all 19)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PGF
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PGF (3 documents)

    Export disorders for PGF gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PGF gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 470):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PGF)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14. (PubMed id 7681160)1, 2, 3, 9 Maglione D.... Persico M.G. (Oncogene 1993)
    2. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. (PubMed id 8148155)1, 2, 9 Hauser S.D. and Weich H.A. (Growth Factors 1993)
    3. Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor. (PubMed id 1924389)1, 2, 9 Maglione D.... Persico M.G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991)
    4. HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF. (PubMed id 21215706)1, 2 Rolny C....Carmeliet P. (Cancer Cell 2011)
    5. Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. (PubMed id 20452482)1, 4 Romero R....Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010)
    6. A genetic association study of maternal and fetal candidate genes that predispose to preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). (PubMed id 20673868)1, 4 Romero R....Menon R. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010)
    7. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    8. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14. (PubMed id 12508121)1, 2 Heilig R.... Weissenbach J. (Nature 2003)
    9. The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution. (PubMed id 11069911)1, 2 Iyer S.... Acharya K.R. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    10. Placenta growth factor: identification and characterization of a novel isoform generated by RNA alternative splicing. (PubMed id 9207183)1, 2 Cao Y.... Cao Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5228 HGNC: 8893 AceView: PGF Ensembl:ENSG00000119630 euGenes: HUgn5228
    ECgene: PGF Kegg: 5228 H-InvDB: PGF

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PGF Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PGF Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PGF gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PGF

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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