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PGAM4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC0XM077223

Phosphoglycerate Mutase Family Member 4

(Previous name: phosphoglycerate mutase family 4)
Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Phosphoglycerate Mutase Family Member 41 2     Phosphoglycerate Mutase Family 32
PGAM32 3 5     Phosphoglycerate Mutase Processed Protein2
Phosphoglycerate Mutase Family 41     Probable Phosphoglycerate Mutase 42
PGAM-B2     EC 3.1.3.133
PGAM12     EC 5.4.2.113
dJ1000K24.12     EC 5.4.2.43
Phosphoglycerate Mutase 42     EC 5.4.2.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 217311   Entrez Gene: 4415312   Ensembl: ENSG000002267847   OMIM: 3005675   UniProtKB: Q8N0Y73   

Export aliases for PGAM4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM9L0730 GC0XM077110 GC0XM070810


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PGAM4 Gene:
This intronless gene appears to have arisen from a retrotransposition event, yet it is thought to be an expressed,
protein-coding gene. The encoded protein is a member of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, a set of enzymes that
catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate. (provided by RefSeq,
May 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PGAM4 Gene:
PGAM4 (phosphoglycerate mutase family member 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PGAM4 include menkes disease, and pneumonia. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphoglycerate mutase activity and bisphosphoglycerate mutase activity. An important paralog of this gene is BPGM.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000023.11  NC_018934.2  NT_011651.18  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PGAM4 gene promoter:
         AML1a   GATA-2   E47   SRY   S8   PPAR-gamma1   POU2F1   HFH-1   POU2F1a   PPAR-gamma2   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PGAM4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PGAM4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xq13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xq21.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xq21.1

PGAM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PGAM4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM077223:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
77,223,458 bp from pter      End:
77,225,135 bp from pter
Size:
1,678 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGAM4_HUMAN, Q8N0Y7 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Probable phosphoglycerate mutase 4  
Size: 254 amino acids; 28777 Da
Miscellaneous: This is the product of a processed gene created by retroposition from mRNA of an expressed gene.
This gene seems to be expressed
Secondary accessions: Q5JPN2 Q8NI24 Q8NI25 Q8NI26

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PGAM4: NX_Q8N0Y7

Explore proteomics data for PGAM4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys5, Lys100, Lys106, Lys138
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PGAM4 (Q8N0Y7) (see all 6)
     LVLIRHG  WRRSYDV  LNERHYG  IWRRSYD 


    See PGAM4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001025062.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000412189  

    PGAM4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PGAM4
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
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    Novus Biologicals PGAM4 Protein
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PGAM4

    PGAM4 Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    Search for Antibodies for PGAM4 at Abcam
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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PGAM4

    PGAM4 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PGAM4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PGAM4


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR001345 PG/BPGM_mutase_AS
     IPR005952 Phosphogly_mut1
     IPR013078 His_Pase_superF_clade-1

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8N0Y7

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8N0Y7

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001345 Phosphoglycerate/bisphosphoglycerate mutase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PGAM4_HUMAN, Q8N0Y7
    Similarity: Belongs to the phosphoglycerate mutase family. BPG-dependent PGAM subfamily


    PGAM4 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PGAM4_HUMAN, Q8N0Y7
    Catalytic activity: 2-phospho-D-glycerate = 3-phospho-D-glycerate
    Catalytic activity: 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate = 2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate
    Catalytic activity: 2,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate + H(2)O = 3-phospho-D-glycerate + phosphate

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 5.4.2.41 EC 3.1.3.131 EC 5.4.2.12 EC 5.4.2.111

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004082bisphosphoglycerate mutase activity IEA--
    GO:0004083bisphosphoglycerate 2-phosphatase activity IEA--
    GO:0004619phosphoglycerate mutase activity NAS11961099
    GO:0016868intramolecular transferase activity, phosphotransferases ----
         
    PGAM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PGAM4
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PGAM4

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PGAM4
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PGAM4

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PGAM4:
    hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT040366), hsa-mir-423-5p (MIRT038018)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PGAM4 using miScript Target Protectors
    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate PGAM4:
    hsa-miR-483-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPGAM4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PGAM4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PGAM4

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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PGAM4 (NM_001029891)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PGAM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PGAM4

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PGAM4


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol3
    nucleus2
    plasma membrane2
    mitochondrion1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ----
    GO:0097228sperm principal piece IDA--

    PGAM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PGAM4 About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map
    Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis short map 0.60
    gluconeogenesis0.39
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis0.46
    glycolysis0.00
    2Carbon metabolism
    Carbon metabolism0.38
    Biosynthesis of amino acids0.38
    3Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle0.43
    4Metabolism
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    5Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt
    Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PGAM4
        Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (short map)

    4 BioSystems Pathways for PGAM4
        Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt
    glycolysis
    gluconeogenesis
    conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle


    5 Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PGAM4):
        Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
    Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Carbon metabolism
    Biosynthesis of amino acids


    PGAM4 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PGAM4
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PGAM4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PGAM4 (Q8N0Y73 ENSP000004121894) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 40)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PAK1Q131533I2D: score=1 
    TRAF2Q129333I2D: score=1 
    BPGMENSP000003420324STRING: ENSP00000342032
    ENO2ENSP000002292774STRING: ENSP00000229277
    ENO3ENSP000003241054STRING: ENSP00000324105
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006096glycolytic process NAS11961099
    GO:1902093positive regulation of sperm motility NAS--

    PGAM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PGAM4

    3 HMDB Compounds for PGAM4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    2,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid(2R)-2,3-bis(phosphonooxy)-Propanoic acid (see all 20)138-81-8--
    2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid2-Phospho-D-glycerate (see all 7)----
    2-Phosphoglyceric acid2-(dihydrogen phosphate)Glycerate (see all 16)2553-59-5--



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PGAM4 gene: 
    NM_001029891.2  

    Unigene Cluster for PGAM4:

    Phosphoglycerate mutase family member 4
    Hs.632822  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BF568958
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000458128(uc004ecy.1)
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PGAM4 using miScript Target Protectors
    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate PGAM4:
    hsa-miR-483-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPGAM4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PGAM4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PGAM4
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PGAM4 (see all 6)
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PGAM4 (NM_001029891)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PGAM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PGAM4
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PGAM4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse / rat PGAM4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PGAM4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PGAM4

    9 DOTS entries:

    DT.121298334  DT.100890671  DT.97857622  DT.100890627  DT.100890648  DT.100890656  DT.121182761  DT.91966784 
    DT.95252793 

    24 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BG875904 AA377047 BG875906 BQ317024 AI358563 BQ316431 R54260 R58419 
    AW972022 AA171562 BM848509 BG822605 BQ354166 W40426 AL568626 AL568382 
    AL573068 AL567917 BQ339031 R88087 T19606 BQ348979 BI086014 AW838900 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PGAM4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    PGAM4 Expression
    About this image

    PGAM4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PGAM4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.632822
        Custom PCR Arrays for PGAM4
    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PGAM4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PGAM4 gene from Selected species (see all 13)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PGAM16
    Gallus gallus phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain) (P...
    90(a)
    1 → many
    6(21893888-21895347)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    88(a)
    1 → many
    GL343810.1(92914-98909)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii pgam1a6
    pgam1b6
    phosphoglycerate mutase 1b
    87(a)
    87(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    13(31616794-31621589) ENSDARG00000005423
    1(55247077-55258273) ENSDARG00000014068
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Pglym786
    Pglym876
    Pglym87
    65(a)
    52(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    3R(24973970-24975623)
    3R(8057367-8058451)
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes GPM16
    Tetrameric phosphoglycerate mutase, mediates the c...
    49(a)
    1 → many
    XI(163642-164385) YKL152C
            Species with no ortholog for PGAM4

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PGAM4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PGAM4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PGAM4 gene
    BPGM2  PGAM12  PGAM22  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for PGAM4 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     PGAM4_HUMAN:
    PGAM1    PGAM2    BPGM

    PGAM4 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PGAM4
    PGOHUM00000245664 PGOHUM00000241790


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    3 SNPs for PGAM4    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs59591291,2,4
    ----see VAR_0143562 mis40--------
    VAR_0143574
    ----see VAR_0143572 I T mis40--------
    VAR_0143554
    ----see VAR_0143552 R C mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PGAM4 (77223458 - 77225135 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PGAM4:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv2453e1CNV Complex17122850

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PGAM4
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): PGAM4

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PGAM4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PGAM4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 300567    OMIM disorders: --

    3 diseases for PGAM4:    
    About MalaCards
    menkes disease    pneumonia    tuberculosis


    PGAM4 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for PGAM4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PGAM4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 17):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PGAM4)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Evolution of the phosphoglycerate mutase processed gene in human and chimpanzee revealing the origin of a new primate gene. (PubMed id 11961099)1, 2, 3, 9 Betran E.... Long M. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2002)
    2. Emergence of young human genes after a burst of retroposition in primates. (PubMed id 16201836)1, 2 Marques A.C.... Kaessmann H. (PLoS Biol. 2005)
    3. A phosphoglycerate mutase brain isoform (PGAM 1) pseudogene is localized within the human Menkes disease gene (ATP7 A). (PubMed id 9370262)1, 3 Dierick H.A....Glover T.W. (Gene 1997)
    4. The PGAM4 gene in non-obstructive azoospermia. (PubMed id 23631659)1 Jin Q....Ma X. (Syst Biol Reprod Med 2013)
    5. Proteome-wide identification of ubiquitylation sites by conjugation of engineered lysine-less ubiquitin. (PubMed id 22053931)1 Oshikawa K....Nakayama K.I. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    6. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    7. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the novel sex-linked testis-specific retrotransposed PGAM4 gene influences human male fertility. (PubMed id 22590500)1 Okuda H....Tanaka H. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    8. Methods for quantification of in vivo changes in protein ubiquitination following proteasome and deubiquitinase inhibition. (PubMed id 22505724)1 Udeshi N.D....Carr S.A. (amp 2012)
    9. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    10. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 441531 HGNC: 21731 AceView: LOC441531 Ensembl:ENSG00000226784 euGenes: HUgn441531
    ECgene: PGAM4 Kegg: 441531 H-InvDB: PGAM4

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PGAM4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PGAM4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PGAM4

    GeneCards and IP:
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