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Aliases for PER3 Gene

Aliases for PER3 Gene

  • Period Circadian Clock 3 2 3
  • Cell Growth-Inhibiting Gene 13 Protein 3 4
  • Circadian Clock Protein PERIOD 3 3 4
  • HPER3 3 4
  • Period Circadian Protein Homolog 3 3
  • Period (Drosophila) Homolog 3 2
  • Period Homolog 3 (Drosophila) 2
  • Growth-Inhibiting Protein 13 3
  • Period Circadian Protein 3 3
  • Period Homolog 3 3
  • Period 3 3
  • GIG13 3

External Ids for PER3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PER3 Gene

  • GC01P007426
  • GC01P007653
  • GC01P007554
  • GC01P007778
  • GC01P006993

Summaries for PER3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PER3 Gene

  • This gene is a member of the Period family of genes and is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain. Genes in this family encode components of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, metabolism, and behavior. This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to sleep disorders. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for PER3 Gene

PER3 (Period Circadian Clock 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PER3 include delayed sleep phase syndrome and advanced sleep phase syndrome. Among its related pathways are Influenza A and Circadian rhythm. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity. An important paralog of this gene is PER2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PER3 Gene

  • Originally described as a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots circa (about) and diem (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for timegivers). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5-CACGTG-3) within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role with the other PER proteins PER1 and PER2 and is not essential for the circadian rhythms maintenance. In contrast, plays an important role in sleep-wake timing and sleep homeostasis probably through the transcriptional regulation of sleep homeostasis-related genes, without influencing circadian parameters. Can bind heme.

Gene Wiki entry for PER3 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PER3 Gene

Genomics for PER3 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PER3 Gene

Start:
7,784,320 bp from pter
End:
7,845,181 bp from pter
Size:
60,862 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PER3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PER3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PER3 Gene

Proteins for PER3 Gene

  • Protein details for PER3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P56645-PER3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Period circadian protein homolog 3
    Protein Accession:
    P56645
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5H8X4
    • Q5H8X5
    • Q969K6
    • Q96S77
    • Q96S78
    • Q9C0J3
    • Q9NSP9
    • Q9UGU8

    Protein attributes for PER3 Gene

    Size:
    1201 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    131888 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins. Interacts directly with PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, and TIMELESS; interaction with CRY1 and CRY2 is weak and not rhythmic. Interacts with FBXW11 and BTRC.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAB32925.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for PER3 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PER3 Gene

Proteomics data for PER3 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PER3 Gene

  • Phosphorylation by CSNK1E is weak and appears to require association with PER1 and translocation to the nucleus.
  • Ubiquitinated.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PER3 Gene

Domains for PER3 Gene

Protein Domains for PER3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PER3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P56645

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PER3_HUMAN :
  • P56645
Domain:
  • Contains 1 PAC (PAS-associated C-terminal) domain.
  • Contains 2 PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PER3: view

No data available for Gene Families for PER3 Gene

Function for PER3 Gene

Molecular function for PER3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Originally described as a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots circa (about) and diem (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for timegivers). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5-CACGTG-3) within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role with the other PER proteins PER1 and PER2 and is not essential for the circadian rhythms maintenance. In contrast, plays an important role in sleep-wake timing and sleep homeostasis probably through the transcriptional regulation of sleep homeostasis-related genes, without influencing circadian parameters. Can bind heme.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PER3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21070773
GO:0019900 kinase binding IEA --
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PER3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PER3: view

Animal Models for PER3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PER3:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PER3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PER3

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PER3

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PER3 Gene

Localization for PER3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PER3 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic. Translocates to the nucleus through binding PER1, PER2, CRY1 or CRY2, but not TIMELESS (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PER3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PER3 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 3
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PER3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PER3: view

Pathways for PER3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PER3: view

Pathways by source for PER3 Gene

1 Qiagen pathway for PER3 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PER3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PER3: view

Transcripts for PER3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PER3 Gene

Period circadian clock 3:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PER3

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PER3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:

Relevant External Links for PER3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PER3
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PER3

Expression for PER3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PER3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PER3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for PER3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (57.4) and CD8 Tcells (11.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PER3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PER3 Gene Hs.162200

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PER3: view

Expression partners for PER3 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PER3 Gene

Orthologs for PER3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PER3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PER3 35
  • 81.16 (n)
  • 75.57 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PER3 35
  • 77.61 (n)
  • 68.17 (a)
PER3 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Per3 35
  • 72.54 (n)
  • 64.86 (a)
Per3 16
Per3 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PER3 35
  • 98.93 (n)
  • 98.31 (a)
PER3 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Per3 35
  • 73.78 (n)
  • 66.13 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PER3 36
  • 54 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PER3 35
  • 61.55 (n)
  • 54.76 (a)
PER3 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia per3 35
  • 58.29 (n)
  • 51.69 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii per3 35
  • 54.63 (n)
  • 50.64 (a)
per3 36
  • 36 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta per 36
  • 9 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lin-42 36
  • 15 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PER3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PER3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PER3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PER3 (if available)

Paralogs for PER3 Gene

Paralogs for PER3 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PER3 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PER3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PER3: view

Variants for PER3 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PER3 Gene

P56645-PER3_HUMAN
The number of repeats of 18 amino acids in positions 966 to 1055 is polymorphic and varies among at least 2 different alleles. Alleles corresponding in size to a 4 (PER3.4) and 5 (PER3.5) repeats have been described. The sequence shown is that of allele PER3.5. In most populations around 10% of individuals are homozygous for the 5-repeat (PER3.5), whereas approximately 50% are homozygous for the 4-repeat (PER3.4). In some populations in Papua New Guinea the prevalence of the various genotypes appears to be reversed. These repeats and polymorphism are not present in non-primate mammals. Homozygosity for PER3.5 is more likely to show morning preference, whereas homozygosity for the PER3.4 associates with evening preferences. PER3.5 homozygous show vulnerability to sleep loss with a greater cognitive decline in response to total sleep deprivation (PubMed:11306557, PubMed:17346965, PubMed:19716732, PubMed:24439663, PubMed:24577121).

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PER3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs20887 -- 7,829,318(+) tactc(A/C)tcaca intron-variant
rs170631 -- 7,792,057(+) caccc(C/G)actct intron-variant
rs170632 -- 7,797,372(+) gctca(C/T)gcctg intron-variant
rs170633 -- 7,828,512(+) CCTTC(C/T)CTTTA intron-variant
rs172933 -- 7,784,620(-) GACAA(A/G)TGGAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PER3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv870846 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv161033 CNV Loss 16902084
esv2742917 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2743028 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv991458 CNV Deletion 20482838

Relevant External Links for PER3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PER3
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PER3

Disorders for PER3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database.

Search for PER3 Gene in MalaCards »

(2) Diseases for PER3 Gene including...

(4) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PER3 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
advanced sleep phase syndrome 90.1 1
delayed sleep phase syndrome 88.3 4
breast cancer 0 4
cancer 0 1

Relevant External Links for PER3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PER3
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PER3
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PER3: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for PER3 Gene

Publications for PER3 Gene

  1. Association of the length polymorphism in the human Per3 gene with the delayed sleep-phase syndrome: does latitude have an influence upon it? (PMID: 15700718) Pereira D.S. … Pedrazzoli M. (Sleep 2005) 3 23 48
  2. Suggestive evidence for association of the circadian genes PERIOD3 and ARNTL with bipolar disorder. (PMID: 16528748) Nievergelt C.M. … Kelsoe J.R. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2006) 3 23 48
  3. Inter-individual differences in habitual sleep timing and entrained phase of endogenous circadian rhythms of BMAL1, PER2 and PER3 mRNA in human leukocytes. (PMID: 18517031) Archer S.N. … Dijk D.J. (Sleep 2008) 3 23 48
  4. A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 influences age at onset of bipolar disorder. (PMID: 18789374) Benedetti F. … Smeraldi E. (Neurosci. Lett. 2008) 3 23 48
  5. Association between specific diurnal preference questionnaire items and PER3 VNTR genotype. (PMID: 19360490) Ellis J. … Archer S.N. (Chronobiol. Int. 2009) 3 23 48

Products for PER3 Gene

Sources for PER3 Gene

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