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PEPD Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC19M033877

Peptidase D

Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Peptidase D1 2 3     imidodipeptidase2
Proline Dipeptidase2 3     Xaa-Pro Dipeptidase2
X-Pro Dipeptidase2 3     EC 3.4.13.93
prolidase1     Imidodipeptidase3
PROLIDASE2     PRD3
Aminoacyl-L-Proline Hydrolase2     Prolidase3

External Ids:    HGNC: 88401   Entrez Gene: 51842   Ensembl: ENSG000001242997   OMIM: 6132305   UniProtKB: P129553   

Export aliases for PEPD gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC19M034495 GC19M034326 GC19M038553 GC19M038569 GC19M030378


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PEPD Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the peptidase family. The protein forms a homodimer that hydrolyzes dipeptides or
tripeptides with C-terminal proline or hydroxyproline residues. The enzyme serves an important role in the
recycling of proline, and may be rate limiting for the production of collagen. Mutations in this gene result in
prolidase deficiency, which is characterized by the excretion of large amount of di- and tri-peptides containing
proline. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.(provided by
RefSeq, Oct 2009)

GeneCards Summary for PEPD Gene:
PEPD (peptidase D) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PEPD include prolidase deficiency, and legg-calve-perthes disease. GO annotations related to this gene include metallocarboxypeptidase activity and manganese ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PEPD_HUMAN, P12955
Function: Splits dipeptides with a prolyl or hydroxyprolyl residue in the C-terminal position. Plays an important
role in collagen metabolism because the high level of iminoacids in collagen

Gene Wiki entry for PEPD Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000019.10  NC_018930.2  NT_011109.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PEPD gene promoter:
         PPAR-gamma1   IRF-7A   RelA   Nkx2-5   PPAR-gamma2   HNF-3beta   NF-kappaB   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PEPD

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PEPD


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 19q13.11   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  19q13.11   HGNC cytogenetic band: 19q13.11

PEPD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PEPD gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 19         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC19M033877:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
33,877,855 bp from pter      End:
34,012,799 bp from pter
Size:
134,945 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PEPD_HUMAN, P12955 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Xaa-Pro dipeptidase  
Size: 493 amino acids; 54548 Da
Cofactor: Binds 2 manganese ions per subunit
Subunit: Homodimer
Mass spectrometry: Mass=54251.73; Method=MALDI; Range=2-493; Source=PubMed:11840567;
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PEPD:
2IW2 (3D)        2OKN (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K3Z1 A8K416 A8K696 A8MX47 B4DDB7 B4DGJ1 E9PCE8 Q8TBN9 Q9BT75
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P12955-1   P12955-2   P12955-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PEPD: NX_P12955

Explore proteomics data for PEPD at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PEPD Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000276.2  NP_001159528.1  NP_001159529.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000244137   ENSP00000380226   ENSP00000391890   ENSP00000468516   ENSP00000476514  
     ENSP00000476667   ENSP00000476869  

    PEPD Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PEPD

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PEPD


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR007865 Aminopep_P_N
     IPR000994 Pept_M24_structural-domain
     IPR001131 Peptidase_M24B_aminopep-P_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P12955

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P12955

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB007865 Aminopeptidase P

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PEPD_HUMAN, P12955
    Similarity: Belongs to the peptidase M24B family. Eukaryotic-type prolidase subfamily


    PEPD for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PEPD_HUMAN, P12955
    Function: Splits dipeptides with a prolyl or hydroxyprolyl residue in the C-terminal position. Plays an important
    role in collagen metabolism because the high level of iminoacids in collagen
    Catalytic activity: Hydrolysis of Xaa- -Pro dipeptides; also acts on aminoacyl-hydroxyproline analogs. No action
    on Pro- -Pro

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PEPD:
    peptidase D

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.4.13.91

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004177aminopeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0004181metallocarboxypeptidase activity TAS1972707
    GO:0008233peptidase activity ----
    GO:0016805dipeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0030145manganese ion binding IEA--
         
    PEPD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PEPD:
     Decreased influenza A/WSN/33 r  Increased cell number in G2M,   Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PEPD:
    hsa-mir-423-3p (MIRT042567)

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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPEPD 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PEPD
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol2
    extracellular2
    nucleus2
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    mitochondrion1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    PEPD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PEPD
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PEPD

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PEPD (P129552, 3 ENSP000002441374) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 82)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HIST1H4BP628053, ENSP000003665814I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000366581
    HIST1H4CP628053, ENSP000003670344I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000367034
    HIST1H4DP628053, ENSP000003432824I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000343282
    HIST1H4EP628053, ENSP000003536244I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000353624
    HIST1H4HP628053, ENSP000002893524I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000289352
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis TAS1972707
    GO:0006520cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS1972707
    GO:0030574collagen catabolic process IEA--

    PEPD for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PEPD

    2 HMDB Compounds for PEPD    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Glycylproline1-(Aminoacetyl)proline (see all 6)704-15-416642978
    Manganesemanganese 7439-96-5--

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PEPD gene (see all 38)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    glycylproline 93.2 14 15530480 (2), 9972056 (1), 10582130 (1), 1536787 (1) (see all 7)
    proline 85.7 151 15696600 (5), 11820612 (4), 1437403 (3), 9581474 (3) (see all 70)
    acetylproline 85.4 2 2246246 (1), 1545347 (1)
    pepq 81.2 3 12859771 (1), 8633861 (1), 10075426 (1)
    anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid 79.7 3 9972056 (3)
    hydroxyproline 76.4 33 8031960 (2), 9112701 (1), 17999410 (1), 18806117 (1) (see all 24)
    melphalan 52.8 31 14572862 (4), 10697434 (3), 17377743 (3), 15804176 (3) (see all 8)
    chlorambucil 50.1 9 9581474 (3), 11338665 (3), 15178351 (1)
    tripeptide s 48.1 1 9879669 (1)
    6-phosphogluconate 36.7 1 7810807 (1)



    PEPD for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PEPD gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000285.3  NM_001166056.1  NM_001166057.1  

    Unigene Cluster for PEPD:

    Peptidase D
    Hs.36473  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000285
    13 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000593085 ENST00000244137(uc002nur.4) ENST00000589598 ENST00000591968
    ENST00000397032(uc010xrr.2) ENST00000436370(uc002nuq.4 uc010xrs.2)
    ENST00000588328 ENST00000590731 ENST00000609145 ENST00000593163 ENST00000588719
    ENST00000590755 ENST00000590408
    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 10 - 13 May 2014

    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PEPD
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 3): PEPD (NM_000285)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PEPD
    Primer
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PEPD
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PEPD

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK057538.1 AK225037.1 AK290756.1 AK290781.1 AK291561.1 AK293126.1 AK294619.1 BC004305.1 
    BC015027.1 BC028295.1 BT006692.1 CR541669.1 J04605.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.447692  DT.100793949  DT.100793951  DT.121501050  DT.91772559  DT.100732650  DT.100793956  DT.121501026 
    DT.100793952  DT.40315802  DT.100793964  DT.100804841  DT.100810995  DT.120978751  DT.121500975  DT.121500988 
    DT.121500996  DT.100810001  DT.95256615 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 455):

    CR626494 BI756568 BM756066 BQ006951 BF432095 CB216666 BG767493 BM755925 
    BQ720584 CA445150 AA906251 BG770634 BE396008 CA397698 BQ021219 CA429295 
    CF272305 BF476206 N33079 BM023632 AW271523 BX113786 BM920899 CF264855 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PEPD (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b
    SP1:              -                                                                       -           -                     
    SP2:              -                                                                                                         
    SP3:              -     -     -     -                       -     -                                                         
    SP4:                                                                                                  -                     
    SP5:                                                                                                                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PEPD

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PEPD expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCAGGCTGTG
    PEPD Expression
    About this image


    PEPD expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 9) fully expand
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Mature Horizontal Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
     
     Neurons
             Mature Horizontal Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
     
     Thyroid (Endocrine System)
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)
    PEPD Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PEPD Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.36473
        Custom PCR Arrays for PEPD
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    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PEPD
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PEPD

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PEPD gene from Selected species (see all 23)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pepd1 , 5 peptidase D1, 5 84.18(n)1
    89.05(a)1
      7 (20.70 cM)5
    186241  NM_008820.21  NP_032846.21 
     349123795 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PEPD1 peptidase D 74.78(n)
    79.11(a)
      415776  NM_001079717.1  NP_001073185.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PEPD6
    peptidase D
    69(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343508.1(517939-630186)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC054994.12   -- 74.32(n)    BC054994.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BC055252.12   -- 75.46(n)   337498  BC055252.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Dip-C1 , 3 dipeptidyl-peptidase3
    Dipeptidase C1
    50(a)3
    59.83(n)1
    53.35(a)1
      87B93
    477691  NM_141935.31  NP_650192.11 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K12C11.11 , 3 K12C11.11 52(a)3
    56.62(n)1
    54.78(a)1
      I(1341234-1342265)3
    1717041  NM_058442.31  NP_490843.11 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes (YFR006W)4 Putative X-Pro aminopeptidase; green fluorescent protein more   --   6(156145-157752) 850556  NP_116661.1 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AT4G294901 AT4G29490 56.88(n)
    58.75(a)
      829070  NM_119094.4  NP_194678.2 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.275342 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA clone0 more 71.33(n)    AK064268.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PEPD (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PEPD (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PEPD gene

    PEPD for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PEPD
    PGOHUM00000237113


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PEPD (see all 3143)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 19 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0116154
    Prolidase deficiency (PD)4--see VAR_0116152 G D mis40--------
    VAR_0044044
    Prolidase deficiency (PD)4--see VAR_0044042 D N mis40--------
    VAR_0116144
    Prolidase deficiency (PD)4--see VAR_0116142 R Q mis40--------
    VAR_0044054
    Prolidase deficiency (PD)4--see VAR_0044052 G R mis40--------
    rs1219177251,2
    Cpathogenic134060009(-) ACGACC/TGAACG 6 R * stg10--------
    rs1408421,2
    C--33877912(+) GACAG-/AAAGT 
            
    AAAGT
    3 -- ut310--------
    rs106596041,2
    C--33877913(+) AAGTA-/AAAG  
     T
    /AAGTA
    TCAGA
    6 -- ut310--------
    rs794865191,2
    C--33878074(+) ATTAA-/TTAA  
            
    AAAAG
    3 -- ut310--------
    rs1113760441,2
    C--33880403(+) GGGCTC/-TCCCC 3 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs785214731,2
    C,F--33881647(+) GCCAAC/GGGGCC 3 -- int17Minor allele frequency- G:0.22WA NA CSA EA 365

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PEPD (33877855 - 34012799 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for PEPD (see all 17):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2718472CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2677046CNV Deletion23128226
    nsv819550CNV Insertion19587683
    esv2469451CNV Insertion19546169
    nsv513524CNV Insertion21212237
    nsv522571CNV Loss19592680
    nsv911597CNV Loss21882294
    nsv911608CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3846n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3847n71CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PEPD
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PEPD
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PEPD

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 613230   
    OMIM disorders: 170100  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PEPD_HUMAN, P12955
  • Prolidase deficiency (PD) [MIM:170100]: A multisystem disorder associated with massive iminodipeptiduria
    and lack of or reduced prolidase activity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, or cultured fibroblasts. Clinical features
    include skin ulcers, developmental delay, recurrent infections, and a characteristic facies. Note=The disease is
    caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for PEPD (see all 54):    
    About MalaCards
    prolidase deficiency    legg-calve-perthes disease    bacterial vaginosis    erythromelalgia
    splenomegaly    osteogenesis imperfecta    hyper ige syndrome    epidermolysis bullosa simplex
    cutaneous leishmaniasis    uterine fibroid    varicocele    connective tissue disease
    vasculitis    epidermolysis bullosa    short stature    vaginitis
    leishmaniasis    keloids    stomach cancer    myopia

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PEPD:
    Intellectual disability     Bacterial vaginosis

    PEPD for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:
    The International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD) 9 - 13 March 2014

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PEPD gene (see all 26)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    skin ulcer 73.2 11 1437403 (1), 18806117 (1), 8408817 (1), 12452876 (1) (see all 10)
    mental retardation 61 22 1437403 (1), 12000488 (1), 12646727 (1), 15309682 (1) (see all 18)
    bacterial vaginosis 53.8 5 12388968 (2), 17714681 (1), 12517887 (1), 12023767 (1)
    leg ulcer 53.2 10 11116849 (2), 18855790 (2), 1301685 (1), 9411652 (1) (see all 8)
    skin lesion 52.1 18 12384772 (2), 2010534 (2), 15309682 (1), 19415262 (1) (see all 13)
    splenomegaly 49 5 8408817 (1), 9587929 (1), 17459310 (1), 19937054 (1) (see all 5)
    osteogenesis imperfecta 47.8 3 15802041 (2), 11277941 (1)
    respiratory tract infections 30.4 4 12000488 (1), 15309682 (1), 19415262 (1)
    connective tissue diseases 28 3 19415262 (1), 17142620 (1)
    enzyme deficiency 27 1 8919529 (1)

    Genatlas disease: PEPD
    prolidase deficiency,with variable expression from no manifestation to severe progressive skin
    ulceration,decreased resistance to infection,impaired cognitive development

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PEPD
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PEPD (2 documents)

    Export disorders for PEPD gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PEPD gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 224) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PEPD)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Primary structure and gene localization of human prolidase. (PubMed id 2925654)1, 2, 3 Endo F.... Matsuda I. (J. Biol. Chem. 1989)
    2. Structural organization of the gene for human prolidase (peptidase D) and demonstration of a partial gene deletion in a patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 1972707)1, 3, 9 Tanoue A....Matsuda I. (J. Biol. Chem. 1990)
    3. Four novel PEPD alleles causing prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 8198124)1, 2, 9 Ledoux P.... Hechtman P. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1994)
    4. Mutation analysis of five new patients affected by prolidase deficiency: the lack of enzyme activity causes necrosis-like cell death in cultured fibroblasts. (PubMed id 12384772)1, 2, 9 Forlino A.... Cetta G. (Hum. Genet. 2002)
    5. Expression and molecular analysis of mutations in prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 8900231)1, 2, 9 Ledoux P.... Hechtman P. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1996)
    6. A single nucleotide change in the prolidase gene in fibroblasts from two patients with polypeptide positive prolidase deficiency. Expression of the mutant enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells. (PubMed id 2365824)1, 2, 9 Tanoue A.... Matsuda I. (J. Clin. Invest. 1990)
    7. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals. (PubMed id 22479202)1, 4 Dastani Z....Kathiresan S. (PLoS Genet. 2012)
    8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians. (PubMed id 22158537)1, 4 Cho Y.S....Seielstad M. (Nat. Genet. 2012)
    9. Confirmation of multiple risk Loci and genetic impacts by a genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. (PubMed id 19401414)1, 4 Takeuchi F....Kato N. (Diabetes 2009)
    10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    11. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    12. Cluster analysis of an extensive human breast cancer cell line protein expression map database. (PubMed id 11840567)1, 2 Harris R.A....Zvelebil M.J. (Proteomics 2002)
    13. Extracellular matrix and HIF-1 signaling: the role of prolidase. (PubMed id 17999410)1, 9 Surazynski A....Phang J.M. (Int. J. Cancer 2008)
    14. Prolidase activity in fibroblasts is regulated by interaction of extracellular matrix with cell surface integrin receptors. (PubMed id 9328822)1, 9 Palka J.A. and Phang J.M. (J. Cell. Biochem. 1997)
    15. Proline prodrug of melphalan targeted to prolidase, a prodrug activating enzyme overexpressed in melanoma. (PubMed id 17377743)1, 9 Mittal S....Amidon G.L. (Pharm. Res. 2007)
    16. Characterization of a new PEPD allele causing prolidase deficiency in two unrelated patients: natural-occurrent mutations as a tool to investigate structure-function relationship. (PubMed id 15309682)1, 9 Lupi A....Forlino A. (J. Hum. Genet. 2004)
    17. The mechanism of daunorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis. (PubMed id 10965990)1, 9 MuszyA8ska A....Gorodkiewicz E. (Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2000)
    18. Characterization of prolidase I and II purified from normal human erythrocytes: comparison with prolidase in erythrocytes from a patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 19263194)1, 9 Uramatsu S....Kodama H. (Amino Acids 2009)
    19. N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-proline: an in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of prolidase. (PubMed id 15878628)1, 9 Lupi A....Forlino A. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2005)
    20. The role of prolidase as an enzyme participating in the metabolism of collagen. (PubMed id 9020526)1, 9 PaA8ka J.A. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1996)
    21. Prolidase activity and oxidative status in patients with thalassemia major. (PubMed id 20087956)1, 9 Cakmak A....Aksoy N. (J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 2010)
    22. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in a 6-year-old boy with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 17570078)1, 9 Di Rocco M....Martini A. (J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2007)
    23. Prolidase activity in serum and pleural fluids in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion [correction of effussion]. (PubMed id 18387361)1, 9 Ipcioglu O.M....Akgul E.O. (Clin. Biochem. 2008)
    24. FAK-independent regulation of prolidase activity and collagen biosynthesis in MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 11820613)1, 9 SurazyA8ski A. and PaA8ka J. (Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 2001)
    25. Kinetic study of prolidase activity in erythrocytes against different substrates using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection. (PubMed id 18550075)1, 9 Zhou L....Wang E. (J Chromatogr A 2008)
    26. Molecular characterisation of six patients with prolidase deficiency: identification of the first small duplication in the prolidase gene and of a mutation generating symptomatic and asymptomatic outcomes within the same family. (PubMed id 17142620)1, 9 Lupi A....Forlino A. (J. Med. Genet. 2006)
    27. Characterization of prolidase activity using capillary electrophoresis with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrochemiluminescence detection and application to evaluate collagen degradation in diabetes mellitus. (PubMed id 16642978)6, 9 Yuan J....Wang E. (Anal. Chem. 2006)
    28. Dilatation of the ascending aorta is associated with low serum prolidase activity. (PubMed id 20383038)1, 9 Akcakoyun M....Esen A.M. (Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 2010)
    29. The association of serum prolidase activity with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. (PubMed id 18607169)1, 9 Yildiz A....Erel O. (Coron. Artery Dis. 2008)
    30. Increased prolidase activity and oxidative stress in PCOS. (PubMed id 23163753)1 Hilali N....Aksoy N. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2013)
    31. Fibrosis in heart failure subtypes. (PubMed id 24065222)1 Toprak G....Mete N. (Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013)
    32. A Mn(II)-Mn(II) center in human prolidase. (PubMed id 22999980)1 Besio R....Forlino A. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2013)
    33. Kinetic and structural evidences on human prolidase pathological mutants suggest strategies for enzyme functional rescue. (PubMed id 23516557)1 Besio R....Forlino A. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    34. The effect of estrogen on prolidase-dependent regulation of HIF-1I+ expression in breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 23549681)1 Surazynski A....Palka J. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2013)
    35. Prolidase enzyme activity in varicose venous walls related to sperm count in patients with varicocele. (PubMed id 23171426)1 Ozcan O....Ates F. (Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 2013)
    36. Serum prolidase activity in diabetic foot ulcers. (PubMed id 23242638)1 Eren M.A....Aksoy N. (Acta Diabetol 2013)
    37. Identification and analysis of a novel mutation in PEPD gene in two Kashmiri siblings with prolidase enzyme deficiency. (PubMed id 23287645)1 Pandit R.A....Islam N. (Gene 2013)
    38. Prolidase directly binds and activates epidermal growth factor receptor and stimulates downstream signaling. (PubMed id 23212918)1 Yang L....Zhang Y. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    39. A high-throughput approach for measuring temporal changes in the interactome. (PubMed id 22863883)1 Kristensen A.R....Foster L.J. (Nat. Methods 2012)
    40. Proteome-wide identification of ubiquitylation sites by conjugation of engineered lysine-less ubiquitin. (PubMed id 22053931)1 Oshikawa K....Nakayama K.I. (J. Proteome Res. 2012)
    41. Prolidase and oxidative stress in chronic hepatitis C. (PubMed id 22811354)1 Duygu F....Hamidanoglu M. (J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 2012)
    42. Comparative large scale characterization of plant versus mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-I+-acetylation features. (PubMed id 22223895)2 Bienvenut W.V....Giglione C. (amp 2012)
    43. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance. (PubMed id 22581228)1 Manning A.K....Langenberg C. (Nat. Genet. 2012)
    44. The decrease in prolidase activity in myeloproliferative neoplasms. (PubMed id 23457135)1 Nowicka J....WoA_niak M. (Adv Clin Exp Med 2012)
    45. Oxidative stress and prolidase activity in women with uterine fibroids. (PubMed id 22185542)1 Vural M....Aksoy N. (J Obstet Gynaecol 2012)
    46. The retinoic acid-induced up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 and 2 is associated with prolidase-dependent collagen synthesis in UVA-irradiated human dermal equivalents. (PubMed id 22245250)1 Shim J.H....Noh M. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 2012)
    47. Serum prolidase activity, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide levels in patients with bladder cancer. (PubMed id 22258852)1 Gecit I....Ceylan K. (J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2012)
    48. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    49. Comparison of prolidase enzyme activities of maternal serum and placental tissue in patients with early pregnancy failure. (PubMed id 20437180)1 Vural M....Aksoy N. (Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 2011)
    50. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative-antioxidative status in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. (PubMed id 21304409)1 Altay M.A....Isikan U.E. (J Pediatr Orthop B 2011)
    51. Genome-wide YFP fluorescence complementation screen identifies new regulators for telomere signaling in human cells. (PubMed id 21044950)1 Lee O.H....Songyang Z. (amp 2011)
    52. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
    53. Serum prolidase activity in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (PubMed id 21722016)1 Gumus S....Bilgic H. (Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 2011)
    54. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. (PubMed id 21906983)1 Kim W....Gygi S.P. (Mol. Cell 2011)
    55. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysine ubiquitylation reveals promiscuity at site level. (PubMed id 21139048)1 Danielsen J.M....Nielsen M.L. (amp 2011)
    56. Prolidase-dependent regulation of TGF I^ (corrected) and TGF I^ receptor expressions in human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 20868675)1 Surazynski A....Palka J. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2010)
    57. Serum prolidase activity in idiopathic and ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. (PubMed id 20626024)1 Sezen Y....Aksoy N. (J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 2010)
    58. Dynamics of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase network revealed by systematic quantitative proteomics. (PubMed id 21145461)1 Bennett E.J....Harper J.W. (Cell 2010)
    59. Serum prolidase enzyme activity and its relation to histopathological findings in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (PubMed id 20486204)1 Horoz M....Aksoy N. (J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 2010)
    60. Diagnostic value of serum prolidase enzyme activity to predict the liver histological lesions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a surrogate marker to distinguish steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. (PubMed id 18989777)1 Kayadibi H....Keskin O. (Dig. Dis. Sci. 2009)
    61. Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. (PubMed id 19413330)2 Gauci S....Mohammed S. (Anal. Chem. 2009)
    62. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in patients with stage I endometrial cancer. (PubMed id 19823062)1 Arioz D.T....Aksoy N. (Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 2009)
    63. Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes. (PubMed id 19056867)1 Gonzales P.A....Knepper M.A. (J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2009)
    64. Association of prolidase activity, oxidative parameters, and presence of atrial fibrillation in patients with mitral stenosis. (PubMed id 18514097)1 Rabus M....Yakut C. (Arch. Med. Res. 2008)
    65. Is joint hypermobility important in prepubertal children? (PubMed id 18202846)1 Yazgan P....Kurcer M.A. (Rheumatol. Int. 2008)
    66. Serum prolidase activity in patients with hypertension and its relation with left ventricular hypertrophy. (PubMed id 17604013)1 Demirbag R....Aksoy N. (Clin. Biochem. 2007)
    67. Serum prolidase activity and oxidative status in Helicobacter pylori infection. (PubMed id 16999949)1 Aslan M....Erel O. (Clin. Biochem. 2007)
    68. A genome-wide association study for blood lipid phenotypes in the Framingham Heart Study. (PubMed id 17903299)4 Kathiresan S....Cupples L.A. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
    69. Increased oxidative stress and its relation with collagen metabolism in knee osteoarthritis. (PubMed id 17096092)1 Altindag O....Karaoglanoglu M. (Rheumatol. Int. 2007)
    70. A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration. (PubMed id 16713569)1 Lim J.... Zoghbi H.Y. (Cell 2006)
    71. Global phosphoproteome analysis on human HepG2 hepatocytes using reversed-phase diagonal LC. (PubMed id 16097034)1 Gevaert K....Vandekerckhove J. (Proteomics 2005)
    72. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PubMed id 15057824)2 Grimwood J.... Lucas S.M. (Nature 2004)
    73. Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins. (PubMed id 15302935)1 Beausoleil S.A.... Gygi S.P. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004)
    74. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    75. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. (PubMed id 8125298)1 Maruyama K. and Sugano S. (Gene 1994)
    76. Prolidase deficiency: biochemical classification of alleles. (PubMed id 2705457)1 Boright A.P....Choy F. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1989)
    77. Three-point linkage analysis employing C3 and 19cen markers assigns the myotonic dystrophy gene to 19q. (PubMed id 2881880)1 Friedrich U....Ropers H.H. (Hum. Genet. 1987)
    78. Nitric oxide regulates prolidase activity by serine/threonine phosphorylation. (PubMed id 16167338)9 Surazynski A....Phang J.M. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2005)
    79. Effects of amino acids and its metabolites on prolidase activity against various iminodipeptides in erythrocytes from normal human and a patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 15530480)9 Liu G....Kodama H. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2004)
    80. Functional and molecular characterization of rat intestinal prolidase. (PubMed id 12646727)9 Hu M....Zheng L. (Pediatr. Res. 2003)
    81. Phosphorylation of prolidase increases the enzyme activity. (PubMed id 11451388)9 SurazyA8ski A....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2001)
    82. Molecular basis of prolidase (peptidase D) deficiency. (PubMed id 1943683)9 Endo F. and Matsuda I. (amp 1991)
    83. Human prolidase and prolidase deficiency: an overview on the characterization of the enzyme involved in proline recycling and on the effects of its mutations. (PubMed id 18340504)9 Lupi A....Forlino A. (Amino Acids 2008)
    84. A homozygous missense mutation in PEPD encoding peptidase D causes prolidase deficiency associated with hyper-IgE syndrome. (PubMed id 16681595)9 Hershkovitz T....Sprecher E. (Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 2006)
    85. A nonsense mutation of PEPD in four Amish children with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 16470701)9 Wang H....Scofield R.H. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2006)
    86. Differential effects of echistatin and thrombin on collagen production and prolidase activity in human dermal fibroblasts and their possible implication in beta1-integrin-mediated signaling. (PubMed id 15661571)9 SurazyA8ski A....PaA8ka J. (Pharmacol. Res. 2005)
    87. Inhibition of prolidase activity by nickel causes decreased growth of proline auxotrophic CHO cells. (PubMed id 15696600)9 Miltyk W....Phang J.M. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2005)
    88. Prolidase as a prodrug converting enzyme. II. Synthesis of proline analogue of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and its susceptibility to the action of prolidase. (PubMed id 9972056)9 Bielawska A....PaA8ka J. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1998)
    89. Prolidase, a potential enzyme target for melanoma: design of proline-containing dipeptide-like prodrugs. (PubMed id 15804176)9 Mittal S....Amidon G.L. (Mol. Pharm. 2005)
    90. Doxycycline-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its involvement in impaired collagen biosynthesis. (PubMed id 11698059)9 Karna E....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2001)
    91. Estrogen-dependent regulation of prolidase activity in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 10451808)9 Miltyk W....Palka J. (Gynecol. Endocrinol. 1999)
    92. Prolidase in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 9619859)9 Palka J.A. and Phang J.M. (Cancer Lett. 1998)
    93. Prolidase as a prodrug converting enzyme I. Synthesis of proline analogue of chlorambucil and its susceptibility to the action of prolidase. (PubMed id 9581474)9 Bielawska A....PaA8ka J. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1997)
    94. Peptide transporter function and prolidase activities in Caco-2 cells: a lack of coordinated expression. (PubMed id 8821003)9 Hu M....Stratford R.E. (J Drug Target 1995)
    95. Molecular defect in siblings with prolidase deficiency and absence or presence of clinical symptoms. A 0.8-kb deletion with breakpoints at the short, direct repeat in the PEPD gene and synthesis of abnormal messenger RNA and inactive polypeptide. (PubMed id 2010534)9 Tanoue A....Matsuda I. (J. Clin. Invest. 1991)
    96. Different effects of sulfur amino acids on prolidase and prolinase activity in normal and prolidase-deficient human erythrocytes. (PubMed id 16899234)9 Uramatsu M....Kodama H. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 2007)
    97. Human recombinant prolidase from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources. Expression, purification, characterization and long-term stability studies. (PubMed id 17081196)9 Lupi A....Forlino A. (FEBS J. 2006)
    98. Intracellular delivery of liposome-encapsulated prolidase in cultured fibroblasts from prolidase-deficient patients. (PubMed id 15653144)9 Perugini P....Conti B. (J Control Release 2005)
    99. Prolidase activity disregulation in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. (PubMed id 12397770)9 Palka J....Dzienis H. (Hepatogastroenterology 2002)
    100. The mechanism for anthracycline-induced inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. (PubMed id 11137854)9 MuszyA8ska A....PaA8ka J. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2001)
    101. Doxorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis. (PubMed id 9798267)9 MuszyA8ska A....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Pol J Pharmacol 1998)
    102. Prolidase deficiency in cultured human fibroblasts: biochemical pathology and iminodipeptide-enhanced growth. (PubMed id 1437403)9 Dolenga M. and Hechtman P. (Pediatr. Res. 1992)
    103. Characterization of fibroblast-derived prolidase. The presence of two forms of prolidase. (PubMed id 2073490)9 Oono T....Arata J. (J. Dermatol. Sci. 1990)
    104. Prolidase-dependent regulation of collagen biosynthesis. (PubMed id 18320291)9 Surazynski A....Phang J.M. (Amino Acids 2008)
    105. Ex vivo evaluation of prolidase loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the enzyme replacement therapy. (PubMed id 18547793)9 Colonna C....Genta I. (Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008)
    106. Elevated prolidase activity in keloids: correlation with type I collagen turnover. (PubMed id 16634881)9 Duong H.S....Messadi D.V. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2006)
    107. Characterization of prolidase activity in erythrocytes from a patient with prolidase deficiency: comparison with prolidase I and II purified from normal human erythrocytes. (PubMed id 16009141)9 Liu G....Kodama H. (Clin. Biochem. 2005)
    108. Acetylsalicylic acid-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis and beta1-integrin signaling in cultured fibroblasts. (PubMed id 15173663)9 SurazyA8ski A....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Med. Sci. Monit. 2004)
    109. Prolidase as a prodrug converting enzyme. III. Synthesis of proline analogues of melphalan and theirs susceptibility to the action of prolidase. (PubMed id 10697434)9 Bielawska A....PaA8ka J. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1999)
    110. Insulin-like growth factor I-dependent regulation of prolidase activity in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 9879669)9 Miltyk W....PaA8ka J. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1998)
    111. Prolidase activity and beta 1 integrin expression in moderately and poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinomas. (PubMed id 9337541)9 Karna E....RudziA8ski P. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1997)
    112. Modulation of prolidase activity during in vitro aging of human skin fibroblasts the role of extracellular matrix collagen. (PubMed id 9300982)9 PaA8ka J.A....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 1996)
    113. Utilization of peptide carrier system to improve intestinal absorption: targeting prolidase as a prodrug-converting enzyme. (PubMed id 1545347)9 Bai J.P....Amidon G.L. (J Pharm Sci 1992)
    114. Prolidase deficiency: it looks like systemic lupus erythematosus but it is not. (PubMed id 19937054)9 Klar A....Falik-Zaccai T.C. (Eur. J. Pediatr. 2010)
    115. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis, alpha2beta1 integrin and IGF-I receptor signaling in cultured fibroblasts. (PubMed id 18491034)9 Karna E. and Palka J.A. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2008)
    116. Enhanced prolidase activity and decreased collagen content in breast cancer tissue. (PubMed id 16875494)9 Cechowska-Pasko M....Wojtukiewicz M.Z. (Int J Exp Pathol 2006)
    117. Biodegradable microspheres for prolidase delivery to human cultured fibroblasts. (PubMed id 15142336)9 Lupi A....Iadarola P. (J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004)
    118. Collagen metabolism disturbances are accompanied by an increase in prolidase activity in lung carcinoma planoepitheliale. (PubMed id 11168680)9 Karna E....Palka J. (Int J Exp Pathol 2000)
    119. Prolidase-activated prodrug for cancer chemotherapy cytotoxic activity of proline analogue of chlorambucil in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 11204951)9 Bielawska A....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Farmaco 2000)
    120. Prolidase activity in chronic wound and blister fluids. (PubMed id 9375460)9 Oono T....Arata J. (J. Dermatol. 1997)
    121. Prolidase deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PubMed id 9196362)9 Shrinath M....Herrick A.L. (Arch. Dis. Child. 1997)
    122. Characterization of prolidase I and II from erythrocytes of a control, a patient with prolidase deficiency and her mother. (PubMed id 2317925)9 Ohhashi T....Kodama H. ( international journal of clinical chemistry 1990)
    123. Site-directed PEGylation as successful approach to improve the enzyme replacement in the case of prolidase. (PubMed id 18455892)9 Colonna C....Genta I. (Int J Pharm 2008)
    124. Chitosan glutamate nanoparticles for protein delivery: development and effect on prolidase stability. (PubMed id 17654175)9 Colonna C....Genta I. (J Microencapsul 2007)
    125. Ulcus cruris associated with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 17459310)9 Kavala M....Sarigul S. (Dermatol. Online J. 2006)
    126. Effect of melanin on netilmicin-induced inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 17010622)9 Buszman E....Moleda K. (amp 2006)
    127. Combination of vaginal pH with vaginal sialidase and prolidase activities for prediction of low birth weight and preterm birth. (PubMed id 15695992)9 Cauci S....Guaschino S. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2005)
    128. Proline analogue of melphalan as a prodrug susceptible to the action of prolidase in breast cancer MDA-MB 231 cells. (PubMed id 14572862)9 Chrzanowski K....PaA8ka J. (Farmaco 2003)
    129. Enzyme loaded biodegradable microspheres in vitro ex vivo evaluation. (PubMed id 11733096)9 Genta I....Conti B. (J Control Release 2001)
    130. A novel nonsense mutation of the PEPD gene in a Japanese patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 10721675)9 Kikuchi S....Tsujimoto G. (J. Hum. Genet. 2000)
    131. [Hereditary prolidase deficiency. Contribution to differential therapy refractory leg ulcer diagnosis]. (PubMed id 11116849)9 Kasten R....VoigtlAonder V. ( Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete 2000)
    132. The effects of serum iminodipeptides and prednisolone on superoxide generation and tyrosyl phosphorylation of proteins in neutrophils from a patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 9586797)9 Zhang J....Kodama H. (amp 1998)
    133. Amelioration of prolidase deficiency in fibroblasts using adenovirus mediated gene transfer. (PubMed id 12503186)9 Ikeda K....Sakuragawa N. (Jpn. J. Hum. Genet. 1997)
    134. Prolidase and prolinase activities in moderately and poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. (PubMed id 9337540)9 Karna E....Bogdan J. (Rocz. Akad. Med. Bialymst. 1997)
    135. Inhibition of prolidase activity by non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 9112701)9 Miltyk W....PaA8ka J. (Pol J Pharmacol 1996)
    136. Prolidase deficiency: biochemical study of erythrocyte and skin fibroblast prolidase activity in Italian patients. (PubMed id 15378943)9 Zanaboni G....Cetta G. (Haematologica 1994)
    137. The use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of urinary iminodipeptides in prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 8357941)9 Sugahara K....Kodama H. (Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1993)
    138. Prolidase deficiency: a multisystemic hereditary disorder. (PubMed id 8408817)9 Bissonnette R....Dubuc R. (J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1993)
    139. Biochemical basis of prolidase deficiency. Polypeptide and RNA phenotypes and the relation to clinical phenotypes. (PubMed id 1688567)9 Endo F....Matsuda I. (J. Clin. Invest. 1990)
    140. Identifying the structure of the active sites of human recombinant prolidase. (PubMed id 19415262)9 Besio R....Morante S. (Eur. Biophys. J. 2010)
    141. Phenotype variability in a daughter and father with mild osteogenesis imperfecta correlated with collagen and prolidase levels in cultured skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 15802041)9 Galicka A....GindzieA8ski A. (Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2005)
    142. Determination of prolidase activity using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 15265726)9 Kurien B.T....Scofield R.H. (Anal. Biochem. 2004)
    143. Deregulation of collagen metabolism in human stomach cancer. (PubMed id 15627841)9 Guszczyn T. and Sobolewski K. (Pathobiology 2004)
    144. Characteristics of prolinase against various iminodipeptides in erythrocyte lysates from a normal human and a patient with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 15552267)9 Wang W....Kodama H. (Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2004)
    145. Oxidative stress induces IGF-I receptor signaling disturbances in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. A possible mechanism for collagen biosynthesis inhibition. (PubMed id 15647787)9 Sienkiewicz P....PaA8ka J. (amp 2004)
    146. Acetylsalicylic acid as a potential regulator of prolidase-convertible pro-drugs in control and neoplastic cells. (PubMed id 15337432)9 Chrzanowski K....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Farmaco 2004)
    147. Prolidase deficiency with hyperimmunoglobulin E: a case report. (PubMed id 12000488)9 Lopes I....Martins E. (Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002)
    148. Therapeutic apheresis exchange in two patients with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 12452876)9 Lupi A....Iadarola P. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2002)
    149. The potential mechanism for glutamine-induced collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 11470441)9 Karna E....PaA8ka J.A. (amp 2001)
    150. Decreased cytotoxicity and increased antimitotic activity of a proline analogue of chlorambucil as a prodrug susceptible to the action of fibroblast's prolidase. (PubMed id 11338665)9 Bielawska A....PaA8ka J. (Pharmazie 2001)
    151. Defects of type I procollagen metabolism correlated with decrease of prolidase activity in a case of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. (PubMed id 11277941)9 Galicka A....Palka J. (Eur. J. Biochem. 2001)
    152. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of raloxifene on collagen metabolism in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 11447735)9 WoA8czynski S....PaA8ka J. (Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2001)
    153. Proline analogue of melphalan as a prolidase-convertible pro-drug in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 11820612)9 Chrzanowski K. and PaA8ka J. (Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 2001)
    154. Prolidase deficiency among an Israeli population: prenatal diagnosis in a genetic disorder with uncertain prognosis. (PubMed id 11113899)9 Mandel H....van Gennip A.H. (Prenat. Diagn. 2000)
    155. Alteromonas prolidase for organophosphorus G-agent decontamination. (PubMed id 10421483)9 Cheng T.C....Rastogi V.K. (Chem. Biol. Interact. 1999)
    156. Prolidase deficiency associated with pathologic myopia. (PubMed id 9587929)9 Kiratli H. and SatilmiA9 M. (Ophthalmic Genet. 1998)
    157. Measurement of iminodipeptides in the serum of patients with prolidase deficiency using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (PubMed id 8031960)9 Sugahara K....Kodama H. (Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1994)
    158. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the qualitative analyses of iminodipeptides in the urine of patients with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 2387877)9 Kodama H....Numajiri Y. (J. Chromatogr. 1990)
    159. Among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis, the hydrolytic enzymes sialidase and prolidase are positively associated with interleukin-1beta. (PubMed id 17714681)9 Cauci S....McCollum K. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2008)
    160. Prolidase deficiency: the use of topical proline for treatment of leg ulcers. (PubMed id 18855790)9 Dunn R. and Dolianitis C. (Australas. J. Dermatol. 2008)
    161. Variation in vaginal immune parameters and microbial hydrolytic enzymes in bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women with and without Mobiluncus species. (PubMed id 16643824)9 Culhane J.F....Cauci S. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2006)
    162. Catalytic properties and inhibition of proline-specific dipeptidyl peptidases II, IV and VII. (PubMed id 12529175)9 Leiting B....Thornberry N.A. (Biochem. J. 2003)
    163. Cytotoxicity activity of L-proline analogues of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. (PubMed id 11820611)9 Bielawska A....PaA8ka J. (Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 2001)
    164. Melanin potentiates daunorubicin-induced inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 11426835)9 SurazyA8ski A....Kaczmarczyk P. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2001)
    165. Cytotoxicity and effect on collagen biosynthesis of proline analogue of melphalan as a prolidase-convertible prodrug in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 11680815)9 Chrzanowski K....PaA8ka J. (Farmaco 2001)
    166. The association of serum prolidase activity and erectile dysfunction. (PubMed id 19834130)9 Savas M....Verit A. (J. Androl. 2010)
    167. Assessment of preoperative serum prolidase activity in epithelial ovarian cancer. (PubMed id 19695763)9 Camuzcuoglu H....Aksoy N. (Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 2009)
    168. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on interleukin-1-induced deregulation of beta1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling and collagen biosynthesis in cultured human chondrocytes. (PubMed id 17899316)9 Karna E....PaA8ka J.A. (Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2008)
    169. Inborn errors of proline metabolism. (PubMed id 18806117)9 Mitsubuchi H....Endo F. (J. Nutr. 2008)
    170. Small-molecule based delivery systems for alkylating antineoplastic compounds. (PubMed id 18157855)9 Bielawski K. and Bielawska A. (ChemMedChem 2008)
    171. Nutritional concentration of genistein protects human dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress-induced collagen biosynthesis inhibition through IGF-I receptor-mediated signaling. (PubMed id 18666426)9 Sienkiewicz P....Miltyk W. (Acta Pol Pharm 2008)
    172. The metabolism of proline as microenvironmental stress substrate. (PubMed id 18806116)9 Phang J.M....Liu Y. (J. Nutr. 2008)
    173. Modulation of vaginal immune response among pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis by Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and yeast. (PubMed id 17306653)9 Cauci S. and Culhane J.F. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2007)
    174. Stimulation of collagen biosynthesis by flavonoid glycosides in skin fibroblasts of osteogenesis imperfecta type I and the potential mechanism of their action. (PubMed id 17982699)9 Galicka A. and Nazaruk J. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2007)
    175. Serum prolidase activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. (PubMed id 18299678)9 Namiduru E.S....TarakAsioglu M. (Minerva Med. 2007)
    176. Mechanism of collagen biosynthesis up-regulation in cultured leiomyoma cells. (PubMed id 18292830)9 Zbucka M....Wolczynski S. (Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. 2007)
    177. Chronic lung disease and cystic fibrosis phenotype in prolidase deficiency: a newly recognized association. (PubMed id 17517257)9 Luder A.S....Falik-Zaccai T.C. (J. Pediatr. 2007)
    178. Proteomics of canine lymphoma identifies potential cancer-specific protein markers. (PubMed id 17438110)9 McCaw D.L....Alexander S. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2007)
    179. [Effective therapy with a glycine-proline ointment in a patient with recurrent ulcers from prolidase deficiency]. (PubMed id 17166065)9 Ortega GarcA-a M.P....GarcA-a Melgares M.L. (Farm Hosp 2006)
    180. Novel amidine analogue of melphalan as a specific multifunctional inhibitor of growth and metabolism of human breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 16730667)9 Bielawski K....PaA8ka J. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2006)
    181. Kinetic study of paracetamol on prolidase activity in erythrocytes by capillary electrophoresis with Ru(bpy)(3) (2+) electrochemiluminescence detection. (PubMed id 16991207)9 Yuan J....Wang E. (Electrophoresis 2006)
    182. Correlations of serum prolidase activity between bone turnover markers and mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis. (PubMed id 16532321)9 Verit F.F....Celik A. (Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 2006)
    183. Hyaluronic acid counteracts interleukin-1-induced inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human chondrocytes. (PubMed id 16884915)9 Karna E....WoA8czyA8ski S. (Pharmacol. Res. 2006)
    184. Glutamine in commercial liquid nutritional products. (PubMed id 15291459)9 Baxter J.H....Johns P.W. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004)
    185. Amidine analogue of chlorambucil is a stronger inhibitor of protein and DNA synthesis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells than is the parent drug. (PubMed id 15178351)9 Sienkiewicz P....PaA8ka J. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2004)
    186. Leg ulcers secondary to prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 15632738)9 Trent J.T. and Kirsner R.S. (amp 2004)
    187. Molecular typing of Lactobacillus delbrueckii of dairy origin by PCR-RFLP of protein-coding genes. (PubMed id 12568756)9 Giraffa G....Neviani E. (Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2003)
    188. Determination of immunoglobulin A against Gardnerella vaginalis hemolysin, sialidase, and prolidase activities in vaginal fluid: implications for adverse pregnancy outcomes. (PubMed id 12517887)9 Cauci S....Guaschino S. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003)
    189. Adaptation to high salt in Lactobacillus: role of peptides and proteolytic enzymes. (PubMed id 12859771)9 Piuri M....Ruzal S.M. (J. Appl. Microbiol. 2003)
    190. Differential effects of estradiol and raloxifene on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. (PubMed id 14533013)9 Surazynski A....Wolczynski S. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2003)
    191. Vaginal hydrolytic enzymes, immunoglobulin A against Gardnerella vaginalis toxin, and risk of early preterm birth among women in preterm labor with bacterial vaginosis or intermediate flora. (PubMed id 12388968)9 Cauci S....Eschenbach D.A. (Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2002)
    192. Correlation of local interleukin-8 with immunoglobulin A against Gardnerella vaginalis hemolysin and with prolidase and sialidase levels in women with bacterial vaginosis. (PubMed id 12023767)9 Cauci S....Quadrifoglio F. (J. Infect. Dis. 2002)
    193. Preeclampsia-associated decrease of potential collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities in the wall of the umbilical cord vein. (PubMed id 11733182)9 Galewska Z....Jaworski S. (amp 2002)
    194. Cloning of a prolidase gene from Aspergillus nidulans and characterisation of its product. (PubMed id 11976965)9 Jalving R....Schaap P.J. (Mol. Genet. Genomics 2002)
    195. [Integrins and prolidase activity in uterine leiomyoma during tumor growth]. (PubMed id 11398579)9 WolaA8ska M....Drozdzewicz M. (Ginekol. Pol. 2001)
    196. Purification, molecular cloning, and immunohistochemical localization of dipeptidyl peptidase II from the rat kidney and its identity with quiescent cell proline dipeptidase. (PubMed id 11173530)9 Araki H....Ohkubo I. (J. Biochem. 2001)
    197. Prolidase deficiency diagnosed by 1H NMR spectroscopy of urine. (PubMed id 11916317)9 Moolenaar S.H....Wevers R.A. (J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 2001)
    198. Transient beneficial effect of GH replacement therapy and topical GH application on skin ulcers in a boy with prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 10886759)9 Monafo V....Cetta G. (Pediatr Dermatol 2000)
    199. Apstatin analogue inhibitors of aminopeptidase P, a bradykinin-degrading enzyme. (PubMed id 10395480)9 Maggiora L.L....Simmons W.H. (J. Med. Chem. 1999)
    200. Urine glycyl-L-proline increase and skin trophicity. (PubMed id 10582130)9 Le J....Chamson A. (Amino Acids 1999)
    201. Corticosteroid treatment of prolidase deficiency skin lesions by inhibiting iminodipeptide-primed neutrophil superoxide generation. (PubMed id 10583165)9 Yasuda K....Kodama H. (Br. J. Dermatol. 1999)
    202. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV and aminopeptidase P, two proline specific enzymes from the cytoplasm of guinea-pig brain: their role in metabolism of peptides containing consecutive prolines. (PubMed id 10413321)9 Gilmartin L. and O'Cuinn G. (Neurosci. Res. 1999)
    203. Characterization of a prolidase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CNRZ 397 with an unusual regulation of biosynthesis. (PubMed id 10075426)9 Morel F....Atlan D. (Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 1999)
    204. Cobalt proteins. (PubMed id 10103026)9 Kobayashi M. and Shimizu S. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1999)
    205. [Particular aspects of ulcers in children]. (PubMed id 9411652)9 Dangoisse C. and Song M. (Rev Med Brux 1997)
    206. Topical treatment of skin ulcers in prolidase deficiency. (PubMed id 8919529)9 Jemec G.B. and Moe A.T. (Pediatr Dermatol 1996)

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