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Aliases for PENK Gene

Aliases for PENK Gene

  • Proenkephalin 2 3
  • Preproenkephalin 2 3
  • Proenkephalin-A 3
  • Enkephalin A 3

External Ids for PENK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PENK Gene

  • GC08M056526
  • GC08M057292
  • GC08M057072
  • GC08M057403
  • GC08M057516
  • GC08M052820
  • GC08M057349

Summaries for PENK Gene

GeneCards Summary for PENK Gene

PENK (Proenkephalin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PENK include radiculopathy and diabetic neuropathy. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity and opioid peptide activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDYN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

  • Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PENK Gene

Genomics for PENK Gene

Regulatory Elements for PENK Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PENK Gene

Start:
56,436,674 bp from pter
End:
56,446,734 bp from pter
Size:
10,061 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PENK Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PENK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PENK Gene

Proteins for PENK Gene

  • Protein details for PENK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01210-PENK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Proenkephalin-A
    Protein Accession:
    P01210
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RC23
    • Q6FHC6
    • Q6FHE6

    Protein attributes for PENK Gene

    Size:
    267 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30787 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PENK Gene

neXtProt entry for PENK Gene

Proteomics data for PENK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PENK Gene

  • The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PENK Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PENK Gene

Domains for PENK Gene

Gene Families for PENK Gene

HGNC:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PENK Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01210

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PENK_HUMAN :
  • P01210
Family:
  • Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PENK: view

Function for PENK Gene

Molecular function for PENK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: pro-enkephalin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PENK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001515 opioid peptide activity IEA --
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity TAS 7057924
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PENK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PENK: view

Animal Models for PENK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PENK:

Animal Model Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PENK

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PENK Gene

Localization for PENK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PENK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PENK gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PENK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PENK: view

Pathways for PENK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PENK: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PENK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response IEA --
GO:0001964 startle response IEA --
GO:0002118 aggressive behavior IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 7057924
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PENK: view

Compounds for PENK Gene

(35) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PENK Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
naltrexone 77.6 29
e 64d 59.4 1
naloxone 46.1 8
opiate 36.4 1
damgo 34.2 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PENK: view

Transcripts for PENK Gene

Unigene Clusters for PENK Gene

Proenkephalin:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PENK

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PENK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PENK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PENK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PENK

Expression for PENK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PENK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PENK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (14.6), Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (14.0), and Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (11.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PENK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PENK Gene Hs.339831

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PENK: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PENK Gene

Orthologs for PENK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PENK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 99.63 (n)
  • 99.63 (a)
PENK 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 86.06 (n)
  • 86.31 (a)
PENK 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 86.47 (n)
  • 83.46 (a)
PENK 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Penk 35
  • 82.9 (n)
  • 82.77 (a)
Penk 16
Penk 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PENK 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PENK 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Penk 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 83.87 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PENK 35
  • 75.65 (n)
  • 74.29 (a)
PENK 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PENK 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia penk 35
  • 66.67 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii penk 35
penka 35
  • 63.16 (n)
  • 57.42 (a)
penka 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
penkb 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PENK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PENK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PENK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PENK (if available)

Paralogs for PENK Gene

Paralogs for PENK Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PENK Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PENK: view

Variants for PENK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PENK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1800567 - 56,441,336(-) AGAAG(A/G)CGAAA missense, reference
rs3839874 -- 56,441,268(-) AATAT(-/C)TTTTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs4738499 -- 56,442,612(+) TTTCC(C/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs4738500 -- 56,443,634(+) GCTCA(A/G)TAAAT intron-variant
rs4738501 -- 56,443,713(+) CGAGC(C/T)AAAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PENK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890932 CNV Gain 21882294

Relevant External Links for PENK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PENK
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PENK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

Disorders for PENK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (6) Diseases for PENK Gene including...

Search for PENK Gene in MalaCards »

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PENK Gene

(15) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PENK Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
carcinoma squamous cell 41.6 14
pancreatic cancer 41 22
herpes simplex 33 8
pancreatic tumor 22.4 2
pheochromocytoma 17.1 6

Relevant External Links for PENK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PENK
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PENK
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PENK: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

Publications for PENK Gene

  1. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. (PMID: 18184800) Nikoshkov A. … Hurd Y.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 23 48
  2. The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. (PMID: 17503481) Xuei X. … Edenberg H.J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007) 3 23 48
  3. Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene. (PMID: 6281660) Noda M. … Numa S. (Nature 1982) 2 3 4
  4. Proenkephalin assists stress-activated apoptosis through transcriptional repression of NF-kappaB- and p53-regulated gene targets. (PMID: 17599100) McTavish N. … Spruce B.A. (Cell Death Differ. 2007) 3 23
  5. Posttranslational processing of proenkephalin in SK-N-MC cells: evidence for phosphorylation. (PMID: 1729392) Lindberg I. … Shaw E. (J. Neurochem. 1992) 3 23

Products for PENK Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PENK
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PENK
    • Block miRNA regulation of PENK using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for PENK Gene

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