Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 



PENK Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 59
GCID: GC08M057349

Proenkephalin

  See PENK-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

Aliases
proenkephalin1 2
preproenkephalin1 2
Enkephalin A2
proenkephalin-A2

External Ids:    HGNC: 88311   Entrez Gene: 51792   Ensembl: ENSG000001811957   OMIM: 1313305   UniProtKB: P012103   

Export aliases for PENK gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08M056526 GC08M057292 GC08M057072 GC08M057403 GC08M057516 GC08M052820


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

GeneCards Summary for PENK Gene:
PENK (proenkephalin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PENK include radiculopathy, and diabetic neuropathy. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity and opioid peptide activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDYN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
Function: Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a
number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and
PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the
striatum




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus
RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000008.10  NC_018919.2  NT_008183.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PENK gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   Nkx2-5   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPENK promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PENK

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PENK


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q23-q24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q12.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q23-q24

PENK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PENK gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M057349:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
57,349,233 bp from pter      End:
57,359,293 bp from pter
Size:
10,061 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
About This Section

TryGeneCards Plus

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Proenkephalin-A precursor  
Size: 267 amino acids; 30787 Da
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PENK:
1PLW (3D)        1PLX (3D)        2LWC (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RC23 Q6FHC6 Q6FHE6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PENK: NX_P01210

Explore proteomics data for PENK at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing1
  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See PENK Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001129162.1  NP_006202.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000430268   ENSP00000324248   ENSP00000400894   ENSP00000428012   ENSP00000429326  
     ENSP00000430592  
    Reactome Protein details: P01210

    PENK Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for PENK
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PENK
    OriGene MassSpec for PENK
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PENK
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PENK
    Novus Biologicals PENK Protein
    Novus Biologicals PENK Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PENK

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PENK 

    PENK Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PENK
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for PENK
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PENK
    Novus Biologicals PENK Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PENK
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PENK
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PENK
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PENK

    PENK Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PENK
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PENK
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PENK
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PENK
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PENK 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    HGNC Gene Families:
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000703 Proenkphlin_A
     IPR006024 Opioid_neupept

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01210

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01210

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000703 Proenkephalin A precursor signature
    IPB006024 Opioid neuropeptide precursor


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
    Similarity: Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family


    Find genes that share domains with PENK           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
    Function: Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a
    number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and
    PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the
    striatum

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PENK:
    pro-enkephalin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001515opioid peptide activity IEA--
    GO:0005184neuropeptide hormone activity TAS7057924
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PENK           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PENK:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Penk):
     behavior/neurological  homeostasis/metabolism  integument  mortality/aging  no phenotypic analysis 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PENK           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PENK: Penktm1Dwp Penktm1Jep

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PENK
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PENK

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PENK
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PENK

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PENK using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PENK
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPENK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PENK
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PENK

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PENK

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PENK (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PENK
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PENK (NM_006211)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PENK
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PENK
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PENK

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PENK
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PENK 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PENK


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PENK_HUMAN, P01210: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular5
    nucleus3
    cytoskeleton1
    endoplasmic reticulum1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PENK           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    SuperPaths for PENK About   (see all 15)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis0.85
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Cellular Apoptosis Pathway0.85
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts0.84
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    p53 Mediated Apoptosis0.84
    ERK5 Signaling0.61
    2GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    3ERK Signaling
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    4Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    5Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency0.61
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    GSK3 Signaling0.61
    eNOS Signaling0.48


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PENK           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PENK (see all 54)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer


    2 Reactome Pathways for PENK
        Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    G alpha (i) signalling events


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PENK: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PENK

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PENK (ENSP000003242484) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 147)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADCY5ENSP000004193614STRING: ENSP00000419361
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    ADRA2CENSP000003860694STRING: ENSP00000386069
    APPENSP000002849814STRING: ENSP00000284981
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001662behavioral fear response IEA--
    GO:0001964startle response IEA--
    GO:0002118aggressive behavior IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7057924
    GO:0007218neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PENK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PENK

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PENK gene (see all 35)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    naltrexone 77.6 45 17910895 (5), 16169076 (5), 12747939 (3), 10917997 (2) (see all 18)
    e 64d 59.4 1 8001739 (1)
    naloxone 46.1 10 10917997 (2), 12747939 (1), 17974995 (1), 15138586 (1) (see all 7)
    opiate 36.4 1 18184800 (1)
    damgo 34.2 2 17910895 (1), 16169076 (1)
    morphine 34.1 5 7996174 (1), 18199817 (1), 17910895 (1), 16169076 (1)
    dopamine 31 12 18184800 (2), 16861111 (2), 18815258 (1), 8105081 (1) (see all 7)
    forskolin 29.5 5 10386963 (1), 14645681 (1), 1736281 (1)
    heroin 29.4 11 18184800 (6), 10321497 (1), 16861111 (1)
    cysteine 25.8 6 17244622 (1), 8001739 (1), 12795588 (1), 12438161 (1) (see all 5)



    Find genes that share compounds with PENK           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PENK gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001135690.1  NM_006211.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PENK:

    Proenkephalin
    Hs.339831  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001135690
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000517415 ENST00000520589 ENST00000314922(uc003xsz.2 uc003xta.3)
    ENST00000451791 ENST00000523274 ENST00000518974 ENST00000523051 ENST00000518770(uc010lym.3)
    ENST00000521153
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PENK using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PENK
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPENK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PENK
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PENK
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PENK (see all 12)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PENK
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PENK (NM_006211)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PENK
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PENK
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PENK
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PENK
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PENK
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK309758.1 AK314908.1 BC032505.1 BC107706.1 CR541808.1 CR541828.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.444328  DT.121473580  DT.100749464  DT.91757920  DT.91827218  DT.97779101  DT.99956404 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 103):

    BI496610 BM722048 AA625695 AI879200 BI826107 BM666153 BX281917 AI459701 
    AA431992 AI799925 BF477589 CA415005 BI669236 AI675880 BF088465 BI457700 
    BI596734 BQ573760 CA412860 BG700903 BE972335 CA412456 BI602751 BI913625 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    PENK expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTAAAATAGT
    PENK Expression
    About this image


    PENK expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 21) fully expand
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 11 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             Bone Marrow
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 10 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Lateral Ventricle
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Telencephalon
             Floor plate-like cells
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             XY Germ Cells Testis Cord
    PENK Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PENK Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.339831
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including PENK: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PENK
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PENK
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PENK
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PENK

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PENK gene from Selected species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Penk1 , 5 preproenkephalin1, 5 82.9(n)1
    82.77(a)1
      4 (2.31 cM)5
    186191  NM_001002927.21  NP_001002927.11 
     41335315 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PENK1 proenkephalin 75.65(n)
    74.29(a)
      421131  XM_419213.3  XP_419213.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PENK6
    proenkephalin
    69(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343656.1(126842-139250)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia penk1 proenkephalin 66.67(n)
    65.56(a)
      548461  NM_001015744.2  NP_001015744.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii penk2 proenkephalin 76.91(n)   360136  AF544989.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PENK (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PENK (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Paralogs for PENK gene
    PDYN2  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for PENK using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PENK_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PNOC

    Find genes that share paralogs with PENK           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    Selected SNPs for PENK (see all 223)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900570491,2
    C--57353019(+) ATCCTA/GTTTTT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1445291961,2
    --57353024(+) ATTTTC/TGTCCT 2 -- int10--------
    rs125481791,2
    C,H--57353110(+) AATTAT/CCTTTA 2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.32NA EA 122
    rs1496096881,2
    C--57353184(+) AAGTA-/TGTGTGT 2 -- int10--------
    rs712585141,2
    C--57353185(+) TGTGT-/GT/TG 
            
    TTAAT
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs1474190601,2
    --57353195(+) GTGTGC/TGTGTG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1826697001,2
    --57353221(+) TGGGGA/GCATAG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1854623711,2
    --57353347(+) AGGAAC/TTAAAT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1399053671,2
    C--57353384(+) AGGAG-/AAGAAA 2 -- int10--------
    rs1396799161,2
    --57353460(+) TGATGC/TGGAAA 2 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PENK (57349233 - 57359293 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PENK:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv890932CNV Gain21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PENK
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PENK
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PENK

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    OMIM gene information: 131330    OMIM disorders: --

    6 diseases for PENK:    
    About MalaCards
    radiculopathy    diabetic neuropathy    chronic pain    pain agnosia
    squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck    pancreatic cancer

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PENK:
    Parkinson's disease     Pain agnosia     Huntington's disease

    Find genes that share disorders with PENK           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PENK gene (see all 15)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    carcinoma squamous cell 41.6 18 9121309 (3), 14654962 (2), 12969794 (2), 15703840 (2) (see all 9)
    pancreatic cancer 41 27 10975710 (6), 15014352 (5), 10024694 (3), 10601579 (3) (see all 7)
    herpes simplex 33 8 12402268 (2), 14601516 (1), 19058913 (1), 16778687 (1) (see all 7)
    pancreatic tumor 22.4 2 9066724 (1), 10601579 (1)
    pheochromocytoma 17.1 6 7819329 (3), 8206338 (3)
    herpes 16.9 1 12402268 (1)
    colon tumor 12.2 1 8853403 (1)
    parkinsonism 10.5 1 17203488 (1)
    cancer 9.99 36 11029512 (2), 12747939 (2), 19675283 (2), 17910895 (2) (see all 17)
    colon cancer 9.02 16 8853370 (4), 8853403 (3), 8760211 (2), 16820893 (1) (see all 5)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PENK
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PENK (10 documents)

    Export disorders for PENK gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

    PubMed articles for PENK gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 219):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PENK)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene. (PubMed id 6281660)1, 2, 3 Noda M.... Numa S. (Nature 1982)
    2. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. (PubMed id 18184800)1, 4, 9 Nikoshkov A....Hurd Y.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008)
    3. The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. (PubMed id 17503481)1, 4, 9 Xuei X....Edenberg H.J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007)
    4. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PubMed id 20734064)1, 4 He C....Hunter D.J. (Hum. Genet. 2010)
    5. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PubMed id 20546612)1, 4 Zhao J....Grant S.F. (BMC Med. Genet. 2010)
    6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    7. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009)
    8. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans. (PubMed id 19874574)1, 4 Tabakoff B....Hoffman P.L. (BMC Biol. 2009)
    9. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height. (PubMed id 18391951)1, 4 Gudbjartsson D.F....Stefansson K. (Nat. Genet. 2008)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Entrez Gene: 5179 HGNC: 8831 AceView: PENK Ensembl:ENSG00000181195 euGenes: HUgn5179
    ECgene: PENK H-InvDB: PENK

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PENK Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Patent Information for PENK gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PENK

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus

     Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
     Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
     EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PENK
     Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
     
     EMD Millipore genomic analysis products

      
     Browse Antibodies   Browse Cell Culture Products  
     Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
     Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Enzyme Activity Assays/Reagents  
     Browse ELISpot/FluoroSpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
     Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Luminex Assays  
     Browse Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
     Browse Recombinant/Natural Proteins   Browse Stem Cell Products  
     Browse cDNA Clones   Browse Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays  
     OriGene Antibodies for PENK   OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PENK  
     OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PENK   OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PENK  
     OriGene MassSpec something-or-other for PENK   OriGene clones in human, mouse for PENK  
     OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PENK   OriGene Purified Protein for PENK  
     OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PENK   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
     OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PENK   OriGene Custom Protein Services for PENK  

     
     
     Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PENK using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PENK
     DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PENK Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PENK
     QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK
     PCR Arrays including human, mouse, rat PENK Search Chromatin IP Primers for PENK
     Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PENK  GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PENK
     Regulatory tfbs in PENK promoter
     GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PENK GenScript cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector for PENK
     GenScript Custom Assay Services for PENK GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PENK
     CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes  Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector
     Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11
     Plasmid Preparation Custom Peptide Services
     Search for Antibodies & Assays

     Search Tocris compounds for PENK
     Browse Sino Biological Proteins
     Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
     cDNA Clones for PENK
     4000+ Proteins
     Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
     Protein Production Services
     Transfection Reagents
     Protein A/G/L resins
     Isotyping reagents
     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

     Novus Tissue Slides
     PENK antibodies
     PENK proteins
     PENK lysates
     Antibodies for PENK
     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for PENK
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
     Bulk Purchasing
     Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
     Proteins for PENK
     Antibodies for PENK
     ELISAs for PENK
     CLIAs for PENK



     Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PENK
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PENK
     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for PENK
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for PENK
     ThermoFisher Antibodies for PENK
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PENK
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PENK
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PENK
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PENK
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
     Browse compounds at ApexBio
     Search Addgene for plasmids for PENK
      Search eBioscience for proteins for PENK
      Search eBioscience for elisas for PENK
      eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014

    View Random Gene

    Category
    (GIFtS: )
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

    Hot genes      Disease genes      PENK gene at Home site.
    Version: 3.12.212 17 Sep 2014
    hostname: 356977-web1.xennexinc.com index build: 128 solr: 1.4