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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PENK Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC08M057349

Proenkephalin

Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
proenkephalin1 2
preproenkephalin1 2
Enkephalin A2
proenkephalin-A2

External Ids:    HGNC: 88311   Entrez Gene: 51792   Ensembl: ENSG000001811957   OMIM: 1313305   UniProtKB: P012103   

Export aliases for PENK gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08M056526 GC08M057292 GC08M057072 GC08M057403 GC08M057516 GC08M052820


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for PENK Gene: 
PENK (proenkephalin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PENK include chronic pain, and radiculopathy, and among its related super-pathways are Rac1 Pathway and Ras Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity and opioid peptide activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDYN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
Function: Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a
number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and
PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the
striatum




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000008.10  NC_018919.2  NT_008183.19  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PENK gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   Nkx2-5   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPENK promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PENK

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PENK


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q23-q24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q12.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q23-q24

PENK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PENK gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M057349:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
57,349,233 bp from pter      End:
57,359,293 bp from pter
Size:
10,061 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Proenkephalin-A precursor  
Size: 267 amino acids; 30787 Da
Subcellular location: Secreted
2 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PENK:
1PLW (3D)        1PLX (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RC23 Q6FHC6 Q6FHE6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PENK: NX_P01210

Explore proteomics data for PENK at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P01210

  • PENK Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PENK Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001129162.1  NP_006202.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000430268   ENSP00000324248   ENSP00000400894   ENSP00000428012   ENSP00000429326  
     ENSP00000430592  
    Reactome Protein details: P01210
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PENK: 
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PENK
    OriGene MassSpec for PENK 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PENK
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PENK
    Novus Biologicals PENK Protein
    Novus Biologicals PENK Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PENK 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--

    PENK for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PENK Antibody Products: 
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    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PENK
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PENK 

    Assay Products for PENK: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PENK
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PENK 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PENK


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    ENDOLIG: Endogenous ligands

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR000703 Proenkphlin_A
     IPR006024 Opioid_neupept

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01210

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01210

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000703 Proenkephalin A precursor signature
    IPB006024 Opioid neuropeptide precursor


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
    Similarity: Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family


    PENK for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PENK_HUMAN, P01210
    Function: Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a
    number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and
    PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the
    striatum

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PENK:
    pro-enkephalin

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001515opioid peptide activity IEA--
    GO:0005184neuropeptide hormone activity TAS7057924
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    PENK for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PENK:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Penk):
     behavior/neurological  homeostasis/metabolism  integument  mortality/aging  no phenotypic analysis 

    PENK for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for PENK: Penktm1Dwp Penktm1Jep

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PENK 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PENK

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PENK 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PENK 

    miRNA
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    Search QIAGEN for miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PENK
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPENK 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PENK
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PENK

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PENK (NM_006211)
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    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PENK
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PENK 

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PENK


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PENK About   (see all 15)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis0.85
    Rac1 Pathway0.65
    Cellular Apoptosis Pathway0.85
    Glioma Invasiveness0.64
    Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts0.84
    Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases0.62
    p53 Mediated Apoptosis0.84
    ERK5 Signaling0.61
    2GPCR Pathway
    Ras Pathway0.73
    Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin10.58
    Paxillin Interactions0.73
    NFAT in Immune Response0.58
    GPCR Pathway0.62
    Estrogen Pathway0.55
    Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma0.59
    3Rho Family GTPases
    Rho Family GTPases0.61
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    ERK Signaling0.61
    ILK Signaling0.49
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    4Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.46
    5Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency0.61
    14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling0.59
    GSK3 Signaling0.61
    eNOS Signaling0.48

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PENK
        Selected targets of CREB1

    5/54 Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PENK (see all 54)
        Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A
    Paxillin Interactions
    Telomerase Components in Cell Signaling
    Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer

    5/7        Reactome Pathways for PENK (see all 7)
        GPCR downstream signaling
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Signal Transduction
    Signaling by GPCR
    G alpha (i) signalling events



    PENK for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PENK

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/147 Interacting proteins for PENK (ENSP000003242484) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 147)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    ADCY5ENSP000004193614STRING: ENSP00000419361
    ADORA1ENSP000003085494STRING: ENSP00000308549
    ADRA2CENSP000003860694STRING: ENSP00000386069
    APPENSP000002849814STRING: ENSP00000284981
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001662behavioral fear response IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7057924
    GO:0007218neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA--
    GO:0007610behavior ----
    GO:0019233sensory perception of pain IEA--

    PENK for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PENK for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PENK

    10/35 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PENK gene (see all 35)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    naltrexone 77.6 45 17910895 (5), 16169076 (5), 12747939 (3), 10917997 (2) (see all 18)
    e 64d 59.4 1 8001739 (1)
    naloxone 46.1 10 10917997 (2), 12747939 (1), 17974995 (1), 15138586 (1) (see all 7)
    opiate 36.4 1 18184800 (1)
    damgo 34.2 2 17910895 (1), 16169076 (1)
    morphine 34.1 5 7996174 (1), 18199817 (1), 17910895 (1), 16169076 (1)
    dopamine 31 12 18184800 (2), 16861111 (2), 18815258 (1), 8105081 (1) (see all 7)
    forskolin 29.5 5 10386963 (1), 14645681 (1), 1736281 (1)
    heroin 29.4 11 18184800 (6), 10321497 (1), 16861111 (1)
    cysteine 25.8 6 17244622 (1), 8001739 (1), 12795588 (1), 12438161 (1) (see all 5)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PENK

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PENK gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001135690.1  NM_006211.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PENK:

    Proenkephalin
    Hs.339831  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001135690
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000517415 ENST00000520589 ENST00000314922(uc003xsz.2 uc003xta.3)
    ENST00000451791 ENST00000523274 ENST00000518974 ENST00000523051 ENST00000518770(uc010lym.3)
    ENST00000521153

    miRNA
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    Inhib. RNA
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK309758.1 AK314908.1 BC032505.1 BC107706.1 CR541808.1 CR541828.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.444328  DT.121473580  DT.100749464  DT.91757920  DT.91827218  DT.97779101  DT.99956404 

    24/103 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 103):

    BI496610 AA625695 AI459701 BM722048 BM666153 BX281917 AA431992 AI879200 
    BI826107 AI004379 BM811517 CA414655 CA412222 BU569576 CA412860 BC032505 
    BG719673 AI220195 AA431077 BI598403 CA415005 CA412689 CR541808 BG772331 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PENK expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PENK embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTAAAATAGT
    PENK Expression
    About this image


    PENK expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/34 selected tissues (see all 34) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 26 entries
             Globus Pallidus
             Brain Pericytes   
             Septum   
     
     Cartilage (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 11 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
             Normal Human Articular chondrocytes (NHAC)   
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 9 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             HyStem+TGFbeta3+GDF5-induced MEL2 cells
     
     Limb (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Mesenchymal Condensate Cells Zeugopod
             limb/hindlimb   
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             XY Germ Cells Testis Cord
             sperm   

    See PENK Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PENK

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.339831
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including PENK: 
              cAMP / Ca2+ Signaling PathwayFinder in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PENK
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PENK

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PENK gene from 4/10 species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Penk1 , 5 preproenkephalin1, 5 82.9(n)1
    82.77(a)1
      4 (2.31 cM)5
    186191  NM_001002927.21  NP_001002927.11 
     41335315 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PENK1 proenkephalin 74.56(n)
    71.8(a)
      421131  XM_419213.2  XP_419213.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PENK6
    Uncharacterized protein
    69(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343656.1(126842-139250)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii penk2 proenkephalin 76.91(n)   360136  AF544989.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PENK (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PENK (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for PENK gene
    PDYN2  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for PENK using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PENK_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PNOC

    PENK for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/223 SNPs in PENK are shown (see all 223)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1900570491,2
    C--57353019(+) ATCCTA/GTTTTT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1445291961,2
    --57353024(+) ATTTTC/TGTCCT 2 -- int10--------
    rs125481791,2
    C,H--57353110(+) AATTAT/CCTTTA 2 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.32NA EA 122
    rs1496096881,2
    C--57353184(+) AAGTA-/TGTGTGT 2 -- int10--------
    rs712585141,2
    C--57353185(+) TGTGT-/GT/TG 
            
    TTAAT
    2 -- int11NA 2
    rs1474190601,2
    --57353195(+) GTGTGC/TGTGTG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1826697001,2
    --57353221(+) TGGGGA/GCATAG 2 -- int10--------
    rs1854623711,2
    --57353347(+) AGGAAC/TTAAAT 2 -- int10--------
    rs1399053671,2
    C--57353384(+) AGGAG-/AAGAAA 2 -- int10--------
    rs1396799161,2
    --57353460(+) TGATGC/TGGAAA 2 -- int10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PENK (57349233 - 57359293 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PENK:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv890932CNV Gain21882294


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PENK
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PENK
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PENK

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 131330    OMIM disorders: --

    20/35 diseases for PENK (see all 35):    About MalaCards
    chronic pain    radiculopathy    squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck    cannabis dependence
    diabetic neuropathy    noma    drug dependence    endometrial adenocarcinoma
    pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma    pancreatic cancer    keratopathy    was-related disorders
    pheochromocytoma    herpes simplex    parkinson's disease    colon cancer
    thyroid cancer    bipolar disorder    huntington's disease    pancreatitis

    3 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for PENK:
    Parkinson's disease     Pain agnosia     Huntington's disease

    PENK for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Congresses - knowledge worth sharing:  
    Alzheimer's & Parkinson's Diseases Congress (ADPD) 18 - 22 March 2015

    10/15 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PENK gene (see all 15)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    carcinoma squamous cell 41.6 18 9121309 (3), 14654962 (2), 12969794 (2), 15703840 (2) (see all 9)
    pancreatic cancer 41 27 10975710 (6), 15014352 (5), 10024694 (3), 10601579 (3) (see all 7)
    herpes simplex 33 8 12402268 (2), 14601516 (1), 19058913 (1), 16778687 (1) (see all 7)
    pancreatic tumor 22.4 2 9066724 (1), 10601579 (1)
    pheochromocytoma 17.1 6 7819329 (3), 8206338 (3)
    herpes 16.9 1 12402268 (1)
    colon tumor 12.2 1 8853403 (1)
    parkinsonism 10.5 1 17203488 (1)
    cancer 9.99 36 11029512 (2), 12747939 (2), 19675283 (2), 17910895 (2) (see all 17)
    colon cancer 9.02 16 8853370 (4), 8853403 (3), 8760211 (2), 16820893 (1) (see all 5)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PENK
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PENK (10 documents)

    Export disorders for PENK gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PENK gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 218):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PENK)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene. (PubMed id 6281660)1, 2, 3 Noda M.... Numa S. (1982)
    2. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. (PubMed id 18184800)1, 4, 9 Nikoshkov A....Hurd Y.L. (2008)
    3. The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. (PubMed id 17503481)1, 4, 9 Xuei X....Edenberg H.J. (2007)
    4. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PubMed id 20734064)1, 4 He C....Hunter D.J. (2010)
    5. The role of height-associated loci identified in geno me wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature. (PubMed id 20546612)1, 4 Zhao J....Grant S.F. (2010)
    6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (2010)
    7. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans. (PubMed id 19874574)1, 4 Tabakoff B....Hoffman P.L. (2009)
    8. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height. (PubMed id 18391951)1, 4 Gudbjartsson D.F....Stefansson K. (2008)
    9. Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. (PubMed id 19086053)1, 4 GratacA^s M....Carracedo A. (2008)
    10. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5179 HGNC: 8831 AceView: PENK Ensembl:ENSG00000181195 euGenes: HUgn5179
    ECgene: PENK H-InvDB: PENK

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PENK Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PENK gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PENK

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    About This Section

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 3 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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