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Aliases for PENK Gene

Aliases for PENK Gene

  • Proenkephalin 2 3 5
  • Preproenkephalin 2 3
  • Enkephalin A 3
  • PENK-A 3
  • PE 3

External Ids for PENK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PENK Gene

  • GC08M056526
  • GC08M057292
  • GC08M057072
  • GC08M057403
  • GC08M057516
  • GC08M052820
  • GC08M057349

Summaries for PENK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PENK Gene

  • This gene encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate multiple protein products. These products include the pentapeptide opioids Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin, which are stored in synaptic vesicles, then released into the synapse where they bind to mu- and delta-opioid receptors to modulate the perception of pain. Other non-opioid cleavage products may function in distinct biological activities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PENK Gene

PENK (Proenkephalin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PENK include radiculopathy and cannabis dependence. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity and opioid peptide activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDYN.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

  • Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PENK Gene

Genomics for PENK Gene

Regulatory Elements for PENK Gene

Enhancers for PENK Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PENK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PENK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PENK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PENK Gene

Chromosome:
8
Start:
56,436,674 bp from pter
End:
56,446,734 bp from pter
Size:
10,061 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PENK Gene

Genes around PENK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PENK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PENK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PENK Gene

Proteins for PENK Gene

  • Protein details for PENK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01210-PENK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Proenkephalin-A
    Protein Accession:
    P01210
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RC23
    • Q6FHC6
    • Q6FHE6

    Protein attributes for PENK Gene

    Size:
    267 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30787 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PENK Gene

neXtProt entry for PENK Gene

Proteomics data for PENK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PENK Gene

  • The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PENK Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PENK Gene

Domains & Families for PENK Gene

Gene Families for PENK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PENK Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01210

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PENK_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PENK: view

Function for PENK Gene

Molecular function for PENK Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
pro-enkephalin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(237-258) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PENK: view

Animal Models for PENK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PENK:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PENK Gene

Localization for PENK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PENK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PENK gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PENK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0030425 dendrite IEA,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PENK: view

Pathways & Interactions for PENK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PENK: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PENK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response IEA --
GO:0001964 startle response IEA --
GO:0002118 aggressive behavior IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 7057924
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PENK: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PENK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PENK Gene

(23) Drugs for PENK Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(12) Additional Compounds for PENK Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PENK: view

Transcripts for PENK Gene

Unigene Clusters for PENK Gene

Proenkephalin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PENK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PENK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PENK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PENK

Expression for PENK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PENK Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PENK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x14.6), Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x14.0), and Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x11.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PENK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cerebrospinal fluid (48.3) and Urine (16.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PENK Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PENK Gene Hs.339831

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PENK: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for PENK Gene

Orthologs for PENK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PENK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 86.06 (n)
  • 86.31 (a)
PENK 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 86.47 (n)
  • 83.46 (a)
PENK 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Penk 35
  • 82.9 (n)
  • 82.77 (a)
Penk 16
Penk 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PENK 35
  • 99.63 (n)
  • 99.63 (a)
PENK 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Penk 35
  • 83.33 (n)
  • 83.87 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PENK 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PENK 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PENK 35
  • 75.65 (n)
  • 74.29 (a)
PENK 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PENK 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia penk 35
  • 66.67 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii penk 35
penka 35
  • 63.16 (n)
  • 57.42 (a)
penka 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
penkb 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PENK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PENK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PENK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PENK (if available)

Paralogs for PENK Gene

Paralogs for PENK Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PENK Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PENK: view

Variants for PENK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PENK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1800567 - 56,441,336(-) AGAAG(A/G)CGAAA reference, missense
rs11998459 - 56,441,828(+) TGAGG(G/T)TGCTG reference, missense
rs7830683 -- 56,442,456(+) GTATC(C/G)AGTAT intron-variant
rs3839874 -- 56,441,268(-) AATAT(-/C)TTTTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs11545964 -- 56,441,154(-) CATTG(C/T)CTGGA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PENK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890932 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for PENK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.50; 43.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PENK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PENK
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PENK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PENK Gene

Disorders for PENK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for PENK Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
radiculopathy
  • nerve root disorder
cannabis dependence
  • marijuana abuse
drug dependence
  • substance dependence
hallucinogen dependence
morphine dependence
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PENK in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PENK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PENK
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PENK
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PENK
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PENK: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PENK Gene

Publications for PENK Gene

  1. Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene. (PMID: 6281660) Noda M. … Numa S. (Nature 1982) 2 3 4 67
  2. Opioid neuropeptide genotypes in relation to heroin abuse: dopamine tone contributes to reversed mesolimbic proenkephalin expression. (PMID: 18184800) Nikoshkov A. … Hurd Y.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 23
  3. The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. (PMID: 17503481) Xuei X. … Edenberg H.J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007) 3 23
  4. Proenkephalin assists stress-activated apoptosis through transcriptional repression of NF-kappaB- and p53-regulated gene targets. (PMID: 17599100) McTavish N. … Spruce B.A. (Cell Death Differ. 2007) 3 23
  5. Initial processing of human proenkephalin in bovine chromaffin cells. (PMID: 8858927) Liu F. … Wilson S.P. (J. Neurochem. 1996) 3 23

Products for PENK Gene

Sources for PENK Gene

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