Set Analyses:
Advanced Search

Advanced Search

 
Search By
Section (entire)
for


 
or upload a file of gene symbols


Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

PECAM1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 63
GCID: GC17M062399

Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

(Previous name: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 11 2     CD312
CD31 Antigen1 2 3     CD31/EndoCAM2
GPIIA'2 3     endoCAM2
PECA12 3     Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule2
PECAM-12 3     EndoCAM3
Platelet/Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule1     

External Ids:    HGNC: 88231   Entrez Gene: 51752   OMIM: 1734455   UniProtKB: P162843   

Export aliases for PECAM1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17U990071 GC17M064827 GC17M062740 GC17M062873 GC17M059754


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for PECAM1 Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of
T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a
member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and
integrin activation. (provided by RefSeq, May 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PECAM1 Gene: 
PECAM1 (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with PECAM1 include angiosarcoma, and pulmonary vein stenosis, and among its related super-pathways are Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+ and Hemostasis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PECA1_HUMAN, P16284
Function: Induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis (By similarity). Cell adhesion molecule which is required for
leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-690 plays a critical role in
TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment
(LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte
ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on
apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via
the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the
phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell
does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction
of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the apoptotic cell to the
phagocyte, thus triggering the process of engulfment). Isoform Delta15 is unable to protect against apoptosis.
Modulates BDKRB2 activation. Regulates bradykinin- and hyperosmotic shock-induced ERK1/2 activation in human
umbilical cord vein cells (HUVEC)

Gene Wiki entry for PECAM1 (CD31) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000017.10  NC_018928.2  NT_010783.15  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PECAM1 gene promoter:
         STAT1   FOXO3   HNF-3beta   FOXO3b   NRF-2   FOXO4   COMP1   FOXO1a   FOXO3a   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPECAM1 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for PECAM1

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q23.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q23.3

PECAM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PECAM1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17M062399:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
62,396,775 bp from pter      End:
62,404,856 bp from pter
Size:
8,082 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr17-,NW_003315947 123,262-194,725     

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PECA1_HUMAN, P16284 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule precursor  
Size: 738 amino acids; 82536 Da
Subunit: Interacts with PTPN11; Tyr-713 is critical for PTPN11 recruitment. Forms a complex with BDKRB2 and GNAQ.
Interacts with BDKRB2 and GNAQ
Subcellular location: Isoform Long: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cell junction. Note=Localizes
to the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and recycles from the LBRC to the junction in resting
endothelial cells
Subcellular location: Isoform Delta15: Cell junction. Note=Localizes to the lateral border recycling compartment
(LBRC) and recycles from the LBRC to the junction in resting endothelial cells
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for PECAM1:
2KY5 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q6LDA9 Q8TBH1 Q96RF5 Q96RF6 Q9NP65 Q9NPB7 Q9NPG9 Q9NQS9 Q9NQT0 Q9NQT1
Q9NQT2
Alternative splicing: 6 isoforms:  P16284-1   P16284-2   P16284-3   P16284-4   P16284-5   P16284-6   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PECAM1: NX_P16284

Explore proteomics data for PECAM1 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Phosphorylated on Ser and Tyr residues after cellular activation. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by FER and
    FES in response to FCER1 activation (By similarity). In endothelial cells Fyn mediates mechanical-force (stretch
    or pull) induced tyrosine phosphorylation
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P16284

  • PECAM1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    PECAM1 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000433.4  Reactome Protein details: P16284
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for PECAM1: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Protein for PECAM1
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PECAM1
    OriGene MassSpec for PECAM1 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PECAM1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PECAM1
    Novus Biologicals PECAM1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PECAM1 Lysates
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for PECAM1
    Sino Biological Cell Lysate for PECAM1 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for PECAM1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PECAM1 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA9290466
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral to membrane IEA--
    GO:0030054cell junction IEA--
    GO:0031092platelet alpha granule membrane TAS--

    PECAM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    PECAM1 Antibody Products: 
    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PECAM1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for PECAM1  (PECAM-1)
    OriGene Antibodies for PECAM1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PECAM1
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PECAM1
    Novus Biologicals PECAM1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PECAM1
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for PECAM1 
    ThermoFisher Antibody for PECAM1
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PECAM1 

    Assay Products for PECAM1: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for PECAM1
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for PECAM1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PECAM1 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PECAM1


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    CD: CD molecules
    IGD: Immunoglobulin superfamily / Immunoglobulin-like domain containing

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
     IPR007110 Ig-like_dom
     IPR003599 Ig_sub

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P16284

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P16284

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003599 Immunoglobulin subtype

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PECA1_HUMAN, P16284
    Domain: The Ig-like C2-type domains 2 and 3 contribute to formation of the complex with BDKRB2 and in regulation
    of its activity
    Similarity: Contains 6 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains


    PECAM1 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PECA1_HUMAN, P16284
    Function: Induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis (By similarity). Cell adhesion molecule which is required for
    leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-690 plays a critical role in
    TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment
    (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte
    ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on
    apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via
    the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the
    phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell
    does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction
    of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the apoptotic cell to the
    phagocyte, thus triggering the process of engulfment). Isoform Delta15 is unable to protect against apoptosis.
    Modulates BDKRB2 activation. Regulates bradykinin- and hyperosmotic shock-induced ERK1/2 activation in human
    umbilical cord vein cells (HUVEC)

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PECAM1:
    platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1,immunoglobulin superfamily,expressed on circulating
    platelets,monocytes,neutrophils,subsets of T cells,also a major constituent of the endothelial intercellular cell
    junction

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI10704309
         
    PECAM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         11 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Pecam1):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  digestive/alimentary  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  liver/biliary system  muscle  renal/urinary system  respiratory system 
     skeleton 

    PECAM1 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pecam1tm1Mak for PECAM1

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PECAM1 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PECAM1

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PECAM1 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PECAM1 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    8/24 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PECAM1 (see all 24):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3614-3p hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-3916 hsa-miR-3125 hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-374c
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPECAM1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PECAM1
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PECAM1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PECAM1
    Sirion Biotech Validated adenovirus to knockdown PECAM1 (CD31) in human, mouse 
                         Customized adenovirus for overexpression of PECAM1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PECAM1 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PECAM1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PECAM1 (NM_000442)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PECAM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PECAM1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PECAM1 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PECAM1 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PECAM1
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PECAM1
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PECAM1


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for PECAM1 About   (see all 15)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Platelet degranulation
    Platelet degranulation 0.94
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+0.94
    2Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation
    Hemostasis0.43
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation0.43
    3Signaling by GPCR
    Signal Transduction0.55
    4Cell adhesion Endothelial cell contacts by non-junctional mechanisms
    Cell adhesion Endothelial cell contacts by non-junctional mechanisms1.00
    5Platelet sensitization by LDL
    Platelet sensitization by LDL0.39

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for PECAM1
        Cell adhesion Endothelial cell contacts by non-junctional mechanisms

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of QIAGEN Pathway Central Maps for PECAM1
        Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for PECAM1
        Angiogenesis
    Lymphocyte Signaling

    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for PECAM1
        Cell adhesion Endothelial cell contacts by non-junctional mechanisms


    5/10        Reactome Pathways for PECAM1 (see all 10)
        Hemostasis
    Integrin cell surface interactions
    Platelet homeostasis
    PECAM1 interactions
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+


    3         Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for PECAM1):
        Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
    Leukocyte transendothelial migration
    Malaria


    PECAM1 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for PECAM1

    5/24 Interacting proteins for PECAM1 (P162841, 2, 3) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 24)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PTPN11Q061242, 3MINT-8031324 MINT-8031354 MINT-8031339 MINT-8033295 MINT-8033235 MINT-8033280 MINT-8033310 I2D: score=3 
    PTPN6P293502, 3MINT-8031294 MINT-8031309 MINT-8033265 MINT-8033250 I2D: score=3 
    SRCP129312, 3MINT-8033220 MINT-8031279 I2D: score=4 
    XRCC6P129562, 3MINT-63486 I2D: score=4 
    JUPP149231, 3EBI-716404,EBI-702484 I2D: score=3 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/10 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002576platelet degranulation TAS--
    GO:0006909phagocytosis IDA12110892
    GO:0007155cell adhesion IEA--
    GO:0007165signal transduction TAS7994021
    GO:0007596blood coagulation TAS--

    PECAM1 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    PECAM1 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for PECAM1 (PECA1)

    10/60 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PECAM1 gene (see all 60)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    vegf 70.3 78 16151023 (6), 17822316 (3), 15166262 (2), 11326478 (2) (see all 51)
    matrigel 58.4 7 19883577 (1), 9243511 (1), 10655298 (1), 12433657 (1) (see all 5)
    tyrosine 48.9 156 12972546 (6), 9774457 (5), 15201144 (4), 9054388 (4) (see all 48)
    laccer 35.2 11 16151023 (5), 15084746 (5)
    slex 31.2 1 18334960 (1)
    prasugrel 30.4 1 16754711 (1)
    adp 29.8 11 19850043 (2), 16754711 (1), 19096001 (1), 16546241 (1) (see all 6)
    paraffin 29.8 8 11844241 (2), 15355911 (2), 16096774 (1), 15679808 (1) (see all 5)
    carbimazole 26.6 5 10848805 (2), 10942385 (1)
    phosphotyrosine 26.5 9 7515918 (1), 1544907 (1), 9774457 (1), 9312087 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about PECAM1 / PECA1

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for PECAM1 gene: 
    NM_000442.4  

    Unigene Clusters for PECAM1:

    Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1
    Hs.376675  [show with all ESTs], Hs.514412  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequences: NM_000442, AF393678
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    8/24 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate PECAM1 (see all 24):
    hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-3614-3p hsa-miR-4272 hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-3916 hsa-miR-3125 hsa-miR-1297 hsa-miR-374c
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPECAM1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PECAM1
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PECAM1 (see all 7)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PECAM1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PECAM1 (NM_000442)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PECAM1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of PECAM1 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PECAM1 
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PECAM1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PECAM1
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF281287.1 AF281288.1 AF281289.1 AF281290.1 AF281291.1 AF281292.1 AF281293.1 AF281294.1 
    AF281295.1 AF281296.1 AF281297.1 AF281298.1 AF281299.1 AF281300.1 AF281301.1 AF393676.1 
    AF393677.1 AF393678.1 JQ287500.1 S66450.1 X96849.1 

    19 DOTS entries:

    DT.40271821  DT.91998572  DT.100866813  DT.311597  DT.100016242  DT.100866816  DT.92000070  DT.100866810 
    DT.97759930  DT.100866803  DT.100866818  DT.40195550  DT.100866815  DT.120996412  DT.120996468  DT.92000018 
    DT.97763648  DT.100042610  DT.100866806 

    24/439 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 439):

    CA307538 AI800383 BM974903 X96849 AA761616 CD369887 C18167 S66450 
    AL538940 BU679657 AI148494 BM699304 BX098567 N30812 BQ880188 BQ109454 
    CR621687 BQ948402 AI076568 CA440040 AA486710 CA442225 BM998585 AA713790 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    PECAM1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      PECAM1 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CAATGAAACC
    PECAM1 Expression
    About this image


    PECAM1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/30 selected tissues (see all 30) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 58 entries
             Postnatal Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
             PureStem endothelial progenitor 30-SM2-1
             Endothelial-like cells ( Derivation and purification of endothelial precursor cells...
             Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMEC)   
     
     Heart (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 22 entries
             Cushion Mesenchymal Cells Endocardium
             Atrioventricular Endocardial Cushion
             Human cardiac stem cells
             Cardiomyocytes-like cells ( Cardiomyocytes derivation from human embryonic stem cells...
             Human Cardiac Myocytes-adult (HCM-a)   
     
     Mesenchymal Stem Cells
             Decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells
     
     Umbilical Cord (Extraembryonic Tissues)    fully expand to see all 11 entries
             Mesenchymal Stem Cells Wharton's Jelly
             Umbilical tissue-derived cells (CNTO2476)
             Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) (BioTime)   
     
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 10 entries
             Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cord Blood
             Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells
             Hematopoietic progenitor cells ( Generation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and...

    See PECAM1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for PECAM1

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene clusters: Hs.376675 Hs.514412

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PECA1_HUMAN, P16284
    Tissue specificity: Expressed on platelets and leukocytes and is primarily concentrated at the borders between
    endothelial cells. Isoform Long predominates in all tissues examined. Isoform Delta12 is detected only in
    trachea. Isoform Delta14-15 is only detected in lung. Isoform Delta14 is detected in all tissues examined with
    the strongest expression in heart. Isoform Delta15 is expressed in brain, testis, ovary, cell surface of
    platelets, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), Jurkat T-cell leukemia, human erythroleukemia (HEL)
    and U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cell lines (at protein level)

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Arrays including PECAM1 (see all 8): 
              Extracellular Matrix & Adhesion Molecules in human mouse rat
              Cell Surface Markers in human mouse rat
              Terminal Differentiation Markers in human mouse rat
              Endothelial Cell Biology in human mouse rat
              Tight Junctions in human mouse rat

    Primer
    Products:
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PECAM1
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PECAM1
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PECAM1

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for PECAM1 gene from 3/7 species (see all 7)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pecam11 , 5 platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 11, 5 73.19(n)1
    64.08(a)1
      11 (69.92 cM)5
    186131  NM_008816.21  NP_032842.21 
     1066542175 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PECAM11 platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31 antigen) 48.69(n)
    34.35(a)
      771243  XM_001234535.1  XP_001234536.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC5693861 platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 42.67(n)
    28.92(a)
      569386  XM_692767.4  XP_697859.4 

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/174 SNPs in PECAM1 are shown (see all 174)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    VAR_0594024
    ----see VAR_0594022 C Y mis40--------
    VAR_0594034
    ----see VAR_0594032 S I mis40--------
    VAR_0594054
    ----see VAR_0594052 R G mis40--------
    VAR_0131454
    ----see VAR_0131452 L V mis40--------
    VAR_0594044
    ----see VAR_0594042 S N mis40--------
    rs1997518561,2
    C--62396309(+) TACTC-/TTTTTTTT 1 -- cds10--------
    rs1168156741,2
    C,F--62396632(+) CCCCAC/TGCCTT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- T:0.04WA 118
    rs129416981,2
    C,F,A,H--62396746(+) gtggtC/Tttaag 1 -- ds500112Minor allele frequency- T:0.46NS EA NA CSA WA 778
    rs1117180561,2
    C--62397176(+) TTATCG/AGGAAG 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs776488471,2
    C--62397430(+) ATAGCA/CTGCTG 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PECAM1 (62396775 - 62404856 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PECAM1:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv524852CNV Gain19592680


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): PECAM1
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PECAM1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PECAM1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 173445    OMIM disorders: --

    20/138 diseases for PECAM1 (see all 138):    About MalaCards
    angiosarcoma    pulmonary vein stenosis    erythema elevatum diutinum    epithelioid hemangioendothelioma
    angiosarcoma of the scalp    discoid lupus erythematosus    pyogenic granuloma    gastric lymphoma
    cavernous hemangioma    anal canal carcinoma    diffuse astrocytoma    thrombasthenia
    hemoglobinopathy    brain glioma    arteriovenous malformation    glanzmann's thrombasthenia
    coronary stenosis    hemangioendothelioma    lymphangioma    membranous glomerulonephritis


    PECAM1 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    10/80 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PECAM1 gene (see all 80)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    angiosarcoma 52.6 3 18084256 (1)
    neovascularization 52.4 5 15818089 (2), 17654489 (1), 14517436 (1), 19515525 (1)
    melanoma experimental 47.9 1 7507944 (1)
    tumors 44.7 113 8226797 (9), 14517436 (4), 8604238 (3), 20074345 (3) (see all 65)
    inflammation 43.3 23 10900350 (2), 15589815 (2), 15756041 (1), 9159026 (1) (see all 17)
    hemangioma 40.6 6 9243511 (1), 9446823 (1), 18084256 (1)
    necrosis 38.9 17 8764109 (2), 17607964 (2), 17606807 (1), 9159026 (1) (see all 13)
    idiopathic membranous nephropathy 38.5 1 9551397 (1)
    atherosclerosis 34.2 15 15756041 (2), 17673705 (1), 19183069 (1), 14527361 (1) (see all 11)
    cerebral cavernous malformations 30.4 1 11844241 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PECAM1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PECAM1 (56 documents)

    Export disorders for PECAM1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for PECAM1 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 825):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PECAM1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Codon 125 polymorphism of CD31 and susceptibility to malaria. (PubMed id 11791967)1, 2, 4 Casals-Pascual C....Roberts D.J. (2001)
    2. PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. (PubMed id 1690453)1, 2, 3 Newman P.J....Muller W.A. (1990)
    3. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor activities by the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule, PECAM-1. (PubMed id 18672896)1, 2, 9 Yeh J.C....Frangos J.A. (2008)
    4. Association of Leu125Val polymorphism of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) gene & soluble level of PECAM-1 with coronary artery disease in Asian Indians. (PubMed id 15756041)1, 4, 9 Fang L....Chatterjee S. (2005)
    5. Identification of PECAM-1 in solid tumor cells and its potential involvement in tumor cell adhesion to endothelium. (PubMed id 8226797)1, 2, 9 Tang D.G....Honn K.V. (1993)
    6. Tissue-specific distributions of alternatively spliced human PECAM-1 isoforms. (PubMed id 12433657)1, 2, 9 Wang Y.... Sheibani N. (2003)
    7. Donor CD31 genotype impacts on transplant complications after human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (PubMed id 15753851)1, 4, 9 Cavanagh G....Middleton P.G. (2005)
    8. [Study of association of platelet endothelial cell ad hesion molecule-1 gene polymorphism with acute myocardial infarction] (PubMed id 19570335)1, 4, 9 Fu X.L....Xia Z.H. (2009)
    9. Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Gene Polymorphism and Its Soluble Level Are Associated with Ischemic Stroke. (PubMed id 19183069)1, 4, 9 Wei Y.S....Xie H.Y. (2009)
    10. ICAM-1 (Lys469Glu) and PECAM-1 (Leu125Val) polymorphisms in diffuse astrocytomas. (PubMed id 19306055)1, 4, 9 Burim R.V....Carlotti-JA_nior C.G. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 5175 HGNC: 8823 AceView: PECAM1 euGenes: HUgn5175 ECgene: PECAM1 Kegg: 5175
    H-InvDB: PECAM1

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PECAM1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PECAM1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    SHMPDhttp://shmpd.bii.a-star.edu.sg/gene.php?genestart=A&genename=PECAM-1
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD31
    Functional Glycomics Gateway - Glycan Bindinghttp://www.functionalglycomics.org/glycomics/GBPServlet?&operationType=view&cbpId=cbp_hum_Itlect_265

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for PECAM1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PECAM1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
    About This Section

     Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
     Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
     Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
     Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
     Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
     EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PECAM1
     
     EMD Millipore Custom Antibody & Bulk Services
     EMD Millipore Preclinical / Clinical Development Services
     EMD Millipore Immunoassay Services
     EMD Millipore Target Screening & Profiling Services

      
     Antibodies for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)   Browse Cell Culture Products  
     Browse ELISAs   Browse Flow Cytometry Kits  
     Browse Primer Pairs   Browse Kinase Activity Assays/Reagents  
     Browse ELISpot Kits/Development Modules   Browse TFB/Immunoprecipitation Assays  
     Browse Apoptosis Detection Kits/Reagents   Browse Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway (UPP) Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Browse DNA Damage/Repair Kits/Reagents   Browse Multiplex/Array Assay Kits/Reagents  
     Cell Selection/Detection Kits/Reagents for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)   Browse Secondary Antibodies/Controls/Staining Reagents  
     Browse Protease Activity Assays and Reagents   Recombinant/Natural Proteins for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)  
     Browse Stem Cell Products   Browse Tocris Biochemicals & Compounds  
     Browse cDNA Clones   Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for PECAM1 (CD31/PECAM-1)  
     OriGene Antibodies for PECAM1   OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PECAM1  
     OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PECAM1   OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PECAM1  
     OriGene MassSpec something-or-other for PECAM1   OriGene clones in human, mouse for PECAM1  
     OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PECAM1   OriGene Purified Protein for PECAM1  
     OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PECAM1   OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling  
     OriGene Custom Antibody Services for PECAM1   OriGene Custom Protein Services for PECAM1  

     
     
     QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PECAM1
     QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PECAM1 GenScript cDNA clones with any tag delivered in your preferred vector for PECAM1
     GenScript Custom Assay Services for PECAM1 GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for PECAM1
     GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PECAM1 CloneReady with Over 120,000 Genes
     Gene Synthesis: Any Gene in Any Vector Vector-based siRNA and miRNA, Ready for Transfection
     Gene Mutant Library, Variants up to 10^11 Plasmid Preparation
     Custom Peptide Services
     Antibodies & Assays for PECAM1  (PECAM-1)

     Regulatory tfbs in PECAM1 promoter
     Search Chromatin IP Primers for PECAM1
     RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     GNC Network for PECAM1
     SABiosciences PCR Arrays including human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     Search Tocris compounds for PECAM1 (PECA1)
     Proteins and Antibodies for PECAM1
     Cell Lysates for PECAM1
     cDNA Clones for PECAM1
     4000+ Proteins
     Search Sino Biological for antibodies, proteins & pathways
     Protein Production Services
     Transfection Reagents
     Protein A/G/L resins
     Isotyping reagents
     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies
     Novus Tissue Slides
     PECAM1 antibodies
     PECAM1 proteins
     PECAM1 lysates
     Antibodies for PECAM1
     See all of Abcam's Antibodies, Kits and Proteins for PECAM1
     Custom Antibody / Protein Production Service
     Bulk Purchasing
     Advantages of Rabbit Monoclonal antibodies
     Abcam protocols and scientific support
     Recombinant Protein for PECAM1




     Proteins for PECAM1
     Antibodies for PECAM1
     ELISAs for PECAM1
     CLIAs for PECAM1
     Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for PECAM1
     Gene Synthesis
     Protein Engineering
     Variant Library Synthesis
     Codon Optimization
     Protein Production and Purification
     Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PECAM1
     SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids for PECAM1
     SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids for PECAM1
     ThermoFisher Antibody for PECAM1
     Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PECAM1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for PECAM1
     inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for PECAM1
     Validated adenovirus to knockdown PECAM1 (CD31) in human, mouse

    Customized:
     lentivirus for stable overexpression of PECAM1
     lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of PECAM1
     adenovirus for overexpression of PECAM1
     LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PECAM1
    Customized transgenic rodents for:
     Humanization
     Biomarker expression
     Off-target effect monitoring
     Translational medicine
     Tissue-specific gene expresssion
     Time-controlled gene expresssion
           
    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 3 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

    View Random Gene

    Category
    (GIFtS: 73)
    transforming growth factor, beta 1
    GIFtS Group
    The GeneCards human gene database gene index: 1 3 5 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


    Developed at the Crown Human Genome Center, Department of Molecular Genetics, the Weizmann Institute of Science

    Hot genes      Disease genes      PECAM1 gene at Home site.
    hostname: 356977-web1.xennexinc.com index build: 106 solr: 1.4