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PDK2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 67
GCID: GC17P048172

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2

(Previous names: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 2)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 21 2     EC 2.7.11.23 8
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isoenzyme 21 2     [Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Acetyl-Transferring)] Kinase Isozyme 2,
Mitochondrial2
PDHK22 3     Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Lipoamide, Kinase Isozyme 2, Mitochondrial2
PDKII2 3     Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Isoform 23
PDH Kinase 22 3     EC 2.7.118

External Ids:    HGNC: 88101   Entrez Gene: 51642   Ensembl: ENSG000000058827   OMIM: 6025255   UniProtKB: Q151193   

Export aliases for PDK2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC17P047981 GC17P050654 GC17P048514 GC17P048647 GC17P045527 GC17P043540


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PDK2 Gene:
This gene encodes a member of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase family. The encoded protein phosphorylates
pyruvate dehydrogenase, down-regulating the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Overexpression of this gene may play a role in both cancer and diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript
variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010)

GeneCards Summary for PDK2 Gene:
PDK2 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and protein homodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is BCKDK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119
Function: Serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and
homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate
dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle,
down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of
pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism. Mediates cellular responses to
insulin. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and in metabolic adaptation to
nutrient availability. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in
maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. Plays a role in
the regulation of cell proliferation and in resistance to apoptosis under oxidative stress. Plays a role in
p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis

Gene Wiki entry for PDK2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000017.10  NC_018928.2  NT_010783.16  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PDK2 gene promoter:
         SRF   SRF (504 AA)   XBP-1   Nkx2-5   NF-AT   NF-AT4   NF-AT2   HOXA5   NF-AT3   NF-AT1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPDK2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PDK2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PDK2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 17q21.33   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  17q21.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 17q21.33

PDK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PDK2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 17         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC17P048172:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
48,172,101 bp from pter      End:
48,189,516 bp from pter
Size:
17,416 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: [Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] kinase isozyme 2, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 407 amino acids; 46154 Da
Subunit: Homodimer, and heterodimer with PDK1. Interacts with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex subunit DLAT, and
is part of the multimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that contains multiple copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase
(E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT, E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3)
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PDK2 (see all 11):
2BTZ (3D)        2BU2 (3D)        2BU5 (3D)        2BU6 (3D)        2BU7 (3D)        2BU8 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K3A7 B3KNW0 Q6P515 Q9BS05
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q15119-1   Q15119-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PDK2: NX_Q15119

Explore proteomics data for PDK2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PDK2 (Q15119) (see all 14)
     VYVPSHL  HIGSIDP  TPSVQLV  IYLKALS 


    See PDK2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001186827.1  NP_001186828.1  NP_001186829.1  NP_002602.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000007708   ENSP00000427682   ENSP00000420927   ENSP00000425265   ENSP00000425615  
     ENSP00000421178   ENSP00000423310  
    Reactome Protein details: Q15119

    PDK2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals PDK2 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PDK2 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PDK2

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PDK2 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for PDK2 (5 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PDK2

    PDK2 Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for PDK2 (92 products) 

    PDK2 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PDK2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PDK2
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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2
    PDHK family

    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR005467 Sig_transdc_His_kinase_core
     IPR003594 HATPase_ATP-bd
     IPR018955 BCDHK/PDK_N

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q15119

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q15119

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB003594 ATP-binding region

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119
    Similarity: Belongs to the PDK/BCKDK protein kinase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 histidine kinase domain


    Find genes that share domains with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119
    Function: Serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and
    homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate
    dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle,
    down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of
    pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism. Mediates cellular responses to
    insulin. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and in metabolic adaptation to
    nutrient availability. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in
    maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. Plays a role in
    the regulation of cell proliferation and in resistance to apoptosis under oxidative stress. Plays a role in
    p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis
    Catalytic activity: ATP + [pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] = ADP + [pyruvate dehydrogenase
    (acetyl-transferring)] phosphate
    Enzyme regulation: Activity is enhanced by binding to the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit DLAT. Inhibited by ADP
    and pyruvate; these compounds interfere with DLAT binding and thereby inhibit kinase activity. Inhibited by
    dichloroacetate. Inhibited by AZD7545; this compound interferes with DLAT binding and thereby inhibits kinase
    activity
    Induction: Down-regulated by insulin. Up-regulated by reactive oxygen species and cigarette smoke extract.
    Up-regulated by PPARD

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PDK2:
    pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isoenzyme 2

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.11.21 2 EC 2.7.112

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004672protein kinase activity TAS10748134
    GO:0004674protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA--
    GO:0004740pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity IDA19833728
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0005524ATP binding IDA16401071
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PDK2:
     Decreased substrate adherent c  G0/1 arrest  Increased G1 DNA content 

         1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Pdk2):
     muscle 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Pdk2tm1Rhar for PDK2

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PDK2

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PDK2:
    hsa-mir-25-3p (MIRT050290)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PDK2 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PDK2 (see all 18):
    hsa-miR-4318 hsa-miR-330-5p hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-331-3p hsa-miR-326 hsa-miR-1208 hsa-miR-1286 hsa-miR-892a
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPDK2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PDK2

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PDK2
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): PDK2 (NM_001199899)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PDK2
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PDK2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PDK2

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PDK2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119: Mitochondrion matrix
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion5
    nucleus4
    cytosol3
    endoplasmic reticulum1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus ----
    GO:0005737cytoplasm ----
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix TAS--
    GO:0005967mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PDK2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
    Pyruvate metabolism and Citric Acid (TCA) cycle0.49
    Pyruvate metabolism0.00
    Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex0.00
    2Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport0.71
    3Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
    eNOS Signaling0.48
    4Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    5B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway (WikiPathways)
    B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for PDK2
        eNOS Signaling

    1 BioSystems Pathway for PDK2
        B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway


    1 Reactome Pathway for PDK2
        Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex


        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PDK2: 
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PDK2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PDK2 (Q151192, 3 ENSP000000077084) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 37)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    HTTP428582, 3, ENSP000003471844MINT-64223 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000347184
    ISOC2Q96AB32, 3, ENSP000000850684MINT-64225 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000085068
    HIC2Q96JB32, 3MINT-64224 I2D: score=4 
    DLATP105153, ENSP000002803464I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000280346
    PDHXO003303, ENSP000002278684I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000227868
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 15):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006006glucose metabolic process IEA--
    GO:0006090pyruvate metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0006111regulation of gluconeogenesis ISS--
    GO:0006468protein phosphorylation TAS10748134
    GO:0006885regulation of pH ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PDK2

    3 HMDB Compounds for PDK2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    Hydrogen phosphateBiphosphate (see all 10)14066-19-4--

    4 DrugBank Compounds for PDK2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    (N-{4-[(ETHYLANILINO)SULFONYL]-2-METHYLPHENYL}-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-2-HYDROXY-2-METHYLPROPANAMIDE-- --target--10592235
    4-({(2R,5S)-2,5-DIMETHYL-4-[(2R)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-2-HYDROXY-2-METHYLPROPANOYL]PIPERAZIN-1-YL}CARBONYL)BENZONITRILE-- --target--10592235
    Adenosine-5'-Diphosphate-- 20398-34-9target--10592235
    N-(2-AMINOETHYL)-2-{3-CHLORO-4-[(4-ISOPROPYLBENZYL)OXY]PHENYL} ACETAMIDE-- --target--10592235

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PDK2 gene (see all 19)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    pyruvate 85.3 66 15491150 (5), 15491151 (3), 7499431 (2), 10748134 (2) (see all 30)
    dichloroacetate 80.3 15 19833728 (5), 10748134 (2), 17544412 (1), 17222789 (1) (see all 6)
    dihydrolipoamide 77.8 2 11486000 (1), 19833728 (1)
    acetyl-coa 62.1 4 18544047 (1), 15491151 (1), 17310282 (1)
    adp 59.1 16 15491150 (4), 19833728 (2), 15491151 (2), 17310282 (2) (see all 6)
    atp 44.2 15 15491150 (5), 15491151 (2), 18220414 (1), 12816949 (1)
    glycogen 43.5 3 15955060 (1), 18468620 (1), 12162751 (1)
    alpha lipoic acid 39 3 15512796 (2), 12816949 (1)
    phosphatidylinositol 34.9 2 15955060 (1), 10226025 (1)
    fatty acid 34.9 1 15955060 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PDK2 gene (4 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001199898.1  NM_001199899.1  NM_001199900.1  NM_002611.4  

    Unigene Cluster for PDK2:

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2
    Hs.256667  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001199898
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000007708(uc002iqb.3) ENST00000508030 ENST00000503176(uc002iqc.3 uc021tzx.1)
    ENST00000503614 ENST00000508960 ENST00000505897(uc021tzw.1) ENST00000505440
    ENST00000511026 ENST00000512238 ENST00000515040 ENST00000510219 ENST00000506242
    ENST00000503076 ENST00000512204 ENST00000506647
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    hsa-miR-4318 hsa-miR-330-5p hsa-miR-513a-5p hsa-miR-331-3p hsa-miR-326 hsa-miR-1208 hsa-miR-1286 hsa-miR-892a
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 4): PDK2 (NM_001199899)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PDK2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PDK2
    Primer
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK055119.1 AK290522.1 AK293600.1 AK297089.1 BC005811.2 BC040478.1 BC063137.1 L42451.1 

    18 DOTS entries:

    DT.100788800  DT.40248082  DT.100788798  DT.120938098  DT.100748331  DT.92440189  DT.95118759  DT.100752224 
    DT.120938103  DT.101967512  DT.120938050  DT.120938052  DT.120938056  DT.120938062  DT.120938092  DT.120938243 
    DT.439416  DT.40112660 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 298):

    BM796660 BE675684 R89688 AL525191 BQ672109 AA746262 BE326734 AI522169 
    BU528580 BM701277 BQ901189 AK055119 CB153458 AI140069 AI144174 BE549815 
    AI187114 AU130309 AI432138 AI206585 F26580 AI283237 AW070543 CA488863 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PDK2 (see all 8)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b
    SP1:              -     -     -     -                 -                       -     -                 -     -                                             
    SP2:                                      -           -                       -     -                 -     -                                             
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                      
    SP4:                    -     -     -     -           -                                                                                                   
    SP5:                                      -           -                                                                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PDK2

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PDK2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGTGCTCAGG
    PDK2 Expression
    About this image


    PDK2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 4) fully expand
     
     Adipose (Muscoskeletal System)
             Thoracic Perivascular Adipose
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)
     
     Adrenal Gland (Endocrine System)
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
    PDK2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PDK2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.256667

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PDK2_HUMAN, Q15119
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues, with the highest level in heart and skeletal muscle, intermediate
    levels in brain, kidney, pancreas and liver, and low levels in placenta and lung

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including PDK2: 
              Insulin Resistance in human mouse rat
              PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Glucose Metabolism in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PDK2 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pdk21 , 5 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 21, 5 91.56(n)1
    97.54(a)1
      11 (59.01 cM)5
    186041  NM_133667.21  NP_598428.21 
     950262585 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PDK26
    pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2
    92(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    6(77269978-77334843)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia BX714085.12   -- 74.14(n)    BX714085.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc562092 similar to pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme more 74.94(n)   393971  BC045993.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Pdk3 pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)
    kinase
    56(a)     --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea ZK370.53 Phosphoprotein 51(a)   III(8809765-8813134)   --
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PKP16
    Mitochondrial protein kinase involved in negative ...
    23(a)
    1 → many
    IX(275108-276292) YIL042C


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PDK2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PDK2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PDK2 gene
    BCKDK2  PDK12  PDK42  PDK32  
    4 SIMAP similar genes for PDK2 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PDK2_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PDK4    PDK3    PDK1    BCKDK

    Find genes that share paralogs with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for PDK2
    PGOHUM00000259236


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PDK2 (see all 417)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 17 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1381297751,2
    --43538515(+) CCTCGA/GCGAGG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs1157111351,2
    C,F--48170148(+) TAATTT/ATATAT 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs1174541571,2
    F--48170181(+) CTATGC/TTGCCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01EA 120
    rs1894883271,2
    --48170249(+) AGGGCA/CAGGTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1930949121,2
    --48170276(+) TCTATA/GTATTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs765400771,2
    C,F--48170288(+) TCTGTG/ACACTT 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- A:0.17CSA WA NA 240
    rs1470027441,2
    --48170565(+) AAGAGC/GTACCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1436119121,2
    --48170686(+) TAAGGG/TGTCTT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1147555861,2
    F--48170747(+) GACCAG/AGAGAT 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 118
    rs1853992961,2
    --48170752(+) GGAGAG/TCTAAG 3 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PDK2 (48172101 - 48189516 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for PDK2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv3226n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv908588CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3225n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv908590CNV Loss21882294
    dgv3227n71CNV Loss21882294

    2 Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays for PDK2:
    Cosmic IdAA Change
    35788p.P182S
    13349p.G342R
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PDK2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PDK2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602525    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PDK2           About GenesLikeMe

    3 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PDK2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    polycystic kidney diseases 35.8 1 9175744 (1)
    aids 0 1 12816949 (1)
    tumors 0 2 17054779 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PDK2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PDK2 (1 document)

    Export disorders for PDK2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PDK2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 88):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PDK2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Diversity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family in humans. (PubMed id 7499431)1, 2, 3, 9 Gudi R.... Popov K.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 activity limited and further inhibited by slowing down the rate of dissociation of ADP. (PubMed id 15491150)1, 2, 9 Bao H.... Roche T.E. (Biochemistry 2004)
    3. Facilitated interaction between the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 and the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase. (PubMed id 12816949)1, 2, 9 Hiromasa Y. and Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    4. Pivotal role of the C-terminal DW-motif in mediating inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 by dichloroacetate. (PubMed id 19833728)1, 2, 9 Li J.... Chuang D.T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009)
    5. Three members of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family are direct targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. (PubMed id 17669420)1, 2, 9 Degenhardt T....Carlberg C. (J. Mol. Biol. 2007)
    6. Ligand-induced effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2. (PubMed id 16517984)1, 2, 9 Hiromasa Y.... Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    7. Regulatory roles of the N-terminal domain based on crystal structures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 containing physiological and synthetic ligands. (PubMed id 16401071)1, 2, 9 Knoechel T.R.... Brown D.G. (Biochemistry 2006)
    8. p53 negatively regulates transcription of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase Pdk2. (PubMed id 22123926)1, 2 Contractor T. and Harris C.R. (Cancer Res. 2012)
    9. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5164 HGNC: 8810 AceView: PDK2 Ensembl:ENSG00000005882 euGenes: HUgn5164
    ECgene: PDK2 H-InvDB: PDK2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PDK2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for PDK2 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PDK2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PDK2

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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