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Aliases for PDK2 Gene

Aliases for PDK2 Gene

  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2 2 3
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isoenzyme 2 2 3
  • PDH Kinase 2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.2 4 63
  • PDHK2 3 4
  • PDKII 3 4
  • [Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Acetyl-Transferring)] Kinase Isozyme 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Lipoamide, Kinase Isozyme 2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Isoform 2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 63

External Ids for PDK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PDK2 Gene

  • GC17P047981
  • GC17P050654
  • GC17P048514
  • GC17P048647
  • GC17P045527
  • GC17P048172
  • GC17P043540

Summaries for PDK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PDK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase family. The encoded protein phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase, down-regulating the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Overexpression of this gene may play a role in both cancer and diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GeneCards Summary for PDK2 Gene

PDK2 (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase, Isozyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PDK2 include polycystic kidney disease 2. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDK2 Gene

  • Kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism. Mediates cellular responses to insulin. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and in metabolic adaptation to nutrient availability. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and in resistance to apoptosis under oxidative stress. Plays a role in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis.

Gene Wiki entry for PDK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PDK2 Gene

Genomics for PDK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PDK2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PDK2 Gene

Start:
50,094,737 bp from pter
End:
50,112,152 bp from pter
Size:
17,416 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PDK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PDK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PDK2 Gene

Proteins for PDK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PDK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q15119-PDK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    [Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] kinase isozyme 2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q15119
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3A7
    • B3KNW0
    • Q6P515
    • Q9BS05

    Protein attributes for PDK2 Gene

    Size:
    407 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46154 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer, and heterodimer with PDK1. Interacts with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex subunit DLAT, and is part of the multimeric pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that contains multiple copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT, E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PDK2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PDK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PDK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PDK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PDK2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains for PDK2 Gene

Gene Families for PDK2 Gene

Protein Domains for PDK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q15119

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PDK2_HUMAN :
  • Q15119
Domain:
  • Contains 1 histidine kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the PDK/BCKDK protein kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PDK2: view

Function for PDK2 Gene

Molecular function for PDK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase,isoenzyme 2
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + [pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] = ADP + [pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activity is enhanced by binding to the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit DLAT. Inhibited by ADP and pyruvate; these compounds interfere with DLAT binding and thereby inhibit kinase activity. Inhibited by dichloroacetate. Inhibited by AZD7545; this compound interferes with DLAT binding and thereby inhibits kinase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism. Mediates cellular responses to insulin. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and in metabolic adaptation to nutrient availability. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation and in resistance to apoptosis under oxidative stress. Plays a role in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Down-regulated by insulin. Up-regulated by reactive oxygen species and cigarette smoke extract. Up-regulated by PPARD.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PDK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PDK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity TAS 10748134
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity --
GO:0004740 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity IDA 19833728
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IDA 16401071
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDK2: view

Phenotypes for PDK2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for PDK2:
inferred from 1 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for PDK2:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PDK2: view

Animal Models for PDK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PDK2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PDK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PDK2

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PDK2 Gene

Localization for PDK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDK2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PDK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PDK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PDK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005967 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDK2: view

Pathways for PDK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PDK2: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PDK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006111 regulation of gluconeogenesis ISS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation TAS 10748134
GO:0006885 regulation of pH ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDK2: view

Compounds for PDK2 Gene

(3) HMDB Compounds for PDK2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
ADP
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
58-64-0
Hydrogen phosphate
  • Biphosphate
14066-19-4

(19) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PDK2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pyruvate 85.3 44
dichloroacetate 80.3 11
dihydrolipoamide 77.8 2
acetyl-coa 62.1 3
adp 59.1 12
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PDK2: view

Transcripts for PDK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PDK2 Gene

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PDK2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PDK2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3:
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP7:
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for PDK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PDK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PDK2

Expression for PDK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PDK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PDK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PDK2 Gene Hs.256667

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PDK2 Gene

Q15119-PDK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in many tissues, with the highest level in heart and skeletal muscle, intermediate levels in brain, kidney, pancreas and liver, and low levels in placenta and lung.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PDK2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PDK2 Gene

Orthologs for PDK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PDK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PDK2 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 99.75 (a)
PDK2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PDK2 35
  • 94.1 (n)
  • 98.03 (a)
PDK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PDK2 35
  • 93.53 (n)
  • 98.77 (a)
PDK2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pdk2 35
  • 91.56 (n)
  • 97.54 (a)
Pdk2 16
Pdk2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PDK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PDK2 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pdk2 35
  • 91.97 (n)
  • 97.54 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PDK2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pdk4 35
  • 68.82 (n)
  • 74.88 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pdk2 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
PDK2 (1 of 2) 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
si:dkeyp-67g8.1 35
  • 70.02 (n)
  • 73.22 (a)
zgc56209 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pdk 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
Pdk 37
  • 56 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pdhk-2 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
ZK370.5 37
  • 51 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PKP1 36
  • 23 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3938 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PDK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PDK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PDK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PDK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PDK2 Gene

Paralogs for PDK2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PDK2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PDK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PDK2: view

Variants for PDK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PDK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs9839 -- 50,097,544(+) CCCTC(C/T)GTGCA reference, synonymous-codon
rs11237 -- 50,106,107(+) GGTGG(A/G/T)GGGGG intron-variant, synonymous-codon, reference
rs705966 -- 50,110,305(-) AGAGA(A/C/G/T)AGGGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs847691 -- 50,109,829(-) AAGGG(C/T)GGTCC intron-variant
rs847692 -- 50,107,390(-) ttgcc(C/G)aggcc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PDK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv908588 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv908590 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3225n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3226n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3227n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for PDK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PDK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDK2 Gene

Disorders for PDK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (1) Diseases for PDK2 Gene including...

Search for PDK2 Gene in MalaCards »

(3) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PDK2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
polycystic kidney diseases 35.8 1
aids 0 1
tumors 0 2

Relevant External Links for PDK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PDK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PDK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PDK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDK2 Gene

Publications for PDK2 Gene

  1. Diversity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family in humans. (PMID: 7499431) Gudi R. … Popov K.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995) 2 3 4 23
  2. Facilitated interaction between the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 and the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase. (PMID: 12816949) Hiromasa Y. … Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2 activity limited and further inhibited by slowing down the rate of dissociation of ADP. (PMID: 15491150) Bao H. … Roche T.E. (Biochemistry 2004) 3 4 23
  4. Regulatory roles of the N-terminal domain based on crystal structures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 containing physiological and synthetic ligands. (PMID: 16401071) Knoechel T.R. … Brown D.G. (Biochemistry 2006) 3 4 23
  5. Ligand-induced effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2. (PMID: 16517984) Hiromasa Y. … Roche T.E. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006) 3 4 23

Products for PDK2 Gene

Sources for PDK2 Gene

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