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PARS2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC01M055222

Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)1 2     Probable Proline--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial2
EC 6.1.1.153 8     Proline TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)2
Mitochondrial (Putative)1     Proline--TRNA Ligase2
Proline TRNA Ligase 21     ProRS3
MT-PRORS2     Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase3
proRS2     

External Ids:    HGNC: 305631   Entrez Gene: 259732   Ensembl: ENSG000001623967   OMIM: 6120365   UniProtKB: Q7L3T83   

Export aliases for PARS2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC01M054935 GC01M054995 GC01M053336


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for PARS2 Gene:
PARS2 (prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include proline-tRNA ligase activity.


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000001.10  NC_018912.2  NT_032977.10  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PARS2 gene promoter:
         GR   GR-beta   SREBP-1c   Lmo2   Tal-1beta   SREBP-1b   AREB6   SREBP-1a   GR-alpha   ITF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPARS2 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PARS2

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PARS2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 1p32.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  1p32.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 1p32.2

PARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PARS2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 1         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC01M055222:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
55,222,571 bp from pter      End:
55,230,226 bp from pter
Size:
7,656 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYPM_HUMAN, Q7L3T8 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial precursor  
Size: 475 amino acids; 53263 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=BAB15178.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: A8K0W4 Q9H6S5 Q9UFT1

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PARS2: NX_Q7L3T8

Explore proteomics data for PARS2 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys139, Lys175
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARS2 (Q7L3T8) (see all 5)
     EVLLDDR  LGPTHEE  RPRFGLLR  GLLRGREF 


    See PARS2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_689481.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000360327  
    Reactome Protein details: Q7L3T8

    PARS2 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals PARS2 Protein
    Novus Biologicals PARS2 Lysates
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PARS2

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PARS2 (2 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PARS2

    PARS2 Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for PARS2 (5 products) 

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PARS2
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PARS2
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    antibodies-online kits for PARS2 (3 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    aaRS2: Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / Class II

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR002314 aa-tRNA-synt_IIb_cons-dom
     IPR004500 Pro-tRNA-synth_IIa_bac-type
     IPR006195 aa-tRNA-synth_II
     IPR004154 Anticodon-bd
     IPR002316 Pro-tRNA-ligase_IIa

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q7L3T8

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q7L3T8

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002316 Prolyl-tRNA synthetase signature
    IPB004154 Anticodon binding domain


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: SYPM_HUMAN, Q7L3T8
    Similarity: Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family


    Find genes that share domains with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: SYPM_HUMAN, Q7L3T8
    Catalytic activity: ATP + L-proline + tRNA(Pro) = AMP + diphosphate + L-prolyl-tRNA(Pro)

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 6.1.1.151 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 4 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding ----
    GO:0004812aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity ----
    GO:0004827proline-tRNA ligase activity IEA--
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PARS2:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PARS2

    miRNA
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    4 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PARS2:
    hsa-miR-4264 hsa-miR-516b hsa-miR-185 hsa-miR-4306
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPARS2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PARS2
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PARS2

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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PARS2


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    SYPM_HUMAN, Q7L3T8: Mitochondrion matrix (Potential)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    mitochondrion3
    cytosol2
    peroxisome2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005739mitochondrion ----
    GO:0005759mitochondrial matrix IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PARS2 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1tRNA Aminoacylation
    tRNA Aminoacylation0.57
    Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation0.50
    Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis0.52
    2Gene Expression
    Gene Expression0.40


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 Reactome Pathway for PARS2
        Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for PARS2):
        Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PARS2
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PARS2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PARS2 (Q7L3T82, 3 ENSP000003603274) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 299)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ICT1Q141972, 3, ENSP000003015854MINT-8079030 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000301585
    PRKAA2P546463, ENSP000003602904I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000360290
    SQSTM1Q135013, ENSP000003744554I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000374455
    RAD51Q066093, ENSP000002678684I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000267868
    SLC25A3Q003252, ENSP000002283184MINT-8079030 STRING: ENSP00000228318
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006418tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS--
    GO:0006433prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA--
    GO:0010467gene expression TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PARS2 (SYPM)

    5 HMDB Compounds for PARS2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenosine monophosphate5'-AMP (see all 28)61-19-8--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    L-Proline(-)-(S)-Proline (see all 16)147-85-3--
    Phosphoric acidacide phosphorique (FRENCH) (see all 20)7664-38-2--
    Pyrophosphate(4-)Diphosphoric acid ion (see all 10)14000-31-8--

    1 DrugBank Compound for PARS2    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Proline(-)-2-Pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid (see all 6)147-85-3target--17139284 17016423

    5 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PARS2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    trna(pro) 94.3 11 9478190 (3), 11112540 (2), 9622512 (1)
    aminoacyl-trna 86.7 2 12438642 (1), 16843487 (1)
    trna 76.6 12 11342535 (4), 18180290 (1), 11112540 (1), 18310681 (1) (see all 5)
    anticodon 72.8 6 11342535 (2), 9478190 (1)
    proline 56.6 1 9622512 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PARS2 gene: 
    NM_152268.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PARS2:

    Prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)
    Hs.380169  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_152268
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000371279(uc001cxy.3)
    miRNA
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    4 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PARS2:
    hsa-miR-4264 hsa-miR-516b hsa-miR-185 hsa-miR-4306
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPARS2 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PARS2
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PARS2
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PARS2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK025585.1 AK289679.1 AL117473.1 BC007956.2 BC011758.2 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.112977 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 62):

    BM451210 BC007956 CB242529 BM682402 NM_152268 AI074384 CR603986 AI760089 
    BQ931648 AI240535 BM997509 BC011758 BQ935346 CB306752 AW409848 AK025585 
    AL117473 BQ883270 BQ711041 BM817522 BX110932 BM717871 AW957495 AI057499 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PARS2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AGAGGTGTGT
    PARS2 Expression
    About this image

    PARS2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PARS2 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.380169
        Custom PCR Arrays for PARS2
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for PARS2 gene from Selected species (see all 21)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Pars21 , 5 prolyl-tRNA synthetase (mitochondrial)(putative)1, 5 83.16(n)1
    81.89(a)1
      4 (49.67 cM)5
    2305771  NM_001083887.21  NP_001077356.11 
     1066510695 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PARS21 prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative) 68.38(n)
    66.67(a)
      424659  NM_001277616.1  NP_001264545.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PARS26
    prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)...
    64(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    4(104460292-104461710)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia BC044273.12   -- 73.69(n)    BC044273.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BM861624.12   -- 73.47(n)    BM861624.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Aats-pro1 Prolyl-tRNA synthetase 53.51(n)
    47.01(a)
      38331  NM_139480.3  NP_647737.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea pars-21 pars-2 48.39(n)
    41.76(a)
      173117  NM_001047224.3  NP_001040689.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes AIM10(YER087W)4
    AIM101
    Protein with similarity to tRNA synthetases; non-tagged more4
    AIM101
    47.04(n)1
    39.79(a)1
      5(330576-332306)4
    8568201, 4  NP_011010.11, 4 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PARS2 (see all 263)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 1 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1922488951,2
    --55222074(+) CTTTTC/TAGGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs27648221,2
    C,F,A,H--55222080(+) AGGAGG/ATGCTG 1 -- int127Minor allele frequency- A:0.26NS EA NA WA CSA 2526
    rs1156307601,2
    F--55222103(+) GTCTTC/TACAGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.03WA 118
    rs1834456171,2
    --55222112(+) GATTCC/TTGTCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs27648231,2
    C,F,A,H--55222130(+) ACATGT/CAGAGA 1 -- int113Minor allele frequency- C:0.29NA WA CSA EA 378
    rs752490211,2
    --55222150(+) GCCAAC/GGATGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1388624491,2
    C--55222318(+) CCAGCA/TCTTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs353663951,2
    C,F--55222401(+) TGCCCC/TGATAC 1 -- int16Minor allele frequency- T:0.31NA WA EA 364
    rs1438949701,2
    --55222409(+) TACTT-/GGGGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs19256591,2
    C,F,A,H--55222466(-) ACCCAC/TCCCTA 1 -- int124Minor allele frequency- T:0.26NS EA NA WA CSA 2350

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PARS2 (55222571 - 55230226 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 5 variations for PARS2:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv871008CNV Loss21882294
    nsv817614CNV Gain22305530
    nsv461561CNV Gain19166990
    nsv461594CNV Gain19166990
    dgv229n71CNV Gain21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PARS2
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 612036    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PARS2           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PARS2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PARS2 (1 document)

    Export disorders for PARS2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PARS2 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 26):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PARS2)
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    1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PubMed id 20877624)1, 4 Hendrickson S.L....O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010)
    2. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PubMed id 16710414)1, 2 Gregory S.G.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006)
    3. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PubMed id 15779907)1, 3 Bonnefond L....Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    6. ATP-directed capture of bioactive herbal-based medicine on human tRNA synthetase. (PubMed id 23263184)1 Zhou H....Schimmel P. (Nature 2013)
    7. A proteome-wide, quantitative survey of in vivo ubiquitylation sites reveals widespread regulatory roles. (PubMed id 21890473)1 Wagner S.A....Choudhary C. (amp 2011)
    8. Network organization of the human autophagy system. (PubMed id 20562859)1 Behrends C....Harper J.W. (Nature 2010)
    9. A functional peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, ICT1, has been recruited into the human mitochondrial ribosome. (PubMed id 20186120)1 Richter R....Chrzanowska-Lightowlers Z.M. (EMBO J. 2010)
    10. hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes. (PubMed id 17207965)1 Lamesch P.... Vidal M. (Genomics 2007)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 25973 HGNC: 30563 AceView: DKFZp727A071 Ensembl:ENSG00000162396 euGenes: HUgn25973
    ECgene: PARS2 Kegg: 25973 H-InvDB: PARS2

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PARS2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PARS2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PARS2

    GeneCards and IP:
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