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Aliases for PARS2 Gene

Aliases for PARS2 Gene

  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3 5
  • EC 4 63
  • ProRS 3 4
  • Proline TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 3
  • Mitochondrial (Putative) 2
  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • Proline TRNA Ligase 2 2
  • MT-PRORS 3

External Ids for PARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARS2 Gene

  • GC01M054935
  • GC01M054995
  • GC01M055222
  • GC01M053336

Summaries for PARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a putative member of the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of proline to tRNA molecules. Mutations have been found in this gene in some patients with Alpers syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PARS2 Gene

PARS2 (Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PARS2 include Mitochondrial Dna Depletion Syndrome 4A. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and proline-tRNA ligase activity.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARS2 Gene

Genomics for PARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PARS2 Gene

Enhancers for PARS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PARS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PARS2 Gene

54,755,519 bp from pter
54,764,553 bp from pter
9,035 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARS2 Gene

Genes around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARS2 Gene

Proteins for PARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K0W4
    • Q9H6S5
    • Q9UFT1

    Protein attributes for PARS2 Gene

    475 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53263 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB15178.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARS2 Gene

Proteomics data for PARS2 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PARS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 139 and Lys 175
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for PARS2 Gene

Gene Families for PARS2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARS2: view

Function for PARS2 Gene

Molecular function for PARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-proline + tRNA(Pro) = AMP + diphosphate + L-prolyl-tRNA(Pro).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding IBA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARS2

CRISPR Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARS2 Gene

Localization for PARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PARS2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 4
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 2

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARS2: view

Pathways by source for PARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARS2 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARS2 Gene

(5) Drugs for PARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Proline Approved Nutra Target 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(4) Additional Compounds for PARS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARS2: view

Transcripts for PARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARS2 Gene

Prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative):
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARS2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PARS2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARS2 Gene Hs.380169

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARS2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARS2 Gene

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARS2 35
  • 87.86 (n)
  • 86.74 (a)
PARS2 36
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARS2 35
  • 85.54 (n)
  • 84.63 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pars2 35
  • 83.16 (n)
  • 81.89 (a)
Pars2 16
Pars2 36
  • 76 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARS2 35
  • 99.72 (n)
  • 99.58 (a)
PARS2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pars2 35
  • 83.65 (n)
  • 81.89 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARS2 36
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PARS2 36
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARS2 35
  • 68.38 (n)
  • 66.67 (a)
PARS2 36
  • 66 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARS2 36
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pars2 35
  • 60.45 (n)
  • 59.44 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pars2 35
  • 63.22 (n)
  • 63.06 (a)
pars2 36
  • 59 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003589 35
  • 54.14 (n)
  • 48.68 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-pro 35
  • 53.51 (n)
  • 47.01 (a)
Aats-pro 36
  • 40 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pars-2 35
  • 48.39 (n)
  • 41.76 (a)
pars-2 36
  • 34 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR233W 35
  • 48.75 (n)
  • 38.44 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E19801g 35
  • 45.2 (n)
  • 40.11 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes AIM10 35
  • 47.04 (n)
  • 39.79 (a)
AIM10 36
  • 26 (a)
AIM10 38
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09892 35
  • 50.69 (n)
  • 40.88 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC24C6.03 35
  • 49.32 (n)
  • 43.08 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 42 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PARS2:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

Variants for PARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2270004 - 54,758,458(-) GTTCA(A/G)CAAGC reference, missense
rs11577368 - 54,759,078(+) TGAAA(A/C)CTGCA reference, missense
rs1180942 -- 54,766,282(-) ATATA(A/G)TGACT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1180943 -- 54,764,790(-) AGGAA(C/G)AGCAC upstream-variant-2KB
rs1180944 -- 54,764,778(-) CTCAA(A/G)TCATC upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv461561 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv817614 CNV Gain 22305530
nsv461594 CNV Gain 19166990
dgv229n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv871008 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.28; 76.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PARS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Disorders for PARS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PARS2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 4a
  • diffuse cerebral sclerosis of schilder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PARS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PARS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARS2 Gene

Publications for PARS2 Gene

  1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 48 67
  2. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PMID: 17016423) Imming P. … Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26
  3. How many drug targets are there? (PMID: 17139284) Overington J.P. … Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26
  4. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3
  5. Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes. (PMID: 25609649) Li X. … Chen J. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2015) 3

Products for PARS2 Gene

Sources for PARS2 Gene