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Aliases for PARS2 Gene

Aliases for PARS2 Gene

  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3 5
  • Proline TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • ProRS 3 4
  • Probable Proline--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • MT-PRORS 3

External Ids for PARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARS2 Gene

  • GC01M054935
  • GC01M054995
  • GC01M055222
  • GC01M053336

Summaries for PARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a putative member of the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of proline to tRNA molecules. Mutations have been found in this gene in some patients with Alpers syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PARS2 Gene

PARS2 (Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative)) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and proline-tRNA ligase activity.

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARS2 Gene

Genomics for PARS2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PARS2 Gene

Enhancers for PARS2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01G054792 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -33.0 -32970 9.5 HDGF ATF1 CREB3L1 ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 ZNF143 FOS SP5 JUNB LEXM PARS2 TTC4 DHCR24 ENSG00000242396 ENSG00000233203 TTC22 PIR51709 ENSG00000237453
GH01G054218 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 +544.4 544418 3.1 ZFP64 RAD21 EGR1 ZNF354C SCRT2 EGR2 ZNF680 ZNF654 SP3 ZBTB11 SSBP3-AS1 MAGOH CYB5RL PARS2 HSPB11 C1orf123 MRPL37 CDCP2 USP24 PIR40840
GH01G054051 1.2 ENCODE 11.3 +711.4 711399 3.7 CREB3L1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC MAGOH TCEANC2 SSBP3-AS1 HSPB11 PARS2 CYB5RL C1orf123 LDLRAD1 RPL37P7 NDC1
GH01G054763 1.1 ENCODE 11.5 +0.1 127 1.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 CREB3L1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 PARS2 TTC4 PIR47125
GH01G054776 0.7 dbSUPER 10.7 -12.2 -12195 1.2 ZNF263 KLF1 KLF17 FEZF1 ZIC2 OSR2 ZNF121 PRDM6 ZBTB48 ZFP3 PARS2 PIR33324 GC01P054773 PIR50014 GC01P054790
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PARS2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for PARS2 Gene

54,755,519 bp from pter
54,764,553 bp from pter
9,035 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARS2 Gene

Genes around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARS2 Gene

Proteins for PARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K0W4
    • Q9H6S5
    • Q9UFT1

    Protein attributes for PARS2 Gene

    475 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53263 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB15178.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARS2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for PARS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys139 and posLast=175175
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for PARS2 Gene

Gene Families for PARS2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARS2: view

Function for PARS2 Gene

Molecular function for PARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-proline + tRNA(Pro) = AMP + diphosphate + L-prolyl-tRNA(Pro).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004827 proline-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARS2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARS2 Gene

Localization for PARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARS2: view

Pathways by source for PARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA --
GO:0006433 prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARS2 Gene

(4) Drugs for PARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Proline Approved Nutra Target 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(5) Additional Compounds for PARS2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARS2: view

Transcripts for PARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARS2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(62) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PARS2 Gene

Prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARS2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PARS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PARS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARS2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PARS2 Gene

  • Muscle(4.2)
  • Liver(4.1)
  • Nervous system(4.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARS2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PARS2 Gene

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARS2 34 35
  • 99.72 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARS2 34 35
  • 87.86 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARS2 34
  • 85.54 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pars2 34
  • 83.65 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pars2 34 16 35
  • 83.16 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARS2 35
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PARS2 35
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARS2 34 35
  • 68.38 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARS2 35
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pars2 34
  • 60.45 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pars2 34 35
  • 63.22 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003589 34
  • 54.14 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-pro 34 35
  • 53.51 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pars-2 34 35
  • 48.39 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR233W 34
  • 48.75 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes AIM10 34 35 37
  • 47.04 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E19801g 34
  • 45.2 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09892 34
  • 50.69 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC24C6.03 34
  • 49.32 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PARS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

Variants for PARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs730882152 Uncertain significance 54,758,031(-) CCCCC(-/C)TAAGA reference, frameshift-variant
rs730882153 Uncertain significance 54,758,326(-) CTTCT(C/T)AGCCA reference, missense
rs1000079823 -- 54,757,460(+) ATCTC(C/T)TGCTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs1000386459 -- 54,762,804(+) TGCGA(C/T)CCACC intron-variant
rs1000778013 -- 54,762,028(+) CTTTC(C/T)GGCCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv166n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv38e212 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1000673 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1004778 CNV gain 25217958
nsv461561 CNV gain 19166990
nsv461594 CNV gain 19166990
nsv546266 CNV gain 21841781
nsv546269 CNV gain 21841781
nsv817614 CNV gain 22305530

Variation tolerance for PARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.28; 76.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PARS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Disorders for PARS2 Gene

Relevant External Links for PARS2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for PARS2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARS2 Gene

Publications for PARS2 Gene

  1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 64
  2. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory S.G. … Bentley D.R. (Nature 2006) 3 4 64
  3. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L. … Sissler M. (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 64
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4 64
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64

Products for PARS2 Gene

Sources for PARS2 Gene

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