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Aliases for PARP4 Gene

Aliases for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4 2 3 5
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase)-Like 1 2 3
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 4 3 4
  • Von Willebrand Factor A Domain Containing 5C 2 3
  • PARP-Related/IalphaI-Related H5/Proline-Rich 3 4
  • Vault Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 3 4
  • 193 KDa Vault Protein 3 4
  • ADPRTL1 3 4
  • PARP-4 3 4
  • ARTD4 3 4
  • PARPL 3 4
  • VPARP 3 4
  • PH5P 3 4
  • Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase-Like 1 3
  • Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 4 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase 3
  • Vault Protein, 193-KDa 3
  • I-Alpha-I-Related 3
  • H5 Proline-Rich 3
  • PARP-Related 3
  • EC 4
  • KIAA0177 4
  • VAULT3 3
  • VWA5C 3
  • P193 3

External Ids for PARP4 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PARP4 Gene


Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARP4 Gene

  • GC13M023893
  • GC13M024995
  • GC13M005807

Summaries for PARP4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PARP4 Gene

PARP4 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is VWA5B1.

Tocris Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein.

Gene Wiki entry for PARP4 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARP4 Gene

Genomics for PARP4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PARP4 Gene

Enhancers for PARP4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH13F024715 0.4 ENCODE 14.5 -203.4 -203370 0.8 CTCF PARP4 RNF17 ATP12A RPL26P34 LOC105370118
GH13F024510 0.4 ENCODE 13.4 +1.0 952 3.3 CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 PARP4 LOC105370117
GH13F024508 0.3 FANTOM5 11.8 +4.6 4631 0.4 PARP4 LOC105370117
GH13F024540 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 -28.6 -28579 1.7 CTCF ZNF687 L3MBTL2 DPF2 KLF4 MNT RAD21 ZNF592 CTBP1 GATA3 TPTE2P6 PARP4 RNF17 LOC101927375
GH13F024502 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 +10.0 9974 1.4 PKNOX1 JUND SAP130 PBX2 IKZF1 NFE2 FOS PARP4 C1QTNF9 LOC105370117
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PARP4 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000054376 693 3000 CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143

Genomic Location for PARP4 Gene

24,420,926 bp from pter
24,512,993 bp from pter
92,068 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARP4 Gene

Genes around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARP4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARP4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARP4 Gene

Proteins for PARP4 Gene

  • Protein details for PARP4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75903
    • Q14682
    • Q5QNZ9
    • Q9H1M6

    Protein attributes for PARP4 Gene

    1724 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    192595 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, at least composed of MVP, PARP4 and one or more vault RNAs (vRNAs). Binds to MVP. Associates with TEP1.
    • Sequence=BAA11494.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARP4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PARP4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PARP4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PARP4 Gene

Domains & Families for PARP4 Gene

Gene Families for PARP4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARP4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 BRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 BRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP alpha-helical domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP catalytic domain.
  • Contains 1 VIT domain.
  • Contains 1 VWFA domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARP4: view

Function for PARP4 Gene

Molecular function for PARP4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
NAD(+) + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptor = nicotinamide + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptor.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS 10100603
GO:0003950 NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity NAS,TAS 10644454
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15169895
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARP4: view

Animal Models for PARP4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARP4:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PARP4 Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARP4 Gene

Localization for PARP4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Note=Also found in the nucleus, associated with mitotic spindles.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PARP4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARP4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
peroxisome 2
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus NAS 10644454
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 10477748
GO:0005819 spindle IEA --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005876 spindle microtubule IDA 10477748
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARP4: view

Pathways by source for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006281 DNA repair NAS 12101391
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process IDA 10477748
GO:0006471 protein ADP-ribosylation NAS 10644454
GO:0006810 transport NAS 11855821
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IMP 12123754
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARP4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARP4 Gene

(14) Drugs for PARP4 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Nicotinamide Approved Nutra 902,906
NU1025 Experimental Pharma PARP inhibitor,potent and novel 0
4-HQN Pharma PARP inhibitor 0
AG-14361 Pharma Potent PARP1 inhibitor 0
Iniparib (BSI-201) Pharma PARP1 inhibitor,intravenously adminsitered 0

(2) Additional Compounds for PARP4 Gene - From: Tocris and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
PJ 34 hydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BYK 204165 Selective PARP-1 inhibitor 1104546-89-5
EB 47 Potent PARP-1 inhibitor 1190332-25-2
JW 55 Tankyrase inhibitor 664993-53-7
PJ 34 hydrochloride Potent PARP inhibitor 344458-15-7
XAV 939 Potent tankyrase inhibitor 284028-89-3

(7) ApexBio Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-HQN PARP inhibitor 491-36-1
AG-14361 Potent PARP1 inhibitor 328543-09-5
Iniparib (BSI-201) PARP1 inhibitor,intravenously adminsitered 160003-66-7
INO-1001 Potent PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
ME0328 PARP inhibitor,potent and selective 1445251-22-8
NU 1025 PARP inhibitor,potent and novel 90417-38-2
UPF 1069 Selective PARP2 inhibitor 1048371-03-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARP4: view

Transcripts for PARP4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARP4 Gene

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 4:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARP4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARP4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (20.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (11.2), and Bone marrow stromal cell (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PARP4 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARP4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PARP4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARP4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARP4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed; the highest levels are in the kidney; also detected in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, spleen, leukocytes and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARP4: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARP4 34 35
  • 98.94 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARP4 34
  • 78.56 (n)
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parp4 34 16 35
  • 78.12 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARP4 34 35
  • 77.25 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parp4 34
  • 76.3 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARP4 35
  • 53 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 16 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARP4 34
  • 65.18 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARP4 35
  • 44 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170623 34
  • 58.96 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-174k18.1 34
  • 54.7 (n)
PARP4 35
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PARP4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PARP4 Gene

Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene Pseudogenes for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARP4: view

Variants for PARP4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARP4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000415 -- 24,457,300(+) CGTGC(C/T)CCTTT intron-variant
rs10047721 -- 24,455,473(+) CATTA(C/T)GGAAC intron-variant
rs10047722 -- 24,455,496(+) atata(C/T)atata intron-variant
rs10162064 -- 24,492,717(+) GAGCC(A/T)TCACA intron-variant
rs10467415 -- 24,512,077(+) GTCAT(C/T)CAGCA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARP4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1616n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv1617n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv1618n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv1619n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2751138 CNV gain 17911159
esv2759927 CNV loss 17122850
esv2761200 CNV gain+loss 21179565
esv2763016 CNV loss 21179565
esv3582215 CNV gain 25503493
esv3631556 CNV loss 21293372
esv3631557 CNV loss 21293372
esv3631558 CNV loss 21293372
esv3892310 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1035459 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1036613 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1037960 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1048909 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1051405 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1078303 OTHER inversion 25765185
nsv1122797 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1140246 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1151909 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv64523 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv832567 CNV loss 17160897
nsv976092 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv977216 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv983563 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PARP4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.56; 91.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PARP4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Disorders for PARP4 Gene

Relevant External Links for PARP4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for PARP4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARP4 Gene

Publications for PARP4 Gene

  1. Identification of a novel gene (ADPRTL1) encoding a potential poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase protein. (PMID: 10644454) Still I.H. … Cowell J.K. (Genomics 1999) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. GWAS for discovery and replication of genetic loci associated with sudden cardiac arrest in patients with coronary artery disease. (PMID: 21658281) Aouizerat B.E. … Tseng Z.H. (BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2011) 3 46 64
  3. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PMID: 19692168) Guey L.T. … Malats N. (Eur. Urol. 2010) 3 46 64
  4. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China. (PMID: 19170196) Shen M. … Lan Q. (Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009) 3 46 64

Products for PARP4 Gene

Sources for PARP4 Gene

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