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Aliases for PARP4 Gene

Aliases for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4 2 3 5
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase)-Like 1 2 3
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 4 3 4
  • Von Willebrand Factor A Domain Containing 5C 2 3
  • PARP-Related/IalphaI-Related H5/Proline-Rich 3 4
  • Vault Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 3 4
  • 193 KDa Vault Protein 3 4
  • ADPRTL1 3 4
  • PARP-4 3 4
  • ARTD4 3 4
  • PARPL 3 4
  • VPARP 3 4
  • PH5P 3 4
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family, Member 4 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase-Like 1 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase 3
  • Vault Protein, 193-KDa 3
  • I-Alpha-I-Related 3
  • H5 Proline-Rich 3
  • PARP-Related 3
  • EC 4
  • KIAA0177 4
  • VAULT3 3
  • VWA5C 3
  • P193 3

External Ids for PARP4 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PARP4 Gene


Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARP4 Gene

  • GC13M023893
  • GC13M024995
  • GC13M005807

Summaries for PARP4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PARP4 Gene

PARP4 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are UVA-Induced MAPK Signaling and all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is VWA5A.

Tocris Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein.

Gene Wiki entry for PARP4 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARP4 Gene

Genomics for PARP4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PARP4 Gene

Enhancers for PARP4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PARP4 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PARP4 Gene

24,420,926 bp from pter
24,512,993 bp from pter
92,068 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARP4 Gene

Genes around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARP4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARP4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARP4 Gene

Proteins for PARP4 Gene

  • Protein details for PARP4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75903
    • Q14682
    • Q5QNZ9
    • Q9H1M6

    Protein attributes for PARP4 Gene

    1724 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    192595 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, at least composed of MVP, PARP4 and one or more vault RNAs (vRNAs). Binds to MVP. Associates with TEP1.
    • Sequence=BAA11494.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARP4 Gene

Proteomics data for PARP4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PARP4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PARP4 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PARP4 Gene

Domains & Families for PARP4 Gene

Gene Families for PARP4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARP4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 BRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 BRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP alpha-helical domain.
  • Contains 1 PARP catalytic domain.
  • Contains 1 VIT domain.
  • Contains 1 VWFA domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARP4: view

Function for PARP4 Gene

Molecular function for PARP4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
NAD(+) + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n)-acceptor = nicotinamide + (ADP-D-ribosyl)(n+1)-acceptor.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15169895
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARP4: view

Animal Models for PARP4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARP4:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PARP4 Gene

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARP4 Gene

Localization for PARP4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Note=Also found in the nucleus, associated with mitotic spindles.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PARP4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARP4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
peroxisome 2
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 10477748
GO:0005876 spindle microtubule IDA 10477748
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARP4: view

Pathways by source for PARP4 Gene

1 GeneTex pathway for PARP4 Gene
2 KEGG pathways for PARP4 Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006281 DNA repair NAS 12101391
GO:0006471 protein ADP-ribosylation IEA,NAS 10644454
GO:0006810 transport NAS 11855821
GO:0042493 response to drug NAS 11291045
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARP4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARP4 Gene

(9) Drugs for PARP4 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
INO-1001 Experimental Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Potent PARP inhibitor 0
Nicotinamide Experimental Nutra 850,854
NU1025 Experimental Pharma Potent PARP inhibitor 0
AG-14361 Pharma Potent PARP1 inhibitor 0
Iniparib (BSI-201) Pharma PARP1 inhibitor,intravenously adminsitered 0

(5) Additional Compounds for PARP4 Gene - From: Tocris and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
DR 2313
PJ 34 hydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3-Aminobenzamide PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
4-HQN PARP inhibitor 491-36-1
DR 2313 PARP-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor 284028-90-6
NU 1025 Potent PARP inhibitor 90417-38-2
PJ 34 hydrochloride Potent PARP inhibitor 344458-15-7

(5) ApexBio Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AG-14361 Potent PARP1 inhibitor 328543-09-5
Iniparib (BSI-201) PARP1 inhibitor,intravenously adminsitered 160003-66-7
INO-1001 Potent PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
ME0328 PARP inhibitor,potent and selective 1445251-22-8
UPF 1069 Selective PARP2 inhibitor 1048371-03-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARP4: view

Transcripts for PARP4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARP4 Gene

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 4:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARP4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARP4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (20.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (11.2), and Bone marrow stromal cell (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PARP4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARP4 Gene Hs.744855

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARP4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed; the highest levels are in the kidney; also detected in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, spleen, leukocytes and pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARP4: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARP4 Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARP4 35
  • 77.25 (n)
  • 71.75 (a)
PARP4 36
  • 65 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARP4 35
  • 78.56 (n)
  • 72.41 (a)
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parp4 35
  • 78.12 (n)
  • 74.61 (a)
Parp4 16
Parp4 36
  • 57 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARP4 35
  • 98.94 (n)
  • 97.97 (a)
PARP4 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parp4 35
  • 76.3 (n)
  • 72.54 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARP4 36
  • 53 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 16 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARP4 35
  • 65.18 (n)
  • 59.39 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARP4 36
  • 44 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170623 35
  • 58.96 (n)
  • 52.61 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-174k18.1 35
  • 54.7 (n)
  • 48.12 (a)
PARP4 36
  • 36 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PARP4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PARP4 Gene

Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene Pseudogenes for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARP4: view

Variants for PARP4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARP4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1050110 - 24,435,347(-) GGATG(C/G)CTTAG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs13428 - 24,435,303(-) GTGGA(C/G/T)GTGTG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_056645 -
VAR_056646 -
rs9318600 - 24,494,670(+) TTTCA(A/T)AGTAT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARP4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv899938 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv832567 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2751138 CNV Gain 17911159
esv2747148 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv547e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv64523 CNV Insertion 16902084
nsv899941 CNV Gain 21882294

Variation tolerance for PARP4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.56; 91.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for PARP4 Gene

Disorders for PARP4 Gene

Relevant External Links for PARP4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for PARP4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARP4 Gene

Publications for PARP4 Gene

  1. Identification of a novel gene (ADPRTL1) encoding a potential poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase protein. (PMID: 10644454) Still I.H. … Cowell J.K. (Genomics 1999) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is associated with mammalian telomerase and is dispensable for telomerase function and vault structure in vivo. (PMID: 15169895) Liu Y. … Harrington L. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2004) 3 23
  3. Up-regulation of vaults may be necessary but not sufficient for multidrug resistance. (PMID: 11291045) Siva A.C. … Rome L.H. (Int. J. Cancer 2001) 3 23
  4. Multiple human vault RNAs. Expression and association with the vault complex. (PMID: 11479319) van Zon A. … Wiemer E.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 23
  5. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances. (PMID: 26496610) Hein M.Y. … Mann M. (Cell 2015) 3

Products for PARP4 Gene

Sources for PARP4 Gene