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PARN Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 62
GCID: GC16M014529

Poly(A)-Specific Ribonuclease

(Previous name: poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation nuclease))
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Poly(A)-Specific Ribonuclease1 2     Deadenylating Nuclease2 3
Deadenylation Nuclease1 2 3     Polyadenylate-Specific Ribonuclease2 3
DAN2 3 5     EC 3.1.13.43 8
Poly(A)-Specific Ribonuclease (Deadenylation Nuclease)1 2     Poly(A)-Specific Ribonuclease PARN2

External Ids:    HGNC: 86091   Entrez Gene: 50732   Ensembl: ENSG000001406947   OMIM: 6042125   UniProtKB: O954533   

Export aliases for PARN gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16M014478 GC16P017836 GC16M014495 GC16M014437


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PARN Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is a 3'-exoribonuclease, with similarity to the RNase D family of
3'-exonucleases. It prefers poly(A) as the substrate, hence, efficiently degrades poly(A) tails of mRNAs.
Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic mRNAs. This
protein is also involved in silencing of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation and early embryonic
development, as well as in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of mRNAs that contain premature stop codons.
Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by
RefSeq, Aug 2008)

GeneCards Summary for PARN Gene:
PARN (poly(A)-specific ribonuclease) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include mRNA 3'-UTR binding and nucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is PNLDC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PARN_HUMAN, O95453
Function: 3'-exoribonuclease that has a preference for poly(A) tails of mRNAs, thereby efficiently degrading
poly(A) tails. Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic
mRNAs and is also used to silence certain maternal mRNAs translationally during oocyte maturation and early
embryonic development. Interacts with both the 3'-end poly(A) tail and the 5'-end cap structure during
degradation, the interaction with the cap structure being required for an efficient degradation of poly(A) tails.
Involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, a critical process of selective degradation of mRNAs that contain
premature stop codons. Also involved in degradation of inherently unstable mRNAs that contain AU-rich elements
(AREs) in their 3'-UTR, possibly via its interaction with KHSRP. Probably mediates the removal of poly(A) tails
of AREs mRNAs, which constitutes the first step of destabilization

Gene Wiki entry for PARN Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000016.9  NC_018927.2  NT_010393.17  NT_187607.1  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PARN gene promoter:
         POU2F1   POU2F1b   POU2F1a   POU2F1c   Nkx2-5   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPARN promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PARN

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PARN


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16p13.12   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16p13

PARN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PARN gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16M014529:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
14,529,558 bp from pter      End:
14,726,585 bp from pter
Size:
197,028 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PARN_HUMAN, O95453 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease PARN  
Size: 639 amino acids; 73451 Da
Cofactor: Divalent metal cations. Mg(2+) is the most probable
Subunit: Homodimer. Interacts with KHSRP and CELF1/CUGBP1. Found in a mRNA decay complex with RENT1, RENT2 and
RENT3B. Interacts with ZC3HAV1 in an RNA-independent manner
3 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for PARN:
2A1R (3D)        2A1S (3D)        3CTR (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B2RCB3 B4DDG8 B4DWR4 B4E1H6
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  O95453-1   O95453-2   O95453-3   (No experimental confirmation available. Non canonical splice junctions)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PARN: NX_O95453

Explore proteomics data for PARN at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Phosphorylation by MAPKAPK2, preventing GADD45A mRNA degradation after genotoxic stress1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys326
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARN (O95453) (see all 15)
     NTSLAEL  LETEKKER  LDTKLMAST  GIPYLNQEEE 


    See PARN Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001127949.1  NP_001229921.1  NP_002573.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000387911   ENSP00000410525   ENSP00000345456   ENSP00000444381   ENSP00000456279  
     ENSP00000458103   ENSP00000445659   ENSP00000456982  
    Reactome Protein details: O95453

    PARN Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals PARN Proteins
    Novus Biologicals PARN Lysates
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    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for PARN

     
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    antibodies-online proteins for PARN (9 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for PARN

    PARN Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of PARN
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    antibodies-online antibodies for PARN (20 products) 

    PARN Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for PARN
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for PARN
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PARN 
    antibodies-online kits for PARN (14 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR006941 RNase_CAF1
     IPR001374 R3H_ss-bd
     IPR014789 PolyA-riboNase_RNA_binding
     IPR012677 Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait
     IPR012337 RNaseH-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O95453

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O95453

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001374 Single-stranded nucleic acid binding R3H

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PARN_HUMAN, O95453
    Similarity: Belongs to the CAF1 family
    Similarity: Contains 1 R3H domain


    Find genes that share domains with PARN           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PARN_HUMAN, O95453
    Function: 3'-exoribonuclease that has a preference for poly(A) tails of mRNAs, thereby efficiently degrading
    poly(A) tails. Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic
    mRNAs and is also used to silence certain maternal mRNAs translationally during oocyte maturation and early
    embryonic development. Interacts with both the 3'-end poly(A) tail and the 5'-end cap structure during
    degradation, the interaction with the cap structure being required for an efficient degradation of poly(A) tails.
    Involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, a critical process of selective degradation of mRNAs that contain
    premature stop codons. Also involved in degradation of inherently unstable mRNAs that contain AU-rich elements
    (AREs) in their 3'-UTR, possibly via its interaction with KHSRP. Probably mediates the removal of poly(A) tails
    of AREs mRNAs, which constitutes the first step of destabilization
    Catalytic activity: Exonucleolytic cleavage of poly(A) to 5'-AMP

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for PARN:
    poly A specific ribonuclease,deadenylation nuclease,ubiquitously expressed,degrading poly A tail of mRNA molecules

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.1.13.41 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 10):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000166nucleotide binding IEA--
    GO:0003676nucleic acid binding ----
    GO:0003723RNA binding ----
    GO:0003730mRNA 3'-UTR binding TAS9736620
    GO:0004518nuclease activity TAS9736620
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PARN           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for PARN

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PARN:
    hsa-mir-192-5p (MIRT026386), hsa-mir-215-5p (MIRT024604), hsa-mir-124-3p (MIRT022591)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PARN using miScript Target Protectors
    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PARN:
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-2115 hsa-miR-590-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPARN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PARN

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): PARN (NM_001134477)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for PARN
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PARN
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PARN

    Cell Line
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PARN


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PARN_HUMAN, O95453: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Some nuclear fraction is nucleolar
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS9736620
    GO:0005730nucleolus IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS9736620
    GO:0005829cytosol TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PARN           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PARN About   (see all 8)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay
    Deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay0.48
    Deadenylation of mRNA0.48
    RNA degradation0.48
    2PERK regulated gene expression
    PERK regulated gene expression0.90
    Activation of Genes by ATF40.90
    3CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6
    Regulation of mRNA Stability by Proteins that Bind AU-rich Elements0.62
    Destabilization of mRNA by KSRP0.00
    4Unfolded Protein Response
    Unfolded Protein Response0.61
    5Gene Expression
    Gene Expression0.40


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PARN           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathways for PARN
        Wnt / Hedgehog / Notch
    Translational Control


    3 Reactome Pathways for PARN
        Deadenylation of mRNA
    KSRP destabilizes mRNA
    ATF4 activates genes


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for PARN):
        RNA degradation

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PARN
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PARN

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PARN (O954531, 2, 3 ENSP000003879114) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 29)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NCBP1Q091611, 2, 3, ENSP000003642894EBI-372832,EBI-464743 MINT-7898703 MINT-7898728 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000364289
    BARD1Q997281, 2, 3, ENSP000002609474EBI-372832,EBI-473181 MINT-7898660 MINT-7898609 MINT-7898631 MINT-7898677 MINT-7898584 MINT-7898597 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000260947
    CSTF2P332401, 2, 3, ENSP000003620634EBI-372832,EBI-711360 MINT-7898660 MINT-7898677 MINT-7898584 MINT-7898703 MINT-7898597 MINT-7898644 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000362063
    SPATC1LQ9H0A93, ENSP000002916724I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000291672
    UPF1Q929003, ENSP000002628034I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000262803
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 11):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000184nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay IMP--
    GO:0000288nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay TAS--
    GO:0000289nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening TAS--
    GO:0006402mRNA catabolic process ----
    GO:0007292female gamete generation TAS9736620

    Find genes that share ontologies with PARN           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PARN

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for PARN gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    adenylate 72.3 26 9099687 (3), 17052452 (3), 9736620 (2), 16620953 (2) (see all 16)



    Find genes that share compounds with PARN           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PARN gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001134477.2  NM_001242992.1  NM_002582.3  

    Unigene Cluster for PARN:

    Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease
    Hs.253197  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_002582
    15 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000437198(uc010uzc.2 uc010uzd.2 uc010uze.2 uc010uzf.2 uc010uzg.2)
    ENST00000420015 ENST00000341484 ENST00000539279 ENST00000564882 ENST00000564904
    ENST00000564113 ENST00000569444 ENST00000563697 ENST00000562715 ENST00000563641
    ENST00000538472 ENST00000563155 ENST00000566021 ENST00000562896
    miRNA
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    3 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PARN:
    hsa-miR-579 hsa-miR-2115 hsa-miR-590-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPARN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PARN
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PARN

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AJ005698.1 AK023866.1 AK293189.1 AK299653.1 AK301648.1 AK303348.1 AK315020.1 BC044763.1 
    BC050029.1 

    15 DOTS entries:

    DT.313148  DT.100780890  DT.91654186  DT.100780883  DT.100650345  DT.102830660  DT.86841429  DT.97798723 
    DT.102830658  DT.91866628  DT.91922711  DT.91954948  DT.95256219  DT.95375836  DT.40203091 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 160):

    BQ679680 BP346146 AA447167 BP335321 BP339490 AI688537 BM459206 AW590903 
    BM799843 BU902608 BU182467 AU105744 BM993702 BM975508 AU099466 AI364427 
    AU141208 BU185252 AI337134 BU616576 BP358795 BX113575 NM_002582 BQ000452 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    PARN expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCGCTGCTTT
    PARN Expression
    About this image


    PARN expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 8) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Trophoblast (Extraembryonic Tissues)
             Trophoblast Cells Trophoblast
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
    PARN Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PARN Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.253197

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PARN_HUMAN, O95453
    Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous

        Custom PCR Arrays for PARN
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PARN

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PARN gene from Selected species (see all 17)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Parn1 , 5 poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation nuclease)1, 5 86.54(n)1
    88.62(a)1
      16 (9.32 cM)5
    741081  NM_028761.31  NP_083037.11 
     135379645 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PARN1 poly(A)-specific ribonuclease 79.18(n)
    83.33(a)
      416423  NM_001030629.1  NP_001025800.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia PARN6
    poly(A)-specific ribonuclease
    80(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343691.1(113393-134037)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia parn-A2 poly(A)-specific ribonuclease 78.38(n)    AF309688.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc560672 similar to poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation more 74.57(n)   394063  AY398393.1 
    mosquito
    (Anopheles gambiae)
    Insecta PARN1 PARN 46.78(n)
    34.84(a)
      1269783  XM_308433.4  XP_308433.4 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea K10C8.11 K10C8.1 43.05(n)
    29.16(a)
      187256  NM_073768.2  NP_506169.2 
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons AHG21 AHG2 43.63(n)
    30.04(a)
      842037  NM_104464.6  NP_175983.5 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PARN (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PARN (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PARN gene
    PNLDC12  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for PARN using alignment to 6 protein entries:     PARN_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    FLJ20555

    Find genes that share paralogs with PARN           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PARN (see all 3286)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1399228241,2
    --14529069(+) TTTTGC/TAGGAA 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs342678711,2
    C,F--14529078(+) AAGGGA/GGAGGA 3 -- ds50017Minor allele frequency- G:0.15NA WA 248
    rs1809541721,2
    --14529275(+) AAATCA/GGAATC 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1392195851,2
    --14529371(+) AGCTCA/GGTACT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1499523961,2
    C--14529477(+) TTTAGA/GAGTGT 3 -- ds50010--------
    rs1402877921,2
    --14529715(+) TCAACA/GGAGAA 3 -- ut310--------
    rs3742880021,2
    C--14529754(+) CGATT-/CAACACA 3 -- ut310--------
    rs772891131,2
    C--14529798(-) TCTGTC/GTGTGT 3 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- G:0.00CSA 1
    rs1425600581,2
    --14529946(+) GTCTTA/GGGAGA 3 -- ut310--------
    rs1425130371,2
    --14530234(+) GATTT-/CCCACAG 3 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PARN (14529558 - 14726585 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 8 variations for PARN:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2669004CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2714011CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2662886CNV Deletion23128226
    esv271073CNV Insertion20981092
    nsv833144CNV Gain17160897
    nsv905356CNV Gain21882294
    dgv811e1CNV Complex17122850
    dgv810e1CNV Complex17122850

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PARN
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PARN

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604212    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PARN           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PARN
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: PARN (1 document)

    Export disorders for PARN gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PARN gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 72):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PARN)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The human gene for the poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) maps to 16p13 and has a truncated copy in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on 15q11-->q13. (PubMed id 10640832)1, 2, 3, 9 Buiting K.... Horsthemke B. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1999)
    2. The deadenylating nuclease (DAN) is involved in poly(A) tail removal during the meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes. (PubMed id 9736620)1, 2, 9 Koerner C.G....Wahle E. (EMBO J. 1998)
    3. Coordination of divalent metal ions in the active site of poly(A)- specific ribonuclease. (PubMed id 15358788)1, 2, 9 Ren Y.-G.... Virtanen A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    4. Identification of the active site of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease by site-directed mutagenesis and Fe(2+)-mediated cleavage. (PubMed id 11742007)1, 2, 9 Ren Y.-G.... Virtanen A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    5. Structural insight into poly(A) binding and catalytic mechanism of human PARN. (PubMed id 16281054)1, 2, 9 Wu M.... Song H. (EMBO J. 2005)
    6. The mRNA cap structure stimulates rate of poly(A) removal and amplifies processivity of degradation. (PubMed id 11359775)1, 2, 9 Martinez J.... Virtanen A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    7. Tristetraprolin and its family members can promote the cell-free deadenylation of AU-rich element-containing mRNAs by poly(A) ribonuclease. (PubMed id 12748283)1, 2, 9 Lai W.S.... Blackshear P.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2003)
    8. CUG-BP binds to RNA substrates and recruits PARN deadenylase. (PubMed id 16601207)1, 2, 9 Moraes K.C.... Wilusz J. (RNA 2006)
    9. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in mammalian cells involves decapping, deadenylating, and exonucleolytic activities. (PubMed id 14527413)1, 2, 9 Lejeune F.... Maquat L.E. (Mol. Cell 2003)
    10. A KH domain RNA binding protein, KSRP, promotes ARE-directed mRNA turnover by recruiting the degradation machinery. (PubMed id 15175153)1, 2, 9 Gherzi R....Chen C.-Y. (Mol. Cell 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 5073 HGNC: 8609 AceView: PARN Ensembl:ENSG00000140694 euGenes: HUgn5073
    ECgene: PARN Kegg: 5073 H-InvDB: PARN

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PARN Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PARN gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PARN

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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