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Aliases for PARG Gene

Aliases for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 2 3 5
  • EC 3.2.1.143 4 63
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 60 KDa Isoform 3
  • Mitochondrial Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 3
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 3
  • PARG99 3

External Ids for PARG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARG Gene

  • GC10P050148
  • GC10M049974
  • GC10M050918
  • GC10M050371
  • GC10M050572
  • GC10P051293
  • GC10M051026
  • GC10M045291

Summaries for PARG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the major enzyme responsible for the catabolism of poly(ADP-ribose), a reversible covalent-modifier of chromosomal proteins. The protein is found in many tissues and may be subject to proteolysis generating smaller, active products. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PARG Gene

PARG (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and DNA Damage. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized after DNA damage is only present transiently and is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PARG acts both as an endo- and exoglycosidase, releasing PAR of different length as well as ADP-ribose monomers. Required for retinoid acid-dependent gene transactivation, probably by dePARsylating histone demethylase KDM4D, allowing chromatin derepression at RAR-dependent gene promoters.

Gene Wiki entry for PARG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARG Gene

Genomics for PARG Gene

Regulatory Elements for PARG Gene

Enhancers for PARG Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PARG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PARG Gene

Chromosome:
10
Start:
49,818,275 bp from pter
End:
49,970,203 bp from pter
Size:
151,929 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARG Gene

Genes around PARG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARG Gene

Proteins for PARG Gene

  • Protein details for PARG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86W56-PARG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
    Protein Accession:
    Q86W56
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5YBK3
    • B2RC24
    • B4DIU5
    • B4DYR4
    • I6RUV3
    • Q6E4P6
    • Q6E4P7
    • Q7Z742
    • Q9Y4W7

    Protein attributes for PARG Gene

    Size:
    976 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    111110 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PCNA.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PARG Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PARG Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PARG Gene

Proteomics data for PARG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PARG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PARG Gene

Domains & Families for PARG Gene

Protein Domains for PARG Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86W56

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PARG_HUMAN :
  • The PIP-box mediates interaction with PCNA and localization to replication foci.
  • Belongs to the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase family.
Domain:
  • The PIP-box mediates interaction with PCNA and localization to replication foci.
Family:
  • Belongs to the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARG: view

No data available for Gene Families for PARG Gene

Function for PARG Gene

Molecular function for PARG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
poly ADP-ribose glycohydrolase,responsible for rapid turnover for ADP-ribose polymer,immediately induced by DNA damage
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydrolyzes poly(ADP-D-ribose) at glycosidic (1-2) linkage of ribose-ribose bond to produce free ADP-D-ribose.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized after DNA damage is only present transiently and is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PARG acts both as an endo- and exoglycosidase, releasing PAR of different length as well as ADP-ribose monomers. Required for retinoid acid-dependent gene transactivation, probably by dePARsylating histone demethylase KDM4D, allowing chromatin derepression at RAR-dependent gene promoters.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARG: view

Animal Models for PARG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARG:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARG

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARG Gene

Localization for PARG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARG Gene

Isoform 1: Nucleus. Note=Colocalizes with PCNA at replication foci. Relocalizes to the cytoplasm in response to DNA damage.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to DNA damage.
Isoform 3: Cytoplasm.
Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion.
Isoform 5: Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PARG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARG gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARG: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARG: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARG Gene

None

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARG Gene

(1) Drugs for PARG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(5) Additional Compounds for PARG Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARG: view

Transcripts for PARG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARG Gene

Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PARG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PARG

Expression for PARG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PARG Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (67.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PARG Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARG Gene Hs.535298

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARG Gene

Q86W56-PARG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARG: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARG Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PARG Gene

Orthologs for PARG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PARG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARG 35
  • 90.67 (n)
  • 90.36 (a)
PARG 36
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARG 35
  • 91.82 (n)
  • 91.38 (a)
PARG 36
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parg 35
  • 88.19 (n)
  • 88.12 (a)
Parg 16
Parg 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parg 35
  • 86.55 (n)
  • 85.86 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARG 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 18 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARG 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARG 35
  • 69.75 (n)
  • 66.95 (a)
PARG 36
  • 43 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARG 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia parg 35
  • 62.53 (n)
  • 59.07 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9949 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9979 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii PARG 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Parg 37
  • 44 (a)
Parg 35
  • 50.07 (n)
  • 46.22 (a)
Parg 36
  • 29 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000589 35
  • 47.16 (n)
  • 41.48 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pme-4 37
  • 31 (a)
pme-3 36
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
pme-4 36
  • 27 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.240 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for PARG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PARG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PARG (if available)

Paralogs for PARG Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARG: view

No data available for Paralogs for PARG Gene

Variants for PARG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1438928 -- 49,835,740(+) ACTGA(C/T)GTATA intron-variant
rs1438929 -- 49,835,819(+) TACGT(A/G)CCGCA intron-variant
rs8474 -- 49,818,659(-) GACTG(C/G)CTGAG nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs3106093 -- 49,878,665(+) ACTTT(A/G)GAGAC intron-variant
rs3106094 -- 49,895,392(+) gcatA(C/T)AGGGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7203 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv895365 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv895375 CNV Gain 21882294
essv75 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv273e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428232 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
nsv514557 CNV Complex 21397061
nsv508580 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv519934 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv8640 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
esv32940 CNV Loss 17666407
esv23381 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv8641 CNV Gain 18304495
nsv895381 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv442181 CNV CNV 18776908
dgv274e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv23237 CNV Gain 19812545
esv23499 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv8642 CNV Loss 18304495
esv29227 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv8643 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv895382 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv895383 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv8644 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
esv24910 CNV Loss 19812545
nsv8645 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv8647 CNV Loss 18304495
nsv8648 CNV Loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for PARG Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.01; 36.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for PARG Gene

Disorders for PARG Gene

Relevant External Links for PARG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PARG
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PARG
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PARG

No disorders were found for PARG Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARG Gene

Publications for PARG Gene

  1. Assignment of the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase gene (PARG) to human chromosome 10q11.23 and mouse chromosome 14B by in situ hybridization. (PMID: 10449915) Ame J.-C. … Jacobson M.K. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1999) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. (PMID: 19389396) Whatcott C.J. … Jacobson M.K. (Exp. Cell Res. 2009) 3 23
  3. Dual role of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in the regulation of cell death in oxidatively stressed A549 cells. (PMID: 19571039) ErdAclyi K. … VirA!g L. (FASEB J. 2009) 3 23
  4. Global analysis of transcriptional regulation by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (PMID: 19812418) Frizzell K.M. … Kraus W.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  5. Characterization of the promoter region of the human PARG gene and its response to PU.1 during differentiation of HL-60 cells. (PMID: 19076642) Uchiumi F. … Tanuma S. (Genes Cells 2008) 3 23

Products for PARG Gene

Sources for PARG Gene

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