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PAPOLA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 61
GCID: GC14P096969

Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha1 2
PAP2 3 5
Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase Alpha2 3
PAP-alpha2 3
EC 2.7.7.193 8
EC 2.7.78

External Ids:    HGNC: 149811   Entrez Gene: 109142   Ensembl: ENSG000000900607   OMIM: 6055535   UniProtKB: P510033   

Export aliases for PAPOLA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC14P094479 GC14P090785 GC14P094958 GC14P096038 GC14P077153


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for PAPOLA Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of
adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants
encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011)

GeneCards Summary for PAPOLA Gene:
PAPOLA (poly(A) polymerase alpha) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include manganese ion binding and RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAPOLB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PAPOA_HUMAN, P51003
Function: Polymerase that creates the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNA's. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic
cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and
polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus

Gene Wiki entry for PAPOLA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000014.8  NT_026437.13  NC_018925.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the PAPOLA gene promoter:
         c-Fos   AhR   Sox5   AP-1   AML1a   Arnt   Egr-2   FOXO4   c-Jun   MRF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidPAPOLA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for PAPOLA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 14q32.31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  14q32.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 14q32.1-q32.2

PAPOLA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
PAPOLA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 14         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC14P096969:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
96,967,770 bp from pter      End:
97,033,448 bp from pter
Size:
65,679 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PAPOA_HUMAN, P51003 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Poly(A) polymerase alpha  
Size: 745 amino acids; 82843 Da
Cofactor: Binds 2 magnesium ions. Also active with manganese (By similarity)
Subunit: Monomer. Found in a complex with CPSF1, FIP1L1 and PAPOLA. Interacts with FIP1L1 (By similarity).
Interacts with NUDT21; the interaction is diminished by acetylation. Interacts with KPNB1; the interaction
promotes PAP nuclear import and is inhibited by acetylation of PAP (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q86SX4 Q86TV0 Q8IYF5 Q9BVU2
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  P51003-1   P51003-2   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for PAPOLA: NX_P51003

Explore proteomics data for PAPOLA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Polysumoylated. Varying sumolyation depending on tissue- and cell-type. Highly sumoylated in bladder and NIH 3T3
    cells. Sumoylation is required for nuclear localization and enhances PAP stability. Desumoylated by SENP1.
    Inhibits polymerase activity (By similarity)1
  • Hyperphosphorylation on multiple CDK2 consensus and non-consensus sites in the C-terminal Ser/Thr-rich region
    represses PAP activity in late M-phase. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation may regulate the interaction between
    PAP and CPSF (By similarity)1
  • Acetylated in the C-terminus. Acetylation decreases interaction with NUDT21 and KPNB1, and inhibits nuclear
    localization through inhibiting binding to the importin alpha/beta complex (By similarity)1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys67, Lys110, Lys360
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for PAPOLA (P51003) (see all 24)
     CQLYPNA  KFFLVFS  PNFFQKY  WAMLVAR 


    See PAPOLA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001238935.1  NP_001238936.1  NP_116021.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000216277   ENSP00000452578   ENSP00000451600   ENSP00000450437   ENSP00000450812  
     ENSP00000451267   ENSP00000376716   ENSP00000450534   ENSP00000450564   ENSP00000451757  
    Reactome Protein details: P51003

    PAPOLA Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for PAPOLA
    OriGene Custom MassSpec
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for PAPOLA
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for PAPOLA
    Novus Biologicals PAPOLA Protein
    Novus Biologicals PAPOLA Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for PAPOLA 

    PAPOLA Antibody Products:

    Browse EMD Millipore's Extensive Line of Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies
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    Novus Biologicals PAPOLA Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for PAPOLA
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for PAPOLA
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for PAPOLA

    PAPOLA Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for PAPOLA 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR007012 PolA_pol_cen_dom
     IPR002934 Nucleotidyltransferase
     IPR007010 PolA_pol_RNA-bd_dom
     IPR014492 PolyA_polymerase
     IPR011068 NuclTrfase_I_C

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P51003

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P51003

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002934 DNA polymerase
    IPB007012 Poly(A) polymerase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PAPOA_HUMAN, P51003
    Similarity: Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family


    Find genes that share domains with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PAPOA_HUMAN, P51003
    Function: Polymerase that creates the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNA's. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic
    cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and
    polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus
    Catalytic activity: ATP + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1)

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 2.7.7.191 2 EC 2.7.72

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000287magnesium ion binding ISS--
    GO:0003723RNA binding IEA--
    GO:0004652polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity ISS--
    GO:0005524ATP binding ISS--
    GO:0016779nucleotidyltransferase activity ----
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for PAPOLA:
     Decreased viability 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for PAPOLA
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for PAPOLA

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for PAPOLA
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for PAPOLA

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target PAPOLA:
    hsa-mir-130b-3p (MIRT020257), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT005093), hsa-let-7b-5p (MIRT052114), hsa-mir-93-5p (MIRT028127), hsa-mir-320a (MIRT044470), hsa-mir-877-5p (MIRT037348)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PAPOLA using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PAPOLA (see all 64):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-30a hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-508-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPAPOLA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PAPOLA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for PAPOLA

    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PAPOLA (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PAPOLA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PAPOLA (NM_032632)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PAPOLA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PAPOLA

    Cell Line
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    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for PAPOLA
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for PAPOLA 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PAPOLA


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PAPOA_HUMAN, P51003: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=The 90 kDa form is nuclear while the 100 kDa and the 106 kDa forms
    are both nuclear and cytoplasmic
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus TAS8302877
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS8302877

    Find genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for PAPOLA About   (see all 6)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway
    mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway0.78
    mRNA Splicing0.78
    Processing of Capped Intron-Containing Pre-mRNA0.78
    mRNA processing0.44
    2RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination
    RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination0.80
    Processing of Capped Intronless Pre-mRNA0.52
    Cleavage of Growing Transcript in the Termination Region0.80
    Processing of Intronless Pre-mRNAs0.00
    mRNA 3-end processing0.80
    3Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex
    RNA Polymerase II Transcription0.60
    4Gene Expression
    Gene Expression0.40
    5TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway
    TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 BioSystems Pathways for PAPOLA
        mRNA processing
    TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway

    4 Reactome Pathways for PAPOLA
        mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway
    mRNA 3'-end processing
    Processing of Intronless Pre-mRNAs
    Cleavage of Growing Transcript in the Termination Region


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for PAPOLA):
        mRNA surveillance pathway

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for PAPOLA
    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for PAPOLA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for PAPOLA (P510032, 3 ENSP000002162774) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 139)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CPSF1Q105702, 3, ENSP000003393534MINT-8198073 MINT-8089184 MINT-8286464 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000339353
    CPSF3Q9UKF62, 3, ENSP000002381124MINT-8198073 MINT-8201295 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000238112
    RELQ048642, 3, ENSP000002950254MINT-47832 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000295025
    SMAD2Q157962, 3, ENSP000002621604MINT-61610 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000262160
    PCBP2Q153662, ENSP000003524384MINT-8198073 MINT-8201295 STRING: ENSP00000352438
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 9):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000398mRNA splicing, via spliceosome TAS--
    GO:0006366transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS--
    GO:0006369termination of RNA polymerase II transcription TAS--
    GO:0006378mRNA polyadenylation ----
    GO:0008380RNA splicing TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for PAPOLA (PAPOA)

    3 HMDB Compounds for PAPOLA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    Phosphoric acidacide phosphorique (FRENCH) (see all 20)7664-38-2--
    Pyrophosphate(4-)Diphosphoric acid ion (see all 10)14000-31-8--

    3 DrugBank Compounds for PAPOLA    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    3-Sulfinoalanine-- 1115-65-7target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Cordycepin Triphosphate-- 73-04-1target--17139284 17016423 10592235
    Triphospate-- --target--17139284 17016423 10592235

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for PAPOLA gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    adenylate 69 15 7590244 (2), 9457051 (2), 14749727 (2), 8302877 (1) (see all 8)



    Find genes that share compounds with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for PAPOLA gene (3 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001252006.1  NM_001252007.1  NM_032632.4  

    Unigene Cluster for PAPOLA:

    Poly(A) polymerase alpha
    Hs.253726  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001252007
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 25):
    ENST00000554887 ENST00000216277(uc001yfq.3 uc001yfr.3 uc010twv.2 uc010avp.3)
    ENST00000553357 ENST00000553689 ENST00000557320(uc001yfp.3 uc001yfo.3)
    ENST00000554130 ENST00000557471 ENST00000556619 ENST00000392990 ENST00000555626
    ENST00000556248 ENST00000557406 ENST00000555224 ENST00000555912 ENST00000553461
    ENST00000555131 ENST00000555021 ENST00000554666
    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat PAPOLA using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate PAPOLA (see all 64):
    hsa-miR-520f hsa-miR-300 hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-30d hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-30a hsa-miR-93 hsa-miR-508-5p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidPAPOLA 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for PAPOLA
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for PAPOLA (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for PAPOLA
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: PAPOLA (NM_032632)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for PAPOLA
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat PAPOLA
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for PAPOLA
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for PAPOLA
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat PAPOLA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF002990.1 AK024849.1 AK057629.1 AK097832.1 AK295020.1 AK302406.1 AK302984.1 AK303402.1 
    AK307659.1 AK307680.1 AK316168.1 BC000927.1 BC015150.2 BC036014.1 BX161482.1 BX248301.1 
    BX248753.1 X76770.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 49):

    DT.445313  DT.92027041  DT.91969127  DT.100885099  DT.111779  DT.97792349  DT.101984833  DT.316142 
    DT.91845020  DT.99997571  DT.403519  DT.120765247  DT.97861044  DT.95260726  DT.407699  DT.100664488 
    DT.97771724  DT.100653658  DT.100687772  DT.120765108  DT.120765118  DT.95370392  DT.100666675  DT.120765237 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 568):

    BQ946620 AA424131 BU621947 AI143376 BQ231536 Z46115 BQ050833 NM_032632 
    BM977510 CA843651 BM674954 CB177855 BU677628 BQ581604 AA199607 CD655865 
    BI490981 BQ012935 AK057629 BE464544 AI432024 AI376986 BX384856 BE672614 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAPOLA (see all 22)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e ^ 10 ^ 11a ·
    SP1:                                                              -                 -                                                     -     -               
    SP2:                                      -                       -                 -                                                     -     -               
    SP3:                                -     -                       -                 -                                                     -     -               
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                            

    ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b · 22c ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b · 25c ·
    SP1:  -     -           -                       -                                                                                                               
    SP2:  -     -                                                                                                                                                   
    SP3:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP4:                                                                                                                    -           -                           
    SP5:                                                                                                                    -           -                           

    ExUns: 25d · 25e
    SP1:            
    SP2:            
    SP3:            
    SP4:            
    SP5:            


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for PAPOLA

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    PAPOLA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACTGGAGTTT
    PAPOLA Expression
    About this image


    PAPOLA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 20) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metencephalon
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
     
     Gut Tube (Gastrointestinal Tract)
             Foregut
    PAPOLA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    PAPOLA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.253726
        Custom PCR Arrays for PAPOLA
    Primer
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for PAPOLA

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Orthologs for PAPOLA gene from Selected species (see all 19)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Papola1 , 5 poly (A) polymerase alpha1, 5 93.82(n)1
    96.21(a)1
      12 (56.06 cM)5
    187891  NM_011112.31  NP_035242.11 
     1057846945 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves PAPOLA1 poly(A) polymerase alpha 88.5(n)
    91.17(a)
      395878  NM_001198601.1  NP_001185530.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    90(a)
    1 → many
    1(7891326-7939654)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC687462 hypothetical protein MGC68746 83.22(n)    BC061931.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii papola1 poly(A) polymerase alpha 68.38(n)
    75.46(a)
      404041  NM_205758.2  NP_991321.2 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta hrg6
    hiiragi
    50(a)
    1 → many
    2R(15551424-15557356)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea T15H9.61 T15H9.6 57.55(n)
    54.04(a)
      174513  NM_063666.3  NP_496067.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PAP16
    Poly(A) polymerase, one of three factors required ...
    38(a)
    1 → many
    XI(443232-444938) YKR002W
    thale cress
    (Arabidopsis thaliana)
    eudicotyledons nPAP1 nPAP 50.8(n)
    46.56(a)
      829421  NM_202939.2  NP_974668.1 
    rice
    (Oryza sativa)
    Liliopsida Os.325642 Oryza sativa (japonica cultivar-group) cDNA cloneJ more 73.89(n)    AK103720.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for PAPOLA gene
    PAPOLB2  PAPOLG2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for PAPOLA using alignment to 9 protein entries:     PAPOA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    PAPOLB    TPAP    PAPOLG

    Find genes that share paralogs with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for PAPOLA (see all 1287)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 14 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs788167571,2
    F--77958416(+) TACAAG/ACTGCT 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs1878224821,2
    --77958589(+) GATCAC/GCACTA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1903401541,2
    C--77958592(+) CAGCAC/TTATTT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1431510061,2
    --77958616(+) GCCACA/GTATAT 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1828969151,2
    --77958655(+) AAAAAA/CACAGG 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1139992341,2
    F--77958679(+) AATAGT/CATATT 3 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- C:0.05WA 118
    rs1467688071,2
    --77958735(+) GGCTGC/GAGTGC 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1882620921,2
    --77958762(+) CTCACA/GGCAGC 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs1394085261,2
    --77958820(+) CTGGGA/CCCACA 3 -- us2k10--------
    rs3696912001,2
    C--77958867(+) TTTTT-/CTTTTT 3 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for PAPOLA (96967770 - 97033448 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for PAPOLA:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv902211CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing PAPOLA
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for PAPOLA

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 605553    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with PAPOLA           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): PAPOLA

    Export disorders for PAPOLA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for PAPOLA gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 44):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with PAPOLA)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Multiple forms of poly(A) polymerases in human cells. (PubMed id 8302877)1, 2, 3, 9 Thuresson A.-C....Virtanen A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994)
    2. Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase. (PubMed id 14749727)1, 2, 9 Kaufmann I.... Keller W. (EMBO J. 2004)
    3. Distinct sequence motifs within the 68-kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im mediate RNA binding, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. (PubMed id 15169763)1, 2 Dettwiler S.... Barabino S.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Assignment of the human poly(A) polymerase (PAP) gene to chromosome 14q32.1-q32.2 and isolation of a polymorphic CA repeat sequence. (PubMed id 10429366)1, 3 Yamauchi T....Isobe M. (J. Hum. Genet. 1999)
    6. The 160-kD subunit of human cleavage-polyadenylation specificity factor coordinates pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. (PubMed id 7590244)1, 9 Murthy K.G. and Manley J.L. (Genes Dev. 1995)
    7. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    8. A promiscuous biotin ligase fusion protein identifies proximal and interacting proteins in mammalian cells. (PubMed id 22412018)1 Roux K.J.... Burke B. (J. Cell Biol. 2012)
    9. A high-throughput approach for measuring temporal changes in the interactome. (PubMed id 22863883)1 Kristensen A.R....Foster L.J. (Nat. Methods 2012)
    10. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 10914 HGNC: 14981 AceView: PAPOLA Ensembl:ENSG00000090060 euGenes: HUgn10914
    ECgene: PAPOLA Kegg: 10914 H-InvDB: PAPOLA

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for PAPOLA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for PAPOLA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving PAPOLA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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