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Aliases for PAPOLA Gene

Aliases for PAPOLA Gene

  • Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha 2 3 5
  • Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase Alpha 3 4
  • EC 2.7.7.19 4 63
  • Pap-Alpha 3 4
  • PAP 3 4
  • EC 2.7.7 63

External Ids for PAPOLA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAPOLA Gene

  • GC14P094479
  • GC14P090785
  • GC14P094958
  • GC14P096038
  • GC14P096969
  • GC14P077153

Summaries for PAPOLA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAPOLA Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PAPOLA Gene

PAPOLA (Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are mRNA surveillance pathway and RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination. GO annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and manganese ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAPOLG.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

  • Polymerase that creates the 3-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus.

Gene Wiki entry for PAPOLA Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAPOLA Gene

Genomics for PAPOLA Gene

Regulatory Elements for PAPOLA Gene

Enhancers for PAPOLA Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PAPOLA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PAPOLA Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PAPOLA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PAPOLA Gene

Chromosome:
14
Start:
96,501,433 bp from pter
End:
96,567,116 bp from pter
Size:
65,684 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAPOLA Gene

Genes around PAPOLA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PAPOLA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PAPOLA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAPOLA Gene

Proteins for PAPOLA Gene

  • Protein details for PAPOLA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P51003-PAPOA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Poly(A) polymerase alpha
    Protein Accession:
    P51003
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86SX4
    • Q86TV0
    • Q8IYF5
    • Q9BVU2

    Protein attributes for PAPOLA Gene

    Size:
    745 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    82843 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Found in a complex with CPSF1, FIP1L1 and PAPOLA. Interacts with AHCYL1 and FIP1L1; the interaction with AHCYL1 seems to increase interaction with FIP1L1 (PubMed:19224921). Interacts with NUDT21; the interaction is diminished by acetylation. Interacts with KPNB1; the interaction promotes PAP nuclear import and is inhibited by acetylation of PAP (By similarity).

    Alternative splice isoforms for PAPOLA Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PAPOLA Gene

Proteomics data for PAPOLA Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PAPOLA Gene

  • Acetylated in the C-terminus. Acetylation decreases interaction with NUDT21 and KPNB1, and inhibits nuclear localization through inhibiting binding to the importin alpha/beta complex (By similarity).
  • Hyperphosphorylation on multiple CDK2 consensus and non-consensus sites in the C-terminal Ser/Thr-rich region represses PAP activity in late M-phase. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation may regulate the interaction between PAP and CPSF (By similarity).
  • Polysumoylated. Varying sumolyation depending on tissue- and cell-type. Highly sumoylated in bladder and NIH 3T3 cells. Sumoylation is required for nuclear localization and enhances PAP stability. Desumoylated by SENP1. Inhibits polymerase activity (By similarity).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 67 and Lys 360
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for PAPOLA Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PAPOLA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P51003

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PAPOA_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAPOLA: view

No data available for Gene Families for PAPOLA Gene

Function for PAPOLA Gene

Molecular function for PAPOLA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Polymerase that creates the 3-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PAPOLA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding ISS --
GO:0004652 polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAPOLA: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PAPOLA Gene

Localization for PAPOLA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=The 90 kDa form is nuclear while the 100 kDa and the 106 kDa forms are both nuclear and cytoplasmic.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PAPOLA Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAPOLA gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 8302877
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view

Pathways & Interactions for PAPOLA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PAPOLA: view

Pathways by source for PAPOLA Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PAPOLA Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000398 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome TAS --
GO:0006366 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0031123 RNA 3-end processing IEA --
GO:0031124 mRNA 3-end processing TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view

Drugs & Compounds for PAPOLA Gene

(5) Drugs for PAPOLA Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
3-Sulfinoalanine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Cordycepin Triphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
PPPi Experimental Pharma Target 0
Diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(2) Additional Compounds for PAPOLA Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
phosphoric acid
  • Acide phosphorique (FRENCH)
  • Acido fosforico [Italian]
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • Diphosphate tetrasodium
  • Fosforzuuroplossingen [Dutch]
7664-38-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAPOLA: view

Transcripts for PAPOLA Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAPOLA Gene

Poly(A) polymerase alpha:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAPOLA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e ^ 10 ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4:
SP5:
SP6: - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - -
SP11:
SP12:
SP13: - - - - -
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22:

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b · 22c ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b · 25c ·
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3:
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14: - - - -
SP15: - - -
SP16: -
SP17: - - -
SP18: -
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22:

ExUns: 25d · 25e
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22:

Relevant External Links for PAPOLA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PAPOLA
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PAPOLA

Expression for PAPOLA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PAPOLA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PAPOLA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (16.0), Testis (9.4), and Lymph node (8.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PAPOLA Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAPOLA Gene Hs.253726

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PAPOLA: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PAPOLA Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PAPOLA Gene

Orthologs for PAPOLA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PAPOLA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAPOLA 35
  • 96.89 (n)
  • 98.24 (a)
PAPOLA 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAPOLA 35
  • 97.56 (n)
  • 98.65 (a)
PAPOLA 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Papola 35
  • 93.82 (n)
  • 96.21 (a)
Papola 16
Papola 36
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAPOLA 35
  • 99.96 (n)
  • 100 (a)
PAPOLA 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Papola 35
  • 93.46 (n)
  • 95.81 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 97 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 87 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 80 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAPOLA 35
  • 88.5 (n)
  • 91.17 (a)
PAPOLA 36
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia papola 35
  • 78.73 (n)
  • 84.29 (a)
Str.10813 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68746 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii papola 35
  • 68.38 (n)
  • 75.46 (a)
papola 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5723 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta hrg 36
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T15H9.6 35
  • 57.55 (n)
  • 54.04 (a)
F43G6.5 36
  • 47 (a)
ManyToMany
pap-1 36
  • 41 (a)
ManyToMany
T15H9.6 36
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PAP1 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons nPAP 35
  • 50.8 (n)
  • 46.56 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.32564 35
Os06g0558700 35
  • 52.14 (n)
  • 47.3 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2725 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PAPOLA:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAPOLA Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)

Paralogs for PAPOLA Gene

Paralogs for PAPOLA Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PAPOLA Gene using alignment to 9 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAPOLA: view

Variants for PAPOLA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAPOLA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1280456 -- 96,509,432(-) GTATA(C/T)ATTTT intron-variant
rs1292503 -- 96,559,581(+) tctct(A/C)tatat intron-variant
rs1484251 -- 96,537,430(+) AACTC(A/G)TTAAT intron-variant
rs7492490 -- 96,565,662(+) TAGTT(A/T)GGAAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs7493620 -- 96,516,200(+) AATTC(G/T)TAGTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAPOLA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv902211 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for PAPOLA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.71; 15.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PAPOLA Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PAPOLA

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

Disorders for PAPOLA Gene

Relevant External Links for PAPOLA

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PAPOLA
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PAPOLA

No disorders were found for PAPOLA Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PAPOLA Gene

Publications for PAPOLA Gene

  1. Multiple forms of poly(A) polymerases in human cells. (PMID: 8302877) Thuresson A.-C. … Virtanen A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1994) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IRBIT) associates with components of the mRNA 3' processing machinery in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and inhibits polyadenylation. (PMID: 19224921) Kiefer H. … Mikoshiba K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  3. Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase. (PMID: 14749727) Kaufmann I. … Keller W. (EMBO J. 2004) 3 23
  4. Assignment of the human poly(A) polymerase (PAP) gene to chromosome 14q32.1-q32.2 and isolation of a polymorphic CA repeat sequence. (PMID: 10429366) Yamauchi T. … Isobe M. (J. Hum. Genet. 1999) 2 3
  5. The 160-kD subunit of human cleavage-polyadenylation specificity factor coordinates pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. (PMID: 7590244) Murthy K.G. … Manley J.L. (Genes Dev. 1995) 3 23

Products for PAPOLA Gene

Sources for PAPOLA Gene

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