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Aliases for PAM Gene

Aliases for PAM Gene

  • Peptidylglycine Alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase 2 3 5
  • Peptidyl-Alpha-Hydroxyglycine Alpha-Amidating Lyase 2 3
  • Peptidylglycine Alpha-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase 2 3
  • Pancreatic Peptidylglycine Alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase 3
  • Peptidyl-Glycine Alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase 3
  • Peptidyl Alpha-Amidating Enzyme 3
  • Peptidylglycine 2-Hydroxylase 3
  • Peptidylamidoglycolate Lyase 3
  • PAL 3
  • PHM 3

External Ids for PAM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAM Gene

  • GC05P101861
  • GC05P102632
  • GC05P102232
  • GC05P102277
  • GC05P102229
  • GC05P102089
  • GC05P097382

Summaries for PAM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAM Gene

  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature enzyme. This enzyme includes two domains with distinct catalytic activities, a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) domain and a peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL) domain. These catalytic domains work sequentially to catalyze the conversion of neuroendocrine peptides to active alpha-amidated products. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for PAM Gene

PAM (Peptidylglycine Alpha-Amidating Monooxygenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PAM include Phaeohyphomycosis and Menkes Disease. GO annotations related to this gene include copper ion binding and L-ascorbic acid binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAM Gene

  • Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.

Gene Wiki entry for PAM Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAM Gene

Genomics for PAM Gene

Regulatory Elements for PAM Gene

Enhancers for PAM Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05F102780 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 41.8 +27.6 27621 2.4 HDGF CTCF PKNOX1 ZNF2 RAD21 ZEB1 ZNF324 GATA3 ZNF366 ZNF143 PAM LOC105379106
GH05F102814 0.6 Ensembl 39.1 +61.5 61520 1.4 GATA3 JUND IKZF1 PRDM1 SPI1 PAM LOC105379106
GH05F102822 0.4 ENCODE 38.9 +69.5 69454 1.4 OSR2 ZNF680 SMARCA4 POLR2A FEZF1 TCF7L2 PAM LOC105379106
GH05F102778 0.6 ENCODE 38.3 +24.7 24740 0.9 JUND JUN JUNB BMI1 ZNF24 PAM PPIP5K2 GIN1 LOC105379106
GH05F102800 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 36.3 +47.2 47220 2.0 PAM LOC105379106
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PAM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PAM Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001286513 1519 2601 WRNIP1 SIN3A DMAP1 BRCA1 ZNF2 ZNF48 ZNF121 GLIS2 FOS ZNF263

Genomic Location for PAM Gene

Chromosome:
5
Start:
102,753,981 bp from pter
End:
103,031,105 bp from pter
Size:
277,125 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAM Gene

Genes around PAM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PAM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PAM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAM Gene

Proteins for PAM Gene

  • Protein details for PAM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P19021-AMD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    P19021
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NMR0
    • A8K293
    • O43211
    • O95080
    • Q16252
    • Q16253
    • Q54A45
    • Q86U53
    • Q8WVC7
    • Q9UCG0

    Protein attributes for PAM Gene

    Size:
    973 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    108332 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Cu(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29036;
    Cofactor:
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Interacts with RASSF9 (By similarity).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD01439.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for PAM Gene

neXtProt entry for PAM Gene

Post-translational modifications for PAM Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 898
  • Glycosylation at Thr 413, Ser 466, and Asn 762
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for PAM
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for PAM

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PAM Gene

Domains & Families for PAM Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PAM Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P19021

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

AMD_HUMAN :
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase family.
  • Contains 5 NHL repeats.
Family:
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase family.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family.
Similarity:
  • Contains 5 NHL repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAM: view

No data available for Gene Families for PAM Gene

Function for PAM Gene

Molecular function for PAM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
peptidyl-glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Peptidylglycine + ascorbate + O(2) = peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + dehydroascorbate + H(2)O.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Peptidylamidoglycolate = peptidyl amide + glyoxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by EDTA, phenylglyoxal and diethyl pyrocarbonate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004497 monooxygenase activity IEA --
GO:0004504 peptidylglycine monooxygenase activity IEA,IDA 2357221
GO:0004598 peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity IEA,IDA 12699694
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAM: view

Animal Models for PAM Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PAM:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PAM Gene

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PAM Gene

Localization for PAM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAM Gene

Isoform 1: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Isoform 2: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.
Isoform 3: Secreted. Note=Secreted from secretory granules.
Isoform 4: Secreted. Note=Secreted from secretory granules.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PAM Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAM gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 4
cytosol 3
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0009986 cell surface IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAM: view

Pathways & Interactions for PAM Gene

SuperPathways for PAM Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001519 peptide amidation IDA 2357221
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0001676 long-chain fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006518 peptide metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAM: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PAM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PAM Gene

(17) Drugs for PAM Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Vitamin C Approved Nutra Target 514,514
Copper Approved Pharma 172
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
N-Alpha-Acetyl-3,5-Diiodotyrosylglycine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(10) Additional Compounds for PAM Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Glyoxylic acid
  • a-Ketoacetate
  • a-Ketoacetic acid
  • alpha-Ketoacetate
  • alpha-Ketoacetic acid
  • Formylformate
298-12-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAM: view

Transcripts for PAM Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAM Gene

Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase:
Representative Sequences:

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: - -
SP13:
SP14:

ExUns: 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b · 27c · 27d · 27e · 27f
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4: -
SP5: - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8: -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for PAM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PAM
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PAM

Expression for PAM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PAM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PAM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Atrial Appendage (x12.3) and Heart - Left Ventricle (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PAM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (20.2), Cervix (11.0), and Serum (10.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PAM Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PAM Gene:

PAM

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAM Gene:

Hs.369430
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PAM: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PAM Gene

Orthologs for PAM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PAM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAM 34 35
  • 99.69 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAM 34 35
  • 90.77 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAM 34 35
  • 89.86 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pam 34 16 35
  • 87.55 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pam 34
  • 87.2 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PAM 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PAM 35
  • 68 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAM 34 35
  • 75.98 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PAM 35
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pam 34
  • 69.21 (n)
Str.16963 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pam 34 35
  • 62.62 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pal 36
  • 39 (a)
Phm 36 35
  • 39 (a)
Pal2 35
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
CG12130 36
  • 33 (a)
Pal1 35
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pamn-1 34 35
  • 49.01 (n)
T19B4.1 36
  • 39 (a)
Y71G12B.4 36
  • 38 (a)
F21F3.1 36
  • 37 (a)
pghm-1 35
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
C04F1.2 36
  • 33 (a)
pgal-1 35
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
CSA.2011 35
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PAM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PAM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PAM (if available)

Paralogs for PAM Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PAM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAM: view

No data available for Paralogs for PAM Gene

Variants for PAM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10036520 -- 102,767,596(+) ACTTG(A/C)CCTTT intron-variant
rs10038600 -- 102,902,798(+) ATGAA(G/T)AGAAG intron-variant
rs10041879 -- 102,818,978(+) ATCTC(C/T)GAATT intron-variant
rs10042072 -- 102,799,358(+) TCAGG(C/T)TCAGG intron-variant
rs10043607 -- 102,846,357(+) TCTGG(G/T)CTTAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2668133 CNV deletion 23128226
esv29186 CNV loss 19812545
esv3303166 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3409924 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3570304 CNV loss 25503493
esv3570305 CNV loss 25503493
esv3606055 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1029894 CNV gain 25217958
nsv599193 CNV loss 21841781
nsv830429 CNV gain 17160897
nsv830430 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PAM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 11.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.98; 60.00% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PAM Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PAM
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PAM

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAM Gene

Disorders for PAM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for PAM Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
phaeohyphomycosis
  • infection by dematiacious fungi
menkes disease
  • copper transport disease
postpoliomyelitis syndrome
  • postpolio syndrome
peptic esophagitis
  • esophagitis or esophageal reflux
trophoblastic neoplasm
  • trophoblastic neoplasm nos
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PAM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PAM

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PAM
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PAM
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PAM
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PAM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PAM Gene

Publications for PAM Gene

  1. Human peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: cDNA, cloning and functional expression of a truncated form in COS cells. (PMID: 2357221) Glauder J. … Engels J.W. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1990) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Expression and characterization of human bifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase. (PMID: 12699694) Satani M. … Noguchi M. (Protein Expr. Purif. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. Isolation and functional expression of human pancreatic peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase. (PMID: 7999037) Tateishi K. … Matsuoka Y. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  4. Alternative splicing governs sulfation of tyrosine or oligosaccharide on peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase. (PMID: 8144680) Yun H.Y. … Eipper B.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose J.E. … Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for PAM Gene

Sources for PAM Gene

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