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Aliases for PALM Gene

Aliases for PALM Gene

  • Paralemmin 2 3 4 5
  • Paralemmin-1 3
  • KIAA0270 4

External Ids for PALM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PALM Gene

  • GC19P000760
  • GC19P000648
  • GC19P000660
  • GC19P000659
  • GC19P000489

Summaries for PALM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PALM Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the paralemmin protein family. The product of this gene is a prenylated and palmitoylated phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes and is implicated in plasma membrane dynamics in neurons and other cell types. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PALM Gene

PALM (Paralemmin) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include D3 dopamine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is PALM2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

  • Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.

Gene Wiki entry for PALM Gene

Additional gene information for PALM Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PALM Gene

Genomics for PALM Gene

Regulatory Elements for PALM Gene

Enhancers for PALM Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19H001019 1.5 ENCODE dbSUPER 19.7 +312.3 312269 4.4 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF416 ZNF143 SP3 ZC3H11A MEF2D DAZAP1 TMEM259 LOC100288123 TCF3 GRIN3B MIER2 PTBP1 MED16 CIRBP ENSG00000267317
GH19H001382 1.5 ENCODE dbSUPER 19.6 +675.1 675087 2.2 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A ZFP41 SF3A2 CIRBP TMEM259 DAZAP1 MUM1 TCF3 LOC100288123 GRIN3B PTBP1 SPPL2B
GH19H000718 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.9 +10.8 10756 3.1 ELF3 ARID4B BMI1 DNMT3B THRB RARA EGR1 SCRT2 ZNF143 THAP11 HCN2 PALM FGF22 SHC2 C2CD4C GC19M000724
GH19H001202 1.7 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.8 +497.8 497818 8 ZFP64 FEZF1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 ZC3H11A NFYC MEF2D ZNF610 CIRBP TMEM259 DAZAP1 LOC100288123 TCF3 PTBP1 GRIN3B POLRMT MIER2 DOT1L
GH19H001647 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 +941.5 941518 6.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B SF3A2 TCF3 LOC100288123 DAZAP1 DOT1L TMEM259 STK11 AP3D1 MUM1 ATP8B3
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PALM Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000105520 261 1201 CTCF ZNF3 SAP130 REST ZBTB8A POLR2A ZNF341 MXD3 SCRT2 PATZ1

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene
39,392 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PALM Gene

Genes around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PALM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PALM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PALM Gene

Proteins for PALM Gene

  • Protein details for PALM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43359
    • O95673
    • Q92559
    • Q9UPJ4
    • Q9UQS2
    • Q9UQS3

    Protein attributes for PALM Gene

    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42076 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with dopamine receptor DRD3.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PALM Gene


neXtProt entry for PALM Gene

Post-translational modifications for PALM Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PALM Gene

Domains & Families for PALM Gene

Gene Families for PALM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PALM Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PALM Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PALM: view

Function for PALM Gene

Molecular function for PALM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paralemmin,constituent of brain synaptic plasma membranes,also expressed in the kidney,adrenal medulla and at low level in many tissues
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PALM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16386234
GO:0031750 D3 dopamine receptor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PALM: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PALM Gene

Localization for PALM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cell projection, filopodium membrane; Lipid-anchor. Cell projection, axon. Cell projection, dendrite. Cell projection, dendritic spine. Basolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Apicolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=Translocation to the plasma membrane is enhanced upon stimulation of neuronal activity.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PALM gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (4)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 16386234
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9813098
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

Pathways & Interactions for PALM Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component TAS 9813098
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IDA 16386234
GO:0008104 protein localization IEA --
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PALM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PALM Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PALM Gene

Unigene Clusters for PALM Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PALM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c · 12d
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for PALM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PALM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (32.9) and Frontal cortex (11.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PALM Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PALM Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PALM Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PALM Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PALM Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest expression in brain and testis and intermediate expression in heart and adrenal gland.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PALM Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PALM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PALM Gene

Orthologs for PALM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PALM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PALM 34 33
  • 97.14 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PALM 33 34
  • 85.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PALM 33 34
  • 83.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Palm 34 16 33
  • 80.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Palm 33
  • 79.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PALM 34
  • 69 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PALM 34
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PALM 33 34
  • 70.79 (n)
-- 34
  • 61 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PALM 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia palm 33
  • 59.63 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii palm1a 33 34
  • 66.67 (n)
palm1b 34
  • 51 (a)
zgc63523 33
Species where no ortholog for PALM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PALM Gene

Gene Tree for PALM (if available)
Gene Tree for PALM (if available)

Paralogs for PALM Gene

Paralogs for PALM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PALM Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PALM: view

Variants for PALM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PALM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000026709 -- 710,242(+) ACGCC(C/T)GCGGC intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000083541 -- 745,294(+) GACCT(C/T)GGCCC intron-variant
rs1000131498 -- 711,414(+) CTTGG(G/T)CCTGG intron-variant
rs1000133440 -- 740,696(+) TCATC(C/T)ACTCC intron-variant
rs1000157380 -- 728,142(+) GGATG(A/G)ATGCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PALM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv953938 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv578166 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578165 CNV loss 21841781
nsv577978 CNV gain 21841781
nsv470101 CNV loss 18288195
nsv458320 CNV loss 19166990
nsv1142248 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1121960 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1072832 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1071883 CNV deletion 25765185
esv3893155 CNV gain 25118596
esv3643368 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643366 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643365 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643364 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643363 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643362 CNV loss 21293372
esv2717780 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717779 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717778 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717777 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717776 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717775 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717774 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717772 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717771 CNV deletion 23290073
esv1111384 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1010920 CNV deletion 20482838
dgv485e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv1677n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv134n111 CNV deletion 26073780

Variation tolerance for PALM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.66; 31.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PALM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Disorders for PALM Gene

Relevant External Links for PALM

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for PALM Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PALM Gene

Publications for PALM Gene

  1. Structure of the human paralemmin gene (PALM), mapping to human chromosome 19p13.3 and mouse chromosome 10, and exclusion of coding mutations in grizzled, mocha, jittery, and hesitant mice. (PMID: 9615234) Burwinkel B … Kilimann MW (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Paralemmin, a prenyl-palmitoyl-anchored phosphoprotein abundant in neurons and implicated in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. (PMID: 9813098) Kutzleb C … Kilimann MW (The Journal of cell biology 1998) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. Paralemmin interacts with D3 dopamine receptors: implications for membrane localization and cAMP signaling. (PMID: 16386234) Basile M … Kester M (Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006) 3 4 22 60
  4. Regulation of dendritic branching and filopodia formation in hippocampal neurons by specific acylated protein motifs. (PMID: 14978216) Gauthier-Campbell C … El-Husseini Ael-D (Molecular biology of the cell 2004) 3 4 22 60
  5. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PMID: 15057824) Grimwood J … Lucas SM (Nature 2004) 3 4 60

Products for PALM Gene

Sources for PALM Gene

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