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Aliases for PAK2 Gene

Aliases for PAK2 Gene

  • P21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 2 2 3
  • S6/H4 Kinase 2 3 4
  • PAK65 3 4 6
  • P21 (CDKN1A)-Activated Kinase 2 2 3
  • P21-Activated Kinase 2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 64
  • Gamma-PAK 3 4
  • Pak-2 3 4
  • P58 3 4
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase PAK 2 3
  • EC 2.7.11 64
  • PAKgamma 3

External Ids for PAK2 Gene

Summaries for PAK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAK2 Gene

  • The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PAK2 Gene

PAK2 (P21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are PI-3K cascade and MAPK signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein kinase binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis or proliferation. Acts as downstream effector of the small GTPases CDC42 and RAC1. Activation by the binding of active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Full-length PAK2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. Phosphorylates MAPK4 and MAPK6 and activates the downstream target MAPKAPK5, a regulator of F-actin polymerization and cell migration. Phosphorylates JUN and plays an important role in EGF-induced cell proliferation. Phosphorylates many other substrates including histone H4 to promote assembly of H3.3 and H4 into nucleosomes, BAD, ribosomal protein S6, or MBP. Additionally, associates with ARHGEF7 and GIT1 to perform kinase-independent functions such as spindle orientation control during mitosis. On the other hand, apoptotic stimuli such as DNA damage lead to caspase-mediated cleavage of PAK2, generating PAK-2p34, an active p34 fragment that translocates to the nucleus and promotes cellular apoptosis involving the JNK signaling pathway. Caspase-activated PAK2 phosphorylates MKNK1 and reduces cellular translation.

Gene Wiki entry for PAK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAK2 Gene

Genomics for PAK2 Gene

Genomic Location for PAK2 Gene

Start:
196,739,857 bp from pter
End:
196,832,647 bp from pter
Size:
92,791 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PAK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PAK2 Gene

Proteins for PAK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PAK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q13177-PAK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q13177
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13154
    • Q6ISC3

    Protein attributes for PAK2 Gene

    Size:
    524 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58043 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound CDC42/p21 and RAC1. Interacts with SH3MD4. Interacts with and activated by HIV-1 Nef. Interacts with SCRIB. Interacts with ARHGEF7 and GIT1. PAK-2p34 interacts with ARHGAP10.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PAK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PAK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PAK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PAK2 Gene

  • During apoptosis proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 or caspase-3-like proteases to yield active PAK-2p34
  • Full length PAK2 is autophosphorylated when activated by CDC42/p21. Following cleavage, both peptides, PAK-2p27 and PAK-2p34, become highly autophosphorylated, with PAK-2p27 being phosphorylated on serine and PAK-2p34 on threonine residues, respectively. Autophosphorylation of PAK-2p27 can occur in the absence of any effectors and is dependent on phosphorylation of Thr-402, because PAK-2p27 is acting as an exogenous substrate
  • PAK-2p34 is myristoylated.
  • Ubiquitinated, leading to its proteasomal degradation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys113, Lys136, Lys278, Lys399, and Lys468

Other Protein References for PAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for PAK2 Gene

Gene Families for PAK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PAK2_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 1 CRIB domain.:
    • Q13177
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.:
    • Q13177
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.:
    • Q13177
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAK2: view

Function for PAK2 Gene

Molecular function for PAK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activated by binding small G proteins. Binding of GTP-bound CDC42 or RAC1 to the autoregulatory region releases monomers from the autoinhibited dimer, enables phosphorylation of Thr-402 and allows the kinase domain to adopt an active structure (By similarity). Following caspase cleavage, autophosphorylated PAK-2p34 is constitutively active.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis or proliferation. Acts as downstream effector of the small GTPases CDC42 and RAC1. Activation by the binding of active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Full-length PAK2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. Phosphorylates MAPK4 and MAPK6 and activates the downstream target MAPKAPK5, a regulator of F-actin polymerization and cell migration. Phosphorylates JUN and plays an important role in EGF-induced cell proliferation. Phosphorylates many other substrates including histone H4 to promote assembly of H3.3 and H4 into nucleosomes, BAD, ribosomal protein S6, or MBP. Additionally, associates with ARHGEF7 and GIT1 to perform kinase-independent functions such as spindle orientation control during mitosis. On the other hand, apoptotic stimuli such as DNA damage lead to caspase-mediated cleavage of PAK2, generating PAK-2p34, an active p34 fragment that translocates to the nucleus and promotes cellular apoptosis involving the JNK signaling pathway. Caspase-activated PAK2 phosphorylates MKNK1 and reduces cellular translation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PAK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity TAS 10748018
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS --
GO:0004702 receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA --
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10607567
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAK2: view

Animal Models for PAK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PAK2:

miRNA for PAK2 Gene

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PAK2 Gene

Localization for PAK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2: Cytoplasm. Note=MYO18A mediates the cellular distribution of the PAK2-ARHGEF7-GIT1 complex to the inner surface of the cell membrane.
PAK-2p34: Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=Interaction with ARHGAP10 probably changes PAK-2p34 location to cytoplasmic perinuclear region. Myristoylation changes PAK-2p34 location to the membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PAK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAK2: view

Pathways for PAK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PAK2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IBA --
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IDA 11805089
GO:0006469 negative regulation of protein kinase activity TAS 10748018
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAK2: view

Compounds for PAK2 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for PAK2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Guanosine triphosphate
  • 5'-GTP
86-01-1

(21) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PAK2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
sp 600125 59.1 1
threonine 55.6 3
serine 44.8 5
rose bengal 39 1
curcumin 35.5 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAK2: view

Transcripts for PAK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PAK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAK2 Gene

P21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PAK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PAK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PAK2

Expression for PAK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PAK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PAK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAK2 Gene Hs.518530

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PAK2 Gene

Q13177-PAK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed. Higher levels seen in skeletal muscle, ovary, thymus and spleen
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PAK2: view

Orthologs for PAK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PAK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAK2 36
  • 99.24 (n)
  • 99.43 (a)
PAK2 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAK2 36
  • 92.43 (n)
  • 96.95 (a)
PAK2 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAK2 36
  • 93.51 (n)
  • 96.76 (a)
PAK2 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pak2 36
  • 89.69 (n)
  • 97.14 (a)
Pak2 16
Pak2 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PAK2 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PAK2 37
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100910732 36
  • 89.38 (n)
  • 96.95 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAK2 36
  • 82.82 (n)
  • 93.46 (a)
PAK2 37
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PAK2 37
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia PAK2 36
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pak2 36
  • 78.88 (n)
  • 89.15 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pak2a 36
  • 75.89 (n)
  • 87.91 (a)
pak2a 37
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
pak2b 37
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pak 37
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
Pak 38
  • 79 (a)
Pak3 38
  • 60 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pak-1 37
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
C45B11.1b 38
  • 37 (a)
Y38F1A.10 38
  • 57 (a)
C45B11.1a 38
  • 37 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03894 36
  • 59.06 (n)
  • 61.69 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3720 37
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PAK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PAK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PAK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PAK2 Gene

Paralogs for PAK2 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PAK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAK2: view

Variants for PAK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3659 -- 196,828,551(+) ACAAC(C/G)AAGAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs3662 -- 196,828,572(+) AAAGA(A/C)AAGTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs9109 -- 196,829,972(+) GGAGT(A/G)GGTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs9222 -- 196,829,612(+) AAATC(A/G)ACTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs14784 -- 196,829,835(+) TGTTT(C/T)TTTTA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5375n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv878190 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv829829 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2726592 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv510945 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv4184 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv515003 CNV Complex 21397061
nsv508979 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv1008888 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv2678966 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv29668 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv2102177 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2726593 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv10391 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
dgv852n67 CNV Gain 20364138
esv999373 CNV Loss 20482838
esv2670483 CNV Deletion 23128226

Relevant External Links for PAK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PAK2

Disorders for PAK2 Gene

(8) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PAK2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
immunodeficiency 34.9 8
virus infection 0 1
necrosis 0 3
shock 0 5
aids 0 1

Relevant External Links for PAK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PAK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PAK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PAK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

Publications for PAK2 Gene

  1. Activation of an S6/H4 kinase (PAK 65) from human placenta by intramolecular and intermolecular autophosphorylation. (PMID: 7673144) Benner G.E. … Masaracchia R.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995) 3 4 23
  2. Cleavage and activation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK by CPP32 (caspase 3). Effects of autophosphorylation on activity. (PMID: 9786869) Walter B.N. … Traugh J.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 3 4 23
  3. Lentivirus Nef specifically activates Pak2. (PMID: 11070003) Arora V.K. … Garcia J.V. (J. Virol. 2000) 3 4 23
  4. Caspase-activated PAK-2 is regulated by subcellular targeting and proteasomal degradation. (PMID: 12853446) Jakobi R. … Stringer D.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 23
  5. Phosphorylation of Mnk1 by caspase-activated Pak2/gamma-PAK inhibits phosphorylation and interaction of eIF4G with Mnk. (PMID: 15234964) Orton K.C. … Traugh J.A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23

Products for PAK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PAK2

Sources for PAK2 Gene

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