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Aliases for PAK2 Gene

Aliases for PAK2 Gene

  • P21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • S6/H4 Kinase 2 3 4
  • P21 (CDKN1A)-Activated Kinase 2 2 3
  • P21-Activated Kinase 2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 63
  • Gamma-PAK 3 4
  • PAK-2 3 4
  • PAK65 3 4
  • P58 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11 63
  • PAKgamma 3

External Ids for PAK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAK2 Gene

  • GC15P018867
  • GC03P196858
  • GC03P197874
  • GC03P197793
  • GC03P197955
  • GC03P196466
  • GC03P193763

Summaries for PAK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAK2 Gene

  • The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PAK2 Gene

PAK2 (P21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PAK2 include hiv-1. Among its related pathways are Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PAK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis or proliferation. Acts as downstream effector of the small GTPases CDC42 and RAC1. Activation by the binding of active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Full-length PAK2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. Phosphorylates MAPK4 and MAPK6 and activates the downstream target MAPKAPK5, a regulator of F-actin polymerization and cell migration. Phosphorylates JUN and plays an important role in EGF-induced cell proliferation. Phosphorylates many other substrates including histone H4 to promote assembly of H3.3 and H4 into nucleosomes, BAD, ribosomal protein S6, or MBP. Additionally, associates with ARHGEF7 and GIT1 to perform kinase-independent functions such as spindle orientation control during mitosis. On the other hand, apoptotic stimuli such as DNA damage lead to caspase-mediated cleavage of PAK2, generating PAK-2p34, an active p34 fragment that translocates to the nucleus and promotes cellular apoptosis involving the JNK signaling pathway. Caspase-activated PAK2 phosphorylates MKNK1 and reduces cellular translation.

Gene Wiki entry for PAK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAK2 Gene

Genomics for PAK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PAK2 Gene

Promoters for PAK2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PAK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PAK2 Gene

Chromosome:
3
Start:
196,739,857 bp from pter
End:
196,832,647 bp from pter
Size:
92,791 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAK2 Gene

Genes around PAK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PAK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PAK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAK2 Gene

Proteins for PAK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PAK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q13177-PAK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q13177
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13154
    • Q6ISC3

    Protein attributes for PAK2 Gene

    Size:
    524 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    58043 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts tightly with GTP-bound but not GDP-bound CDC42/p21 and RAC1. Interacts with SH3MD4. Interacts with and activated by HIV-1 Nef. Interacts with SCRIB. Interacts with ARHGEF7 and GIT1. PAK-2p34 interacts with ARHGAP10.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PAK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PAK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PAK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PAK2 Gene

  • During apoptosis proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 or caspase-3-like proteases to yield active PAK-2p34.
  • Full length PAK2 is autophosphorylated when activated by CDC42/p21. Following cleavage, both peptides, PAK-2p27 and PAK-2p34, become highly autophosphorylated, with PAK-2p27 being phosphorylated on serine and PAK-2p34 on threonine residues, respectively. Autophosphorylation of PAK-2p27 can occur in the absence of any effectors and is dependent on phosphorylation of Thr-402, because PAK-2p27 is acting as an exogenous substrate.
  • PAK-2p34 is myristoylated.
  • Ubiquitinated, leading to its proteasomal degradation.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 136, Lys 278, and Lys 468
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for PAK2 Gene

Gene Families for PAK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PAK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q13177

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PAK2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 CRIB domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 CRIB domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAK2: view

Function for PAK2 Gene

Molecular function for PAK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by binding small G proteins. Binding of GTP-bound CDC42 or RAC1 to the autoregulatory region releases monomers from the autoinhibited dimer, enables phosphorylation of Thr-402 and allows the kinase domain to adopt an active structure (By similarity). Following caspase cleavage, autophosphorylated PAK-2p34 is constitutively active.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in a variety of different signaling pathways including cytoskeleton regulation, cell motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis or proliferation. Acts as downstream effector of the small GTPases CDC42 and RAC1. Activation by the binding of active CDC42 and RAC1 results in a conformational change and a subsequent autophosphorylation on several serine and/or threonine residues. Full-length PAK2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. Phosphorylates MAPK4 and MAPK6 and activates the downstream target MAPKAPK5, a regulator of F-actin polymerization and cell migration. Phosphorylates JUN and plays an important role in EGF-induced cell proliferation. Phosphorylates many other substrates including histone H4 to promote assembly of H3.3 and H4 into nucleosomes, BAD, ribosomal protein S6, or MBP. Additionally, associates with ARHGEF7 and GIT1 to perform kinase-independent functions such as spindle orientation control during mitosis. On the other hand, apoptotic stimuli such as DNA damage lead to caspase-mediated cleavage of PAK2, generating PAK-2p34, an active p34 fragment that translocates to the nucleus and promotes cellular apoptosis involving the JNK signaling pathway. Caspase-activated PAK2 phosphorylates MKNK1 and reduces cellular translation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PAK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA,TAS 10748018
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IPI 11121037
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAK2: view

Animal Models for PAK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PAK2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PAK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PAK2

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PAK2 Gene

Localization for PAK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2: Cytoplasm. Note=MYO18A mediates the cellular distribution of the PAK2-ARHGEF7-GIT1 complex to the inner surface of the cell membrane.
PAK-2p34: Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=Interaction with ARHGAP10 probably changes PAK-2p34 location to cytoplasmic perinuclear region. Myristoylation changes PAK-2p34 location to the membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for PAK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PAK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PAK2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PAK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,IDA 11805089
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
GO:0007266 Rho protein signal transduction IBA --
GO:0007346 regulation of mitotic cell cycle IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for PAK2 Gene

(16) Drugs for PAK2 Gene - From: Novoseek, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
FRAX597 Pharma PAK inhibitor,potent and ATP-competitive 0

(7) Additional Compounds for PAK2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PAK2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
FRAX597 PAK inhibitor,potent and ATP-competitive 1286739-19-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAK2: view

Transcripts for PAK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAK2 Gene

P21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PAK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PAK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PAK2

Expression for PAK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PAK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PAK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (7.4) and Lavage (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for PAK2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAK2 Gene Hs.518530

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PAK2 Gene

Q13177-PAK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed. Higher levels seen in skeletal muscle, ovary, thymus and spleen.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PAK2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PAK2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PAK2 Gene

Orthologs for PAK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PAK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAK2 35
  • 92.43 (n)
  • 96.95 (a)
PAK2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAK2 35
  • 93.51 (n)
  • 96.76 (a)
PAK2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pak2 35
  • 89.69 (n)
  • 97.14 (a)
Pak2 16
Pak2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAK2 35
  • 99.24 (n)
  • 99.43 (a)
PAK2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100910732 35
  • 89.38 (n)
  • 96.95 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PAK2 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PAK2 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAK2 35
  • 82.82 (n)
  • 93.46 (a)
PAK2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PAK2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pak2 35
  • 78.88 (n)
  • 89.15 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia PAK2 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pak2a 35
  • 75.89 (n)
  • 87.91 (a)
pak2a 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
pak2b 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pak 37
  • 79 (a)
Pak3 37
  • 60 (a)
Pak 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C45B11.1a 37
  • 37 (a)
C45B11.1b 37
  • 37 (a)
Y38F1A.10 37
  • 57 (a)
pak-1 36
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03894 35
  • 59.06 (n)
  • 61.69 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3720 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for PAK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PAK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PAK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PAK2 Gene

Paralogs for PAK2 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PAK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAK2: view

Variants for PAK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3659 -- 196,828,551(+) ACAAC(C/G)AAGAG utr-variant-3-prime
rs3662 -- 196,828,572(+) AAAGA(A/C)AAGTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs9109 -- 196,829,972(+) GGAGT(A/G)GGTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs9222 -- 196,829,612(+) AAATC(A/G)ACTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs14784 -- 196,829,835(+) TGTTT(C/T)TTTTA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5375n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv878190 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv829829 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2726592 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv510945 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv4184 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv515003 CNV Complex 21397061
nsv508979 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv1008888 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv2678966 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv29668 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv2102177 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2726593 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv10391 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
dgv852n67 CNV Gain 20364138
esv999373 CNV Loss 20482838
esv2670483 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for PAK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.44; 9.57% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PAK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
PAK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAK2 Gene

Disorders for PAK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PAK2 Gene - From: Novoseek and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hiv-1
  • aids, slow progression to
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PAK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PAK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
PAK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
PAK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
PAK2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PAK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PAK2 Gene

Publications for PAK2 Gene

  1. A novel serine kinase activated by rac1/CDC42Hs-dependent autophosphorylation is related to PAK65 and STE20. (PMID: 7744004) Martin G.A. … Abo A. (EMBO J. 1995) 2 3 4 67
  2. Identification of MYO18A as a novel interacting partner of the PAK2/betaPIX/GIT1 complex and its potential function in modulating epithelial cell migration. (PMID: 19923322) Hsu R.M. … Yu J.S. (Mol. Biol. Cell 2010) 3 23
  3. Lentiviral Nef proteins utilize PAK2-mediated deregulation of cofilin as a general strategy to interfere with actin remodeling. (PMID: 20147394) Stolp B. … Fackler O.T. (J. Virol. 2010) 3 23
  4. PAK1 and PAK2 have different roles in HGF-induced morphological responses. (PMID: 19628037) Bright M.D. … Ridley A.J. (Cell. Signal. 2009) 3 23
  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef recruits the guanine exchange factor Vav1 via an unexpected interface into plasma membrane microdomains for association with p21-activated kinase 2 activity. (PMID: 18094167) Rauch S. … Fackler O.T. (J. Virol. 2008) 3 23

Products for PAK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PAK2

Sources for PAK2 Gene

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