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Aliases for PACRG Gene

Aliases for PACRG Gene

  • PARK2 Co-Regulated 2 3
  • Molecular Chaperone/Chaperonin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • GLUP 3 4
  • Parkin Co-Regulated Gene Protein 3
  • Parkin Coregulated Gene Protein 3
  • PARK2 Coregulated Gene Protein 4
  • HAK005771 3
  • PARK2CRG 3

External Ids for PACRG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PACRG Gene

  • GC06P162502
  • GC06P163021
  • GC06P163057
  • GC06P163118
  • GC06P160600

Summaries for PACRG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PACRG Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is conserved across metazoans. In vertebrates, this gene is linked in a head-to-head arrangement with the adjacent parkin gene, which is associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. These genes are co-regulated in various tissues and they share a bi-directional promoter. Both genes are associated with susceptibility to leprosy. The parkin co-regulated gene protein forms a large molecular complex with chaperones, including heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and chaperonin components. This protein is also a component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease patients, and it suppresses unfolded Pael receptor-induced neuronal cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PACRG Gene

PACRG (PARK2 Co-Regulated) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PACRG include young adult-onset parkinsonism and leprosy. An important paralog of this gene is PACRGL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

  • Suppresses cell death induced by accumulation of unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R, a substrate of Parkin). Facilitates the formation of inclusions consisting of Pael-R, molecular chaperones, protein degradation molecules and itself when proteasome is inhibited. May play an important role in the formation of Lewy bodies and protection of dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson disease.

Gene Wiki entry for PACRG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PACRG Gene

Genomics for PACRG Gene

Regulatory Elements for PACRG Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PACRG gene promoter:

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PACRG Gene

162,727,125 bp from pter
163,315,492 bp from pter
588,368 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PACRG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PACRG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PACRG Gene

Proteins for PACRG Gene

  • Protein details for PACRG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Parkin coregulated gene protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P5B5
    • Q6IMB8
    • Q8IZM1
    • Q8NHP5
    • Q9H1V9

    Protein attributes for PACRG Gene

    296 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33342 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a large molecular chaperone complex containing heat shock proteins 70 and 90 and chaperonin components. Interacts with STIP1, PARK2, GPR37, HSPA8, TCP1/CCT1, CCT2, CCT3, CCT4, CCT5, CCT6A, CCT7, CCT8. Interacts with MEIG1 (By similarity).
    • Linked to PARK2 in a head-to-head arrangement on opposite DNA strands and share a common 5-flanking promoter region

    Alternative splice isoforms for PACRG Gene


neXtProt entry for PACRG Gene

Proteomics data for PACRG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PACRG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PACRG Gene

Domains for PACRG Gene

Protein Domains for PACRG Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PACRG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PACRG: view

No data available for Gene Families and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Function for PACRG Gene

Molecular function for PACRG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Suppresses cell death induced by accumulation of unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R, a substrate of Parkin). Facilitates the formation of inclusions consisting of Pael-R, molecular chaperones, protein degradation molecules and itself when proteasome is inhibited. May play an important role in the formation of Lewy bodies and protection of dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson disease.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding IPI 14532270
GO:0003779 actin binding IDA 14532270
GO:0005488 binding --
GO:0030544 Hsp70 protein binding IPI 14532270
GO:0031072 heat shock protein binding IPI 14532270
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PACRG Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PACRG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PACRG Gene

Localization for PACRG Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PACRG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PACRG gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA 14532270
GO:0005929 cilium --
GO:0031982 vesicle IDA 14532270
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Pathways for PACRG Gene

SuperPathways for PACRG Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for PACRG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007286 spermatid development IEA --
GO:0034620 cellular response to unfolded protein TAS 14532270
GO:0060548 negative regulation of cell death IMP 14532270
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view

No data available for Pathways by source for PACRG Gene

Transcripts for PACRG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PACRG Gene

PARK2 co-regulated:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PACRG

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PACRG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for PACRG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PACRG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PACRG Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PACRG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (6.3) and Pituitary (5.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PACRG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PACRG Gene Hs.25791

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PACRG Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in all immune tissues, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, leukocyte and bone marrow. Expressed also in heart, brain, skeletal muscle, kidney, lung and pancreas. Expressed in primary Schwann cells and very weakly by monocyte-derived macrophages the primary host cells of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. Component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal inclusions found in the brain of Parkinson disease patients.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PACRG: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for PACRG Gene

Orthologs for PACRG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PACRG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PACRG 35
  • 99.44 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PACRG 35
  • 86.03 (n)
  • 90.44 (a)
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PACRG 35
  • 93.77 (n)
  • 97.67 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pacrg 35
  • 88.8 (n)
  • 92.12 (a)
Pacrg 16
Pacrg 36
  • 92 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PACRG 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PACRG 36
  • 75 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912128 35
  • 90.66 (n)
  • 96.11 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PACRG 35
  • 81.9 (n)
  • 88.36 (a)
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PACRG 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100127543 35
  • 80.82 (n)
  • 91.32 (a)
Str.16455 35
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.1100 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.9081 35
pacrg 35
  • 76.13 (n)
  • 89.19 (a)
pacrg 36
  • 84 (a)
PACRG (2 of 2) 36
  • 91 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011313 35
  • 62.79 (n)
  • 61.4 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG15120 35
  • 61.63 (n)
  • 59.9 (a)
CG15120 36
  • 40 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10208 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4180 36
  • 76 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PACRG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PACRG Gene

Gene Tree for PACRG (if available)
Gene Tree for PACRG (if available)

Paralogs for PACRG Gene

Paralogs for PACRG Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PACRG Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PACRG: view

Variants for PACRG Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Involved in susceptibility to leprosy (LPRS2) [MIM:607572]. LPRS2 is associated with polymorphisms in the 5-regulatory region shared by the PARK2 gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PACRG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs233 -- 163,282,976(+) TTATC(A/G)TTTTA intron-variant
rs25625 -- 163,234,248(+) TGGGA(-/GGTGTGT)GGGTC intron-variant
rs54773 -- 163,101,939(-) CTCAA(C/G)TTTTT intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs471067 -- 163,059,822(-) CACCA(A/G)TGTTT intron-variant
rs471261 -- 163,108,194(+) TGATG(A/G)TGAGT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PACRG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv517562 CNV Gain+Loss 19592680
dgv2030e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv7027n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv830857 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv886912 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv886913 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv886914 CNV Gain 21882294
esv270275 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv521563 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv886915 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv886916 CNV Gain 21882294
esv2733107 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv349630 CNV Insertion 16902084
nsv349311 CNV Insertion 16902084
nsv464126 CNV Loss 19166990
esv2666520 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2657084 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv267850 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv272548 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv886917 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv886918 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv520096 CNV Loss 19592680
esv275472 CNV Loss 21479260
nsv522316 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2733108 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1009462 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv1778979 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv267634 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv2733109 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1529490 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2733110 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv509165 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv2733111 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for PACRG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for PACRG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for PACRG Gene including...

Search for PACRG Gene in MalaCards »

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PACRG Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PACRG Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
parkinsonism 53.4 4
parkinson disease 50.8 4

Relevant External Links for PACRG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PACRG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Publications for PACRG Gene

  1. Identification of a novel gene linked to parkin via a bi-directional promoter. (PMID: 12547187) West A.B. … Farrer M.J. (J. Mol. Biol. 2003) 2 3 4 23
  2. Genetic analysis of parkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in patients with early-onset parkinsonism. (PMID: 15925106) Deng H. … Jankovic J. (Neurosci. Lett. 2005) 3 23 48
  3. Analysis of PArkin Co-Regulated Gene in a Taiwanese-ethnic Chinese cohort with early-onset Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 19196541) Taylor J.M. … Lockhart P.J. (Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 2009) 3 23 48
  4. Molecular analysis of the PArkin co-regulated gene and association with male infertility. (PMID: 19268936) Wilson G.R. … Lockhart P.J. (Fertil. Steril. 2010) 3 23 48
  5. Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG. (PMID: 14737177) Mira M.T. … Schurr E. (Nature 2004) 3 4 48

Products for PACRG Gene

Sources for PACRG Gene

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