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NTN3 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 50
GCID: GC16P002521

Netrin 3

(Previous names: netrin 2 (chicken)-like, netrin 2-like (chicken))
(Previous symbol: NTN2L)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Netrin 31 2     Netrin 2 (Chicken)-Like1
NTN2L1 2 3 5     Netrin 2-Like (Chicken)1
Netrin-2-Like Protein2 3     Netrin-2, Chicken, Homolog Of, Like2
Netrin-31     netrin-32

External Ids:    HGNC: 80301   Entrez Gene: 49172   Ensembl: ENSG000001620687   OMIM: 6023495   UniProtKB: O006343   

Export aliases for NTN3 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC16P002462


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for NTN3 Gene:
NTN3 (netrin 3) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with NTN3 include tuberous sclerosis, type 2, and polycystic kidney disease, type 1. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is NTN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NET3_HUMAN, O00634
Function: Netrins control guidance of CNS commissural axons and peripheral motor axons (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000016.10  NC_018927.2  NT_010393.17  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the NTN3 gene promoter:
         Elk-1   Pax-5   Pax-2a   AP-4   Nkx2-5   Tal-1beta   CREB   AREB6   HSF2   ITF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidNTN3 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for NTN3

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat NTN3


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16p13.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16p13.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16p13.3

NTN3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
NTN3 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16P002521:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
2,521,500 bp from pter      End:
2,524,146 bp from pter
Size:
2,647 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NET3_HUMAN, O00634 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Netrin-3 precursor  
Size: 580 amino acids; 61466 Da

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for NTN3: NX_O00634

Explore proteomics data for NTN3 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn104, Asn387

  • See NTN3 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_006172.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000293973  
    Reactome Protein details: O00634

    NTN3 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NTN: Netrins

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR008993 TIMP-like_OB-fold
     IPR008211 Laminin_N
     IPR001134 Netrin_domain
     IPR002049 EGF_laminin
     IPR018933 Netrin_module_non-TIMP

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O00634

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O00634

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001134 Netrin
    IPB002049 Laminin-type EGF-like domain
    IPB008212 Laminin


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NET3_HUMAN, O00634
    Similarity: Contains 3 laminin EGF-like domains
    Similarity: Contains 1 laminin N-terminal domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 NTR domain


    NTN3 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NET3_HUMAN, O00634
    Function: Netrins control guidance of CNS commissural axons and peripheral motor axons (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003674molecular_function ND--
    GO:0005102receptor binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
         
    NTN3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for NTN3:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory  Small cells 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for NTN3
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for NTN3
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for NTN3

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target NTN3:
    hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT017587)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat NTN3 using miScript Target Protectors
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    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat NTN3

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for NTN3


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    NET3_HUMAN, O00634: Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    extracellular2
    golgi apparatus2
    cytosol1
    mitochondrion1
    nucleus1
    peroxisome1
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005575cellular_component ND--
    GO:0005576extracellular region ----
    GO:0005578proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA--
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IEA--

    NTN3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for NTN3 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1CDO in myogenesis
    CDO in myogenesis1.00
    Myogenesis1.00
    2L1CAM interactions
    Developmental Biology0.63
    3Axon guidance
    Axon guidance

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Reactome Pathway for NTN3
        CDO in myogenesis


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for NTN3):
        Axon guidance


    NTN3 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including NTN3: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for NTN3

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see more details)

    4 Interacting proteins for NTN3 (O006343 ENSP000002939734) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NEO1Q928593, ENSP000002619084I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000261908
    CDONENSP000002635774STRING: ENSP00000263577
    DSCAMENSP000003833034STRING: ENSP00000383303
    DSCAML1ENSP000003154654STRING: ENSP00000315465
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007411axon guidance NAS9143507
    GO:0042692muscle cell differentiation TAS--
    GO:0051149positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation TAS--

    NTN3 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for NTN3 (NET3)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for NTN3 gene: 
    NM_006181.2  

    Unigene Cluster for NTN3:

    Netrin 3
    Hs.158336  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_006181
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000293973(uc002cqj.3)
    miRNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat NTN3
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat NTN3

    Additional mRNA sequence: U86759.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.404096 

    4 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BF512861 U86759 NM_006181 AI951694 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    NTN3 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    NTN3 Expression
    About this image


    NTN3 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Tooth (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Dental Placode Cells Dental Placode
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Dental Placode Cells Dental Placode
    NTN3 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    NTN3 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.158336

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NET3_HUMAN, O00634
    Tissue specificity: Spinal cord

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including NTN3: 
              Cancer Drug Targets in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for NTN3

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for NTN3 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ntn31 , 5 netrin 31, 5 83.45(n)1
    87.37(a)1
      17 (12.31 cM)5
    182091  NM_010947.31  NP_035077.11 
     242038485 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves NTN36
    Gallus gallus netrin 1 (NTN3), mRNA.
    55(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    14(14014723-14042108)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia NTN36
    netrin 3
    50(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343621.1(158069-223926)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ntn26
    netrin 2
    53(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    24(40240183-40301053) ENSDARG00000076748
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta NetA6
    NetB6
    Netrin-B
    36(a)
    32(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    X(14498045-14547864)
    X(14580071-14643409)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea unc-66
    Protein UNC-6 (unc-6) mRNA, complete cds
    42(a)
    1 → many
    X(6889689-6897140) WBGene00006746


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for NTN3 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for NTN3 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for NTN3 gene
    NTN12  NTNG12  LAMB32  NTN42  NTN52  NTNG22  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for NTN3 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     NET3_HUMAN:
    NTN1

    NTN3 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for NTN3 (see all 99)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1441262421,2
    C--2519529(+) CACCC-/TTAGGGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1172103911,2
    F--2519802(+) GATGTG/ATGGCA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04EA 120
    rs1435469951,2
    --2520098(+) CTGAAA/GCGGGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1480732051,2
    --2520101(+) AAACGA/GGGCAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1902788661,2
    --2520238(+) CCTCTC/TTGGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1471494321,2
    --2520239(+) CTCTTC/TGGTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1386790121,2
    C--2520329(+) CCAAAC/TGTGCT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1816988091,2
    --2520341(+) TGACGA/TAGGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1426841991,2
    --2520346(+) TAGGGC/TAGTGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1507464961,2
    --2520630(+) TCAACA/GTGGGC 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for NTN3 (2521500 - 2524146 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 10 variations for NTN3:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2422427CNV Duplication17116639
    nsv905153CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2545n71CNV Loss21882294
    esv29545CNV Loss19812545
    nsv905152CNV Loss21882294
    dgv2569n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv905149CNV Loss21882294
    nsv905139CNV Loss21882294
    nsv833121CNV Loss17160897
    dgv2570n71CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    Search QIAGEN SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing NTN3
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for NTN3

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 602349    OMIM disorders: --

    9 diseases for NTN3:    
    About MalaCards
    tuberous sclerosis, type 2    polycystic kidney disease, type 1    mantle cell lymphoma    polycystic kidney disease
    kidney disease    tuberous sclerosis    chronic lymphocytic leukemia    leukemia
    prostatitis


    NTN3 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for NTN3 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for NTN3 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with NTN3)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The NTN2L gene encoding a novel human netrin maps to the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease region on chromosome 16p13.3. (PubMed id 9143507)1, 2, 3, 9 Van Raay T.J....Burn T.C. (Genomics 1997)
    2. Netrin-3, a mouse homolog of human NTN2L, is highly expressed in sensory ganglia and shows differential binding to netrin receptors. (PubMed id 10366627)1, 3, 9 Wang H....Tessier-Lavigne M. (J. Neurosci. 1999)
    3. Generation of a transcriptional map for a 700-kb region surrounding the polycystic kidney disease type 1 (PKD1) and tuberous sclerosis type 2 (TSC2) disease genes on human chromosome 16p3.3. (PubMed id 8828041)1, 2 Burn T.C.... Landes G.M. (Genome Res. 1996)
    4. Autocrine netrin function inhibits glioma cell motility and promotes focal adhesion formation. (PubMed id 21980448)1 Jarjour A.A....Kennedy T.E. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    5. Close encounters: regulation of vertebrate skeletal myogenesis by cell-cell contact. (PubMed id 15923648)1 Krauss R.S....Kang J.S. (J. Cell. Sci. 2005)
    6. Quantification of expression of netrins, slits and their receptors in human prostate tumors. (PubMed id 12471613)1 Latil A....Cussenot O. (Int. J. Cancer 2003)
    7. Immunoglobulin V(H) gene mutational analysis suggests that blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma derives from different stages of B-cell maturation. (PubMed id 10634642)1 LA!szlA^ T....Matolcsy A. (Leuk. Res. 2000)
    8. Analysis of heavy and light chain pairings indicates that receptor editing shapes the human antibody repertoire. (PubMed id 9887257)1 de Wildt R.M....Winter G. (J. Mol. Biol. 1999)
    9. Unmutated Ig V(H) genes are associated with a more aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (PubMed id 10477713)1 Hamblin T.J....Stevenson F.K. (Blood 1999)
    10. Expression of mRNA for axon guidance molecules, such as semaphorin-III, netrins and neurotrophins, in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. (PubMed id 10996153)9 Togari A....Koshihara Y. (Brain Res. 2000)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4917 HGNC: 8030 AceView: NTN2L Ensembl:ENSG00000162068 euGenes: HUgn4917
    ECgene: NTN3 Kegg: 4917 H-InvDB: NTN3

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for NTN3 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for NTN3 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving NTN3

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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