Aliases for NR3C1 Gene
External Ids for NR3C1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for NR3C1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for NR3C1 Gene
This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
GeneCards Summary for NR3C1 Gene
NR3C1 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3, Group C, Member 1 (Glucocorticoid Receptor)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NR3C1 include glucocorticoid resistance and corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency. Among its related pathways are Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network and Circadian Clock. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity and protein dimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is AR.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for NR3C1 Gene
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR3C class, which also includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and androgen receptors. They exist as homodimers coupled to Hsp90 or HMGB proteins, which are shed upon activation. The major signaling pathway used by GRs is via direct DNA binding and transcriptional regulation of target genes. They can also signal by binding to other proteins, mainly with transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 or STAT. GRs are ubiquitously expressed and mediate a vast array of physiological functions. Glucocorticoids regulate carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, modulate immune responses through supression of chemokine and cytokine production and have critical roles in constitutive activity of the CNS, digestive, hematopoietic, renal and reproductive systems. The human gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor has been localized to 5q31-q32.