Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for NR1H2 Gene

Aliases for NR1H2 Gene

  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 2 2 3 4 5
  • Ubiquitously-Expressed Nuclear Receptor 2 3 4
  • Nuclear Receptor NER 3 4
  • LXRB 3 4
  • UNR 3 4
  • NER 3 4
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group H, Member 2 2
  • Steroid Hormone-Nuclear Receptor NER 3
  • Nuclear Orphan Receptor LXR-Beta 3
  • Liver X Nuclear Receptor Beta 3
  • Oxysterols Receptor LXR-Beta 3
  • Liver X Receptor-Beta 2
  • Liver X Receptor Beta 4
  • LX Receptor Beta 3
  • LXR-B 3
  • NER-I 3
  • RIP15 3

External Ids for NR1H2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for NR1H2 Gene

  • UNR

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for NR1H2 Gene

  • GC19P051508
  • GC19P051241
  • GC19P055508
  • GC19P055571
  • GC19P050879
  • GC19P047217

Summaries for NR1H2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for NR1H2 Gene

  • The liver X receptors, LXRA (NR1H3; MIM 602423) and LXRB, form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are key regulators of macrophage function, controlling transcriptional programs involved in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. The inducible LXRA is highly expressed in liver, adrenal gland, intestine, adipose tissue, macrophages, lung, and kidney, whereas LXRB is ubiquitously expressed. Ligand-activated LXRs form obligate heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs; see MIM 180245) and regulate expression of target genes containing LXR response elements (summary by Korf et al., 2009 [PubMed 19436111]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

GeneCards Summary for NR1H2 Gene

NR1H2 (Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with NR1H2 include Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Thyroid Hormone Resistance. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and SREBP signalling. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is NR1H3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for NR1H2 Gene

  • Nuclear receptor. Binds preferentially to double-stranded oligonucleotide direct repeats having the consensus half-site sequence 5-AGGTCA-3 and 4-nt spacing (DR-4). Regulates cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8; DLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).

Tocris Summary for NR1H2 Gene

  • Liver X receptors (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are members of the steroid analog-activated nuclear receptor subfamily, which form heterodimers with members of the retinoid X receptor family. There are two closely related isoforms of each of these enzymes; alpha and beta.

Gene Wiki entry for NR1H2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for NR1H2 Gene

Genomics for NR1H2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for NR1H2 Gene

Enhancers for NR1H2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH19F049987 0.2 ENCODE 16.3 -342.4 -342355 0.2 HDGF ARNT CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 PRR12 VRK3 FLT3LG RRAS NR1H2 GPR32 ENSG00000268375 NTF6B NTF6A ENSG00000268047
GH19F050410 1.1 ENCODE 12.3 +81.3 81298 1.3 CHD4 ZMYM3 ZNF384 ZNF488 ZNF48 ZNF366 POLR2A SMARCA4 ZNF580 ZBTB33 NAPSB NAPSA NR1H2 EMC10 FAM71E1 ENSG00000142539 GC19P050397
GH19F050479 0.8 ENCODE 11.8 +149.9 149858 0.7 ELF3 CBX3 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 RAD21 ZNF2 ZNF143 CREM NAPSA NR1H2 CLEC11A LOC100506114 FAM71E1 GC19P050481
GH19F050357 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 11.3 +28.9 28899 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ARID4B ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 NAPSB POLD1 AKT1S1 PRR12 PIH1D1 KCNC3 NUP62 NR1H2 CTU1 FLT3LG
GH19F050375 1.1 ENCODE 11 +47.2 47169 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 WRNIP1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 NAPSB NUP62 SNORD35A POLD1 SNORD35B RRAS ALDH16A1 RPS11 PIH1D1 NR1H2
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around NR1H2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for NR1H2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001818528 -453 1201 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A GLI4 ZNF48 YY1 ZNF121 SLC30A9
ENSR00001818529 1247 1401 HDGF ARNT CREB3L1 SP3 NCOA1 SMARCA4 GLIS1 NBN KDM1A SP7
ENSR00001818527 -1353 201 CTCF SUZ12 RNF2 L3MBTL2 CHD1 SIN3A REST ZBTB7A TFDP1 ZFHX2

Genomic Location for NR1H2 Gene

Chromosome:
19
Start:
50,329,653 bp from pter
End:
50,383,028 bp from pter
Size:
53,376 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for NR1H2 Gene

Genes around NR1H2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
NR1H2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for NR1H2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for NR1H2 Gene

Proteins for NR1H2 Gene

  • Protein details for NR1H2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P55055-NR1H2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Oxysterols receptor LXR-beta
    Protein Accession:
    P55055
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K490
    • B4DNM6
    • E7EWA6
    • Q12970
    • Q5I0Y1

    Protein attributes for NR1H2 Gene

    Size:
    460 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50974 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a heterodimer with RXR. Interacts with CCAR2 (via N-terminus) in a ligand-independent manner.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for NR1H2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for NR1H2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for NR1H2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for NR1H2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for NR1H2 (LXR beta/NR1H2)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for NR1H2 (LXR-beta)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for NR1H2 Gene

Domains & Families for NR1H2 Gene

Gene Families for NR1H2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P55055

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

NR1H2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with NR1H2: view

Function for NR1H2 Gene

Molecular function for NR1H2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
nuclear receptor subfamily 1,group H,member2,modulating gene activation by retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Nuclear receptor. Binds preferentially to double-stranded oligonucleotide direct repeats having the consensus half-site sequence 5-AGGTCA-3 and 4-nt spacing (DR-4). Regulates cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8; DLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for NR1H2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000978 RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 9013544
GO:0001077 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding IDA 9013544
GO:0001133 RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific transcription regulatory region DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA,TAS 7926814
GO:0003700 transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with NR1H2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with NR1H2: view

Animal Models for NR1H2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for NR1H2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for NR1H2

miRNA for NR1H2 Gene

Targeted motifs for NR1H2 Gene
HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif NR1H2
  • Consensus sequence: GGGTTACTANAGGTCA Submotif: DR4 Cell Type: RAW GEO ID: GSE21512

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology and Transcription Factor Targets for NR1H2 Gene

Localization for NR1H2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for NR1H2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for NR1H2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for NR1H2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for NR1H2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 12393874
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 12393874
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with NR1H2: view

Pathways & Interactions for NR1H2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with NR1H2: view

Pathways by source for NR1H2 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for NR1H2 Gene
2 BioSystems pathways for NR1H2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for NR1H2 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for NR1H2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with NR1H2: view

Drugs & Compounds for NR1H2 Gene

(88) Drugs for NR1H2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fexaramine Experimental Pharma Agonist Potent, selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist 0
(3-{3-[[2-Chloro-3-(Trifluoromethyl)Benzyl](2,2-Diphenylethyl)Amino]Propoxy}Phenyl)Acetic Acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
1,1,1,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-{4-[(2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL)AMINO]PHENYL}PROPAN-2-OL Experimental Pharma Target 0
Benzenesulfonyl Experimental Pharma Target 0
N-(2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL)-N-{4-[2,2,2-TRIFLUORO-1-HYDROXY-1-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL]PHENYL}BENZENESULFONAMIDE Experimental Pharma Target 0

(52) Additional Compounds for NR1H2 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
DY 268
1609564-75-1
GW 3965 hydrochloride
405911-17-3
WAY 252623
875787-07-8

(5) Tocris Compounds for NR1H2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
DY 268 Potent FXR antagonist 1609564-75-1
Fexaramine Potent, selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist 574013-66-4
GW 3965 hydrochloride Orally active liver X receptor (LXR) agonist 405911-17-3
T 0901317 Potent liver X receptor (LXR) agonist; also CAR inverse agonist 293754-55-9
WAY 252623 Potent LXR agonist 875787-07-8

(6) ApexBio Compounds for NR1H2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Fexaramine 574013-66-4
GW3965 HLXRα/hLXRβ agonist,potent and selective 405911-09-3
GW3965 HCl 405911-17-3
LXR-623 Liver X-receptor agonist 875787-07-8
SR-9243 inverse agonist of LXR 1613028-81-1
T0901317 Liver X receptor agonist,potent and selective 293754-55-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with NR1H2: view

Transcripts for NR1H2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for NR1H2 Gene

Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for NR1H2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - - -
SP11: -

ExUns: 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:

Relevant External Links for NR1H2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
NR1H2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
NR1H2

Expression for NR1H2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for NR1H2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for NR1H2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (33.3), Placenta (22.5), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for NR1H2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for NR1H2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of NR1H2 Gene:

NR1H2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for NR1H2 Gene:

Hs.432976

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for NR1H2 Gene:

P55055-NR1H2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with NR1H2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for NR1H2 Gene

Orthologs for NR1H2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for NR1H2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia NR1H2 34 35
  • 98.63 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia NR1H2 34 35
  • 87.03 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Nr1h2 34 16 35
  • 84.65 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Nr1h2 34
  • 84.57 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia NR1H2 34 35
  • 83.84 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 31 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia NR1H2 35
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia nr1h2 34
  • 71.05 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii nr1h5 35
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012211 34
  • 67.42 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta EcR 36 34 35
  • 55.36 (n)
Species where no ortholog for NR1H2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for NR1H2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for NR1H2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for NR1H2 (if available)

Paralogs for NR1H2 Gene

Variants for NR1H2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for NR1H2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1052530 -- 50,378,184(+) GCAAG(A/C)GAAAG intron-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs1052533 -- 50,378,568(+) AAACA(A/G)NNNCA reference, synonymous-codon
rs1052677 -- 50,382,924(+) TAGCC(C/G)GGGAG upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime
rs111535789 -- 50,381,753(+) AAACA(C/T)GCACC intron-variant
rs111894567 -- 50,377,853(+) CTCAG(C/G)CTGCA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for NR1H2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1066389 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1071939 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1133010 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1140251 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1152956 OTHER inversion 26484159

Variation tolerance for NR1H2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 12.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.99; 92.04% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for NR1H2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
NR1H2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
NR1H2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for NR1H2 Gene

Disorders for NR1H2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for NR1H2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
  • testicular feminization
thyroid hormone resistance
  • thyroid hormone resistance syndrome
rickets, vitamin d-resistant, type iia
  • hypophosphatemic rickets, x-linked dominant
prostate disease
  • prostate diseases
biliary tract disease
  • biliary tract diseases
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search NR1H2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for NR1H2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
NR1H2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
NR1H2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
NR1H2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with NR1H2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for NR1H2 Gene

Publications for NR1H2 Gene

  1. Functional and genetic analysis in type 2 diabetes of liver X receptor alleles--a cohort study. (PMID: 19292929) Dahlman I. … Steffensen K.R. (BMC Med. Genet. 2009) 3 22 46 64
  2. The three-dimensional structure of the liver X receptor beta reveals a flexible ligand-binding pocket that can accommodate fundamentally different ligands. (PMID: 12819202) Farnegardh M. … Carlquist M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  3. CCAR2 negatively regulates nuclear receptor LXRalpha by competing with SIRT1 deacetylase. (PMID: 25661920) Sakurabashi A. … Fujii T. (J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2015) 3 4 64
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey S.D. … Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Common genetic variation in multiple metabolic pathways influences susceptibility to low HDL-cholesterol and coronary heart disease. (PMID: 20855565) Peloso G.M. … Brousseau M.E. (J. Lipid Res. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for NR1H2 Gene

Sources for NR1H2 Gene

Content
Loading form....