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NPY2R Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 66
GCID: GC04P156129

Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y2

  Search for NPY2R
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Neuropeptide Y Receptor Y21 2
NPY2-R2 3
NPY-Y2 Receptor2 3
Y2 Receptor2 3
Neuropeptide Y Receptor Type 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 79571   Entrez Gene: 48872   Ensembl: ENSG000001851497   OMIM: 1626425   UniProtKB: P491463   

Export aliases for NPY2R gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P157017 GC04P156557 GC04P156707 GC04P156671 GC04P156487 GC04P156349 GC04P151868


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for NPY2R Gene:
NPY2R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y2) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide Y receptor activity and receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR83.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146
Function: Receptor for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. The rank order of affinity of this receptor for pancreatic
polypeptides is PYY > NPY > PYY (3-36) > NPY (2-36) > [Ile-31, Gln-34] PP > [Leu-31, Pro-34] NPY > PP, [Pro-34]
PYY and NPY free acid

summary for NPY2R Gene:
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are a family of Gi/o-protein-coupled receptors that are currently divided
into four subtypes: Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5. NPY receptors mediate a diverse range of biological actions including
stimulation of food intake, anxiolysis, modulation of circadian rhythm, pain transmission and control of
pituitary hormone release. All four NPY receptor subtypes are found at high concentrations in the brain and
colon and are also found in a wide variety of peripheral tissues at lower levels. The human genes encoding
Y1, Y2 and Y5 receptors are located on chromosome 4q31.3-q32 and the human gene encoding Y4 is located on
chromosome 10q11.2.

Gene Wiki entry for NPY2R (Neuropeptide Y receptor Y2) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.20  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the NPY2R gene promoter:
         Nkx3-1   AML1a   Brachyury   Nkx3-1 v1   RelA   Nkx3-1 v2   NRF-2   Nkx3-1 v3   Msx-1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidNPY2R promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for NPY2R

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat NPY2R


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q31   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q32.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q31

NPY2R Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
NPY2R gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P156129:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
156,129,781 bp from pter      End:
156,138,230 bp from pter
Size:
8,450 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Neuropeptide Y receptor type 2  
Size: 381 amino acids; 42731 Da
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for NPY2R:
2IK3 (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q13281 Q13457 Q4W5G7 Q6AZZ6 Q9UE67

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for NPY2R: NX_P49146

Explore proteomics data for NPY2R at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See NPY2R Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000901.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000332591   ENSP00000426366  
    Reactome Protein details: P49146

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    NPYR: GPCR / Class A : Neuropeptide receptors : Y

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: Y2 receptor
    Neuropeptide Y receptors

    4 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
     IPR000276 GPCR_Rhodpsn
     IPR000611 NPY_rcpt
     IPR001358 NPY2_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P49146

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P49146

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000611 Neuropeptide Y receptor signature
    IPB001358 Neuropeptide Y2 receptor signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family


    Find genes that share domains with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146
    Function: Receptor for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. The rank order of affinity of this receptor for pancreatic
    polypeptides is PYY > NPY > PYY (3-36) > NPY (2-36) > [Ile-31, Gln-34] PP > [Leu-31, Pro-34] NPY > PP, [Pro-34]
    PYY and NPY free acid

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for NPY2R:
    neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 rhodopsin-like,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,expressed in the
    hippocampus,involved in the presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001601peptide YY receptor activity IEA--
    GO:0004872receptor activity TAS1321422
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity ----
    GO:0004983neuropeptide Y receptor activity TAS7559383
    GO:0005246calcium channel regulator activity TAS8132547
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for NPY2R:
     Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Npy2r) (see all 19):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial 
     digestive/alimentary  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  nervous system  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Npy2rtm1.1Hhz for NPY2R

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for NPY2R
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    hsa-miR-9 hsa-miR-3658 hsa-miR-922 hsa-miR-29a* hsa-miR-16-1* hsa-miR-944 hsa-miR-3653
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidNPY2R 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146: Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane5
    cytosol1
    nucleus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane IEA--
    GO:0016020membrane ----
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for NPY2R About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like0.43
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors0.60
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction0.36
    2Neuropeptides signaling through G protein alpha i and G protein alpha q
    Peptide GPCRs0.46
    Neuropeptides signaling through G protein alpha i and G protein alpha q0.46
    3Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    4Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction)
    Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction)


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 BioSystems Pathways for NPY2R
        GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like
    Peptide GPCRs

    2 Reactome Pathways for NPY2R
        Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    G alpha (i) signalling events

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for NPY2R
        Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction)

    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for NPY2R):
        Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including NPY2R: 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for NPY2R

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for NPY2R (P491461, 3 ENSP000003325914) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 145)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NPYP013033, ENSP000002421524I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000242152
    RGS12O149243, ENSP000003393814I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000339381
    PYYP100821, ENSP000003531984EBI-6655721,EBI-6655667 STRING: ENSP00000353198
    SQSTM1Q135013I2D: score=1 
    ADCY2ENSP000003429524STRING: ENSP00000342952
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 23):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001662behavioral fear response IEA--
    GO:0002793positive regulation of peptide secretion IEA--
    GO:0003151outflow tract morphogenesis IMP19593212
    GO:0003214cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis IMP19593212
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----

    Find genes that share ontologies with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for NPY2R available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    BIIE 0246 Potent, selective non-peptide NPY Y2 receptor antagonist [246146-55-4]
    [Leu31,Pro34]-Neuropeptide Y (human, rat) NPY Y1 receptor agonist[132699-73-1]
    BIBP 3226 trifluoroacetateMixed NPY Y1 and NPFF receptor antagonist[159013-54-4]
    Neuropeptide Y (human, rat) Influences feeding and sexual behavior[90880-35-6]
    BIBO 3304 trifluoroacetateHighly selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist[191868-14-1]

    1 DrugBank Compound for NPY2R    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Cysteamine(2-Mercaptoethyl)amine (see all 19)60-23-1targetother/unknown1314592

    Selected IUPHAR Ligands for NPY2R (Y2 receptor) (see all 27)    About this table
    LigandTypeActionAffinityPubmed IDs
    peptide YY
    AgonistFull agonist9.5 - 9.88632753 7592910
    PYY-(3-36)
    AgonistFull agonist9.2 - 9.78632753 7592910
    [125I]PYY
    AgonistFull agonist9.67559383
    neuropeptide Y
    AgonistFull agonist9.3 - 9.58632753 7592910
    peptide YY
    AgonistFull agonist9.57592910
    PYY-(13-36) (mouse, rat, pig)
    AgonistFull agonist8.8 - 9.48632753 7592910
    NPY-(2-36) (pig)
    AgonistFull agonist8.6 - 9.38632753 7592910
    NPY
    AgonistFull agonist9.1 - 9.38632753 7592910
    NPY-(3-36) (pig)
    AgonistFull agonist9.28632753
    [125I]NPY
    AgonistFull agonist9.27559383

    4 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for NPY2R gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    biie0246 87.7 1 19837904 (1)
    calcium 9.23 4 8914576 (2), 11287092 (1), 9031749 (1)
    alanine 0 1 16319069 (1)
    norepinephrine 0 2 8750699 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for NPY2R gene: 
    NM_000910.2  

    Unigene Cluster for NPY2R:

    Neuropeptide Y receptor Y2
    Hs.37125  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000910
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000329476(uc003ioq.3) ENST00000506608(uc003ior.3)
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat NPY2R

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC075052.2 BC075053.2 BC096833.1 U32500.1 U36269.1 U42389.1 U42766.1 

    2 DOTS entries:

    DT.92415971  DT.95254273 

    12 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BQ716967 U36269 U32500 BC075052 CF147774 NM_000910 U42766 BC075053 
    BX283363 U42389 AL138032 BF312604 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    2 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for NPY2R    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b
    SP1:                        
    SP2:                        


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for NPY2R

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    NPY2R expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTGTATTAGT
    NPY2R Expression
    About this image


    NPY2R expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 21 entries
             Thalamus
             Substantia Nigra   
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)
             Spinal Ventral Columns
     
     Spinal Cord (Nervous System)
    NPY2R Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    NPY2R Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.37125

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NPY2R_HUMAN, P49146
    Tissue specificity: High levels in amygdala, corpus callosum, hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus. Also detectable
    in caudate nucleus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including NPY2R: 
              Neurotransmitter Receptors in human mouse rat
              G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human mouse rat
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for NPY2R

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for NPY2R gene from Selected species (see all 14)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Npy2r1 , 5 neuropeptide Y receptor Y21, 5 87.89(n)1
    94.74(a)1
      3 (36.49 cM)5
    181671  NM_008731.31  NP_032757.21 
     825383835 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves NPY2R1 neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 74.56(n)
    81.32(a)
      422405  NM_001031128.1  NP_001026299.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia NPY2R6
    neuropeptide Y receptor Y2
    72(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(129923776-129924927)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia npy2r1 neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 66.58(n)
    72.09(a)
      100498351  XM_004911153.1  XP_004911210.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii npy2rl1 neuropeptide Y receptor Y2, like 68.5(n)
    70.12(a)
      795311  XM_001332723.3  XP_001332759.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta NPFR13 G-protein coupled receptor protein
    signaling pathway neuropeptide Y
    receptor less
    35(a)
    (best of 3)
        --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea Y59H11AL.13
    npr-61
    npr-61 30(a)
    (best of 2)3
    46.88(n)1
    36.75(a)1
      IV(8559654-8562984)3
    1856231  NM_077324.51  NP_509725.21 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for NPY2R (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for NPY2R (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section

    TryGeneCards Plus
    Paralogs for NPY2R gene
    GPR832  HCRTR22  PRLHR2  NPFFR22  NPY5R2  NPY4R2  TACR12  TACR32  
    NPY1R2  NPFFR12  QRFPR2  HCRTR12  TACR22  
    16 SIMAP similar genes for NPY2R using alignment to 1 protein entry:     NPY2R_HUMAN:
    DRD3    GPR83    NPFFR2    PRLHR    NPFFR1    QRFPR
    BRS3    GALR1    NPY1R    PROKR1    PROKR2    TACR1
    NPY4R    PPYR1    TACR3    TACR2

    Find genes that share paralogs with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

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    Selected SNPs for NPY2R (see all 235)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1868705151,2
    --155920154(+) ATAAAA/GTGTGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1914083051,2
    --155920264(+) TGGTCA/GTTGTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs68502891,2
    C,F--155920312(+) GGTATA/GTGGTT 1 -- int1 tfbs38Minor allele frequency- G:0.28NA WA EA 368
    rs43331361,2
    C,F,A,H--155920330(+) CACCAG/ATGCAG 1 -- int1 tfbs326Minor allele frequency- A:0.44NA NS EA WA CSA 2492
    rs578695231,2
    C,F--155920425(+) AACAAA/GACAAA 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- G:0.11WA 122
    rs68512221,2
    C,F--155920456(+) AAGTGG/AAACTG 1 -- int19Minor allele frequency- A:0.36NA CSA WA EA 370
    rs102129381,2
    C,F,H--155920613(+) AAAAAT/CGCCTT 1 -- int110Minor allele frequency- C:0.07NS EA NA CSA WA 1200
    rs1836199991,2
    --155920631(+) CAATAC/TTATTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1879277291,2
    --155920687(+) GGAAGC/TCTTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs170326381,2
    C,F,H--155920760(+) AGTAGC/TGGAAT 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA NS EA 648
    rs1931100621,2
    --155920765(+) CGGAAG/TCTAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs173767981,2
    C,F,H--155920859(+) ATAGAG/CGAAAA 1 -- int1 trp319Minor allele frequency- C:0.04NA NS EA 2232
    rs339771521,2
    C,F--155920870(+) GTAATG/ATGTGC 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- A:0.29NA CSA WA EA 368
    rs1440530131,2
    C--155920883(+) AGCCTA/CCGAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1855091881,2
    --155921045(+) AATCCC/TGAGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1464430701,2
    --155921211(+) CTTGGA/GTCAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1995121851,2
    C--155921266(+) AGAGAG/TAGATT 1 -- int10--------
    rs125073961,2
    C,F,H--155921325(+) TTTTAA/TCCTGA 1 -- int19Minor allele frequency- T:0.11NS EA NA WA 732
    rs68575301,2
    C,F,A--155921435(+) TGGGCG/AGCAGG 1 -- int115Minor allele frequency- A:0.41NA WA CSA EA 512
    rs68577151,2
    C,F,A,H--155921463(+) CTTCTT/CGTTTG 1 -- int132Minor allele frequency- C:0.44NA NS EA WA CSA 2916
    rs1433528311,2
    --155921585(+) CTGCGA/CGGATC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1900801521,2
    --155921596(+) CAGCTC/TCCCAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1113235541,2
    C,F--155921613(+) TCCTAC/AACACA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.07CSA WA 120
    rs1456742541,2
    --155921748(+) GGGACA/CGCAGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1489002211,2
    C--155921797(+) CCTCGC/GCTTTT 1 -- int10--------
    rs738553861,2
    C,F--155921805(+) TTTCCC/TGGGGC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.10WA 120
    rs22347591,2
    C,F,O,H--155921838(+) AGTCCA/GGGAGG 1 -- int122Minor allele frequency- G:0.29NA NS EA WA 2456
    rs767601191,2
    C,F--155921842(+) CAGGAG/AGTCTG 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA NA 238
    rs1816656541,2
    --155921976(+) GTGACA/CGCAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1842952991,2
    --155922011(+) CGCGAA/GGGGGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs729727751,2
    C--155922386(+) GGAACC/TGGACT 1 -- ut512Minor allele frequency- T:0.04WA 120
    rs1885929711,2
    --155922500(+) CCAGGG/TCAGTA 1 -- ut510--------
    rs1810642151,2
    C--155922646(+) CGATTA/TGGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1852759461,2
    --155923010(+) ATGCTA/GTTTCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs738553871,2
    C,F--155923131(+) CTGCCC/TCCATT 1 -- int13Minor allele frequency- T:0.08WA CSA 122
    rs1130422441,2
    C--155923169(+) CAGGGC/TTTTTG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1130410631,2
    C--155923209(+) TCCCTG/-GGAAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs1480929721,2
    --155923214(+) GGGAAA/TAATGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs173768261,2
    C,F,H--155923229(+) GAAGAC/TATTGT 1 -- int116Minor allele frequency- T:0.10NA NS CSA WA 1852
    rs104612571,2
    C,F,A,H--155923285(+) TTGTTA/GCAAAA 1 -- int112Minor allele frequency- G:0.47NA EA WA CSA 377
    rs1396105041,2
    C--155923286(+) AAAAA-/AGCCCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs76775011,2
    C,F,A--155923383(+) GGCTGT/CTGGGG 1 -- int111Minor allele frequency- C:0.24NA WA CSA EA 372
    rs1821342611,2
    --155923529(+) TGCCTC/TATTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1872553171,2
    --155923580(+) TGTGCC/TTTTGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1916333621,2
    --155923591(+) TGGCAA/CCTTCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs801157131,2
    C,F--155923641(+) TGTCAT/CGAAAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.05NA 120
    rs1835906831,2
    --155923666(+) TCTGGA/GTAATG 1 -- int10--------
    rs342339421,2
    C--155923690(+) GAAGGC/GAGTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1871917361,2
    --155923730(+) TATTCC/TAAGAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs113146041,2
    C--155923745(+) TAGAT-/CAACAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1423250491,2
    --155923796(+) TTTATA/GAAACA 1 -- int10--------
    rs2011487851,2
    --155923868(+) TTCAA-/TCTCA 
     TGCTTCC
    TCTCA
    1 -- int10--------
    rs1900813201,2
    --155923946(+) AATGGC/TTAAAT 1 -- int10--------
    rs747988421,2
    C--155924033(+) ACATAC/TACTCC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.06CSA NA 122
    rs560547631,2
    F--155924069(+) TTCTCT/GAATTA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- G:0.10WA 118
    rs1119385811,2
    C--155924097(+) ATGTG-/AAAAGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs1823980901,2
    --155924166(+) CAGTAC/TGGCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1146396701,2
    C,F--155924209(+) CTGTAT/CAGTAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs1866716281,2
    --155924265(+) AGATGA/CGGAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs756201541,2
    C,F--155924292(+) ATAAAT/CGGAGC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.06CSA NA 122
    rs561868861,2
    C,F--155924401(+) AACAGG/AGTCTC 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- A:0.06CSA NA 122
    rs346273941,2
    C--155924414(+) GACAA-/TTTTTT 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.25NA CSA 4
    rs104612381,2
    C,F,A,H--155924497(+) ACATAC/GGCAGT 1 -- int126Minor allele frequency- G:0.37NA NS EA WA CSA 2492
    rs1926218161,2
    C--155924644(+) GCTAGA/GGATTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs170326431,2
    C,F--155924652(+) TTAAAC/TAATGG 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.02NA WA EA 380
    rs1856206101,2
    --155924673(+) TCTAGA/GTTCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs104612391,2
    C,F--155924728(+) ACAACG/CTGGCA 1 -- int111Minor allele frequency- C:0.26EA NA WA CSA 574
    rs1889938151,2
    --155924781(+) TAACTA/GAGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1466263111,2
    --155924906(+) AGATGA/GGGCCA 1 -- int10--------
    rs102130871,2
    C,F,H--155924930(+) GGATGA/TGTTCA 1 -- int15Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NS EA WA 522
    rs1391197381,2
    --155925140(+) TGATGA/GAAGCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1432636681,2
    --155925248(+) GCCCCC/TGGAAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1151754261,2
    F--155925404(+) CCACCG/AACCAA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.02WA 118
    rs1508762011,2
    C--155925467(+) CAGCCA/CTCCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1113281401,2
    C--155925487(+) GCAGAA/CCAGAA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- C:0.04CSA WA 120
    rs1382504131,2
    --155925493(+) CAGAAC/TAGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs13173591,2
    C,F,A--155925502(+) GGAACG/AGTGAG 1 -- int113Minor allele frequency- A:0.21NA WA CSA EA 376
    rs751516661,2
    F--155925624(+) GAAAGG/ATTCAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 118
    rs766945901,2
    C,F--155925688(+) TATGAG/ACATAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.09WA 118
    rs15741761,2
    C--155925771(-) GATGTA/TTTTTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 2
    rs1503843731,2
    C--155925839(+) TTCAG-/AAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1929604021,2
    --155925888(+) TGAGAA/GCCTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1496417521,2
    C--155925913(+) TCCTCC/TTGTCT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1845193661,2
    --155925924(+) TCACCC/TGGCAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1888364701,2
    --155925926(+) ACCCGA/GCAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1443743631,2
    --155925946(+) CAAGAC/TATAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1391090011,2
    C--155925986(+) AAGAAA/GTAAAG 1 -- int10--------
    rs15741751,2
    C,F,O,H--155925993(-) CTGGCG/ACCTTT 1 -- int125Minor allele frequency- A:0.11EA NA NS WA 2506
    rs1813030751,2
    --155926095(+) GAGGTA/GAGTTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs772351381,2
    C--155926127(+) GATAAG/TAGATT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1124699671,2
    C,F--155926153(+) AATGTG/TGTAGA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1839812011,2
    --155926161(+) AGAAAC/TGATGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1459769821,2
    C--155926223(+) TGTAGA/GGGCTA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1892502531,2
    --155926351(+) AACGTA/GGTATG 1 -- int10--------
    rs131379041,2
    C,F--155926355(+) TGGTAT/CGTAAT 1 -- int18Minor allele frequency- C:0.20NA WA EA 368
    rs1157890271,2
    C,F--155926391(+) AAAAAA/TGAATG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01WA 118
    rs1162322201,2
    C,F--155926488(+) GTTCTC/AATTTG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.01WA 118
    rs1807280721,2
    --155926583(+) TGGGAA/GTGAGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1873328741,2
    --155926724(+) AATTTA/TAAAAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1921892021,2
    --155926765(+) TTTAAC/TACTAA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1120340251,2
    C,F--155926827(+) CCCAAG/AGTTCA 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.50CSA 2
    rs771119501,2
    F--155926846(+) ACAAAT/CAGTTT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03WA 118
    rs758327911,2
    C,F--155926852(+) AGTTTT/CAATAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- C:0.03EA 120
    rs1153792881,2
    F--155927067(+) ACTATC/TGGTAT 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120
    rs1816846961,2
    --155927084(+) TTACCA/GTCATA 1 -- int10--------
    rs412804791,2
    C--155927329(+) GGTTGC/TAGACT 1 -- ut510--------
    rs1859148181,2
    --155927343(+) GTGCTG/TGTTGC 1 -- ut510--------
    rs1421879291,2
    C--155927436(+) AACAAC/TACGGG 2 H Y mis10--------
    rs1112782341,2
    C--155927438(+) CAATAC/TGGGCC 2 Y syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1501015391,2
    F--155927486(+) GAGCCA/TGAGCT 2 P syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4552
    rs2016569881,2
    --155927507(+) ACCAAA/GCTGAT 2 K syn10--------
    rs2011888901,2
    --155927508(+) CCAAGA/CTGATT 2 M L mis10--------
    rs23426741,2
    C,F,H--155927531(-) AATATG/AAGAAC 2 /L syn117Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NS EA NA WA 6264
    rs1495322871,2
    F--155927618(+) ATGCGC/TACAGT 2 R syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4552
    rs1441603771,2
    C--155927631(+) CCAACT/ATTTTC 2 /I /F mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4550
    rs1997630711,2
    --155927673(+) TGAACA/GCTCTG 2 T A mis10--------
    rs1487099591,2
    F--155927687(+) CTACCG/TTTCAC 2 P syn11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4550
    rs2019375201,2
    --155927768(+) GGCCTA/GGCAGT 2 L syn10--------
    rs2008319481,2
    C--155927886(+) GCTTGA/GCCTGG 2 T A mis10--------
    rs1443472741,2
    C--155927902(+) CAGTGC/TCCTGC 2 A V mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4546
    rs1511976831,2
    C--155927941(+) GTATTC/TGCTGA 2 S L mis10--------
    rs617417971,2
    C,F--155928026(+) ACTGTC/GTATAG 2 V syn14Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NS WA NA EU 6069
    rs1498433721,2
    F--155928051(+) TGATCT/CTGTAT 2 /L syn11Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 4550
    rs2018341481,2
    C--155928094(+) CACTCA/G/TCATTT 3 H R L mis11EU 1323
    rs1490219721,2
    C,F--155928119(+) AACCAT/CGTCAG 2 /H syn11Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 4550
    rs1903234081,2
    --155928325(+) CTCCAC/GTTTTG 2 T S mis10--------
    rs1380803561,2
    C,F--155928350(+) TATGGC/TTGGAT 2 G syn12Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA EU 5875
    rs2017841221,2
    --155928393(+) CCTTCC/TGCTGT 2 R C mis10--------
    rs1417463821,2
    C,F--155928406(+) GCAGCG/AGTTGG 2 /Q /R mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4550
    rs1501548821,2
    C--155928419(+) GCCATT/GCACTC 2 /M /I mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA 4550
    rs2015603401,2
    C--155928435(+) TGTCCA/GTGACA 2 M V mis10--------
    rs1386521811,2
    C,F--155928482(+) AGTGGC/ACCCAA 2 /G syn11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4486
    rs789587221,2
    C,F--155928509(+) GCTACC/AAATGT 2 /T syn11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 3896
    rs1995211221,2
    --155928567(+) CTATGA/GATCTG 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1881322301,2
    --155928757(+) GCATTA/TTGAGT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1909219871,2
    --155928878(+) TCAAAC/TCACGT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1450774481,2
    C--155928889(+) TAGGAA/CCTGGA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1423589001,2
    --155929032(+) TCAGGC/GAATGC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1827465021,2
    --155929057(+) GCCAAC/GTATAC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1125577091,2
    F--155929317(+) TGATAC/TTTTTA 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1932437021,2
    --155929357(+) TCTGTG/TGTTAT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1463562101,2
    --155929389(+) CTACAA/CTAAAA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1479149721,2
    --155929458(+) AAGCTA/GTTTTT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1416585481,2
    C--155929533(+) CTCCAC/TGGACC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1160267471,2
    C,F--155929534(+) TCCACG/AGACCC 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118
    rs1832470221,2
    --155929799(+) TTTCAA/GTAGTA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs2017485171,2
    --155929902(+) TCATT-/ACAGTCA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1875209871,2
    --155929941(+) AATATA/GTTTTT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1920414371,2
    --155929982(+) TATAGC/TTACAA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1127908141,2
    C,F--155930051(+) AGCTCC/TTATTA 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA 2
    rs1133692711,2
    C,F--155930077(+) AGATAC/TAAAGG 1 -- ut311Minor allele frequency- T:0.50CSA 2
    rs1842245451,2
    --155930190(+) TATCTA/GTAATA 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for NPY2R (156129781 - 156138230 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for NPY2R:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv880309CNV Loss21882294
    nsv881190CNV Loss21882294
    dgv5785n71CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): NPY2R
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing NPY2R
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for NPY2R

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 162642    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with NPY2R           About GenesLikeMe

    1 Novoseek inferred disease relationship for NPY2R gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    obesity 20.8 12 17235527 (6), 17019604 (1), 19837904 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): NPY2R
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: NPY2R (26 documents)

    Export disorders for NPY2R gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

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    PubMed articles for NPY2R gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 113):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with NPY2R)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding a human type 2 neuropeptide Y receptor. (PubMed id 7559383)1, 2, 3 Rose P.M.... Seethala R. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) gene and association with severe obesity in French white subjects. (PubMed id 17235527)1, 4, 9 Siddiq A....Froguel P. (Diabetologia 2007)
    3. Association studies of BMI and type 2 diabetes in the neuropeptide Y pathway: a possible role for NPY2R as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes in men. (PubMed id 17325259)1, 4, 9 Campbell C.D....Hirschhorn J.N. (Diabetes 2007)
    4. Variants in the 5' region of the neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 gene (NPY2R) are associated with obesity in 5,971 white subjects. (PubMed id 17019604)1, 4, 9 Torekov S.S....Pedersen O. (Diabetologia 2006)
    5. Expression cloning of a human brain neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor. (PubMed id 8632753)1, 2, 9 Gehlert D.R.... Gadski R.A. (Mol. Pharmacol. 1996)
    6. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PubMed id 20468064)1, 4 Pinheiro A.P....Woodside D.B. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)
    7. Association between neuropeptide Y receptor 2 polymorphism and the smoking behavior of elderly Japanese. (PubMed id 20811389)1, 4 Sato N....Sugimura H. (J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    8. Candidate molecular pathway genes related to appetite regulatory neural network, adipocyte homeostasis and obesity: results from the CARDIA Study. (PubMed id 20642810)1, 4 Friedlander Y....Siscovick D.S. (Ann. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    9. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PubMed id 20628086)1, 4 Bailey S.D....Anand S. (Diabetes Care 2010)
    10. Variants in neuropeptide Y receptor 1 and 5 are associated with nutrient-specific food intake and are under recent selection in Europeans. (PubMed id 19759915)1, 4 Elbers C.C....Onland-Moret N.C. (PLoS ONE 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4887 HGNC: 7957 AceView: NPY2R Ensembl:ENSG00000185149 euGenes: HUgn4887
    ECgene: NPY2R Kegg: 4887 H-InvDB: NPY2R

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for NPY2R Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for NPY2R gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving NPY2R

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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