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NFKB1 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 74
GCID: GC04P103422

Nuclear Factor Of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer...

  See NFKB1-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Nuclear Factor Of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer In B-Cells
11 2 3
     NFKB-p502
EBP-12 3     NFkappaB2
DNA-Binding Factor KBF12 3     DNA Binding Factor KBF12
KBF12     Nuclear Factor Kappa-B DNA Binding Subunit2
NF-kB12     Nuclear Factor NF-Kappa-B P105 Subunit2
NF-kappa-B2     Nuclear Factor NF-Kappa-B P50 Subunit2
NF-kappaB2     p1052
NF-kappabeta2     p502
NFKB-p1052     

External Ids:    HGNC: 77941   Entrez Gene: 47902   Ensembl: ENSG000001093207   OMIM: 1640115   UniProtKB: P198383   

Export aliases for NFKB1 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC04P103821 GC04P103880 GC04P103779 GC04P103641 GC04P099158


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for NFKB1 Gene:
This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a
50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a
DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated
by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation,
and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of
genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated
with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell
development or delayed cell growth. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this
gene. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009)

GeneCards Summary for NFKB1 Gene:
NFKB1 (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with NFKB1 include limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2h, and hepatitis d. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is REL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NFKB1_HUMAN, P19838
Function: NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of
a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological
processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B
is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105,
NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers
bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for
different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer
combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various
mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions
with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state
complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway,
I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently
degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B
heterodimeric p65-p50 and RelB-p50 complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p50-p50 homodimer is
a transcriptional repressor, but can act as a transcriptional activator when associated with BCL3. NFKB1 appears
to have dual functions such as cytoplasmic retention of attached NF-kappa-B proteins by p105 and generation of
p50 by a cotranslational processing. The proteasome-mediated process ensures the production of both p50 and p105
and preserves their independent function, although processing of NFKB1/p105 also appears to occur
post-translationally. p50 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region
of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. In a complex with MAP3K8, NFKB1/p105 represses
MAP3K8-induced MAPK signaling; active MAP3K8 is released by proteasome-dependent degradation of NFKB1/p105

summary for NFKB1 Gene:
NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types.
It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in
regulating the immune response to infection. In unstimulated cells NF-kappaB dimers are sequestered
inactively in the cytoplasm by a protein complex called inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB). IkappaB inactivates
NF-kappaB by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS). Activation of NF-kappaB occurs via degradation
of IkappaB, a process that is initiated by its phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase (IKK). Phosphorylated IvB
becomes dissociated from NF-kappaB, unmasking the NLS. Phosphorylation also results in IkappaB
ubiquitination and targeting to the proteasome. NF-kappaB can now enter the nucleus and regulate gene
expression. NF-kappaB turns on expression of IkappaB forming a negative feedback loop.

Gene Wiki entry for NFKB1 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000004.11  NT_016354.20  NC_018915.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the NFKB1 gene promoter:
         Oct-B1   RORalpha1   Max1   TBP   POU2F1   oct-B3   FOXC1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): NFKB1 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for NFKB1

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat NFKB1


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 4q24   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  4q24   HGNC cytogenetic band: 4q24

NFKB1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
NFKB1 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 4         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC04P103422:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
103,422,486 bp from pter      End:
103,538,459 bp from pter
Size:
115,974 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NFKB1_HUMAN, P19838 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit  
Size: 968 amino acids; 105356 Da
Subunit: Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex. Homodimer;
component of the NF-kappa-B p50-p50 complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p105-p50 complex. Component of the
NF-kappa-B p50-c-Rel complex. Component of a complex consisting of the NF-kappa-B p50-p50 homodimer and BCL3.
Also interacts with MAP3K8. NF-kappa-B p50 subunit interacts with NCOA3 coactivator, which may coactivate
NF-kappa-B dependent expression via its histone acetyltransferase activity. Interacts with DSIPI; this
interaction prevents nuclear translocation and DNA-binding. Interacts with SPAG9 and UNC5CL. NFKB1/p105 interacts
with CFLAR; the interaction inhibits p105 processing into p50. NFKB1/p105 forms a ternary complex with MAP3K8 and
TNIP2. Interacts with GSK3B; the interaction prevents processing of p105 to p50. NFKB1/p50 interacts with NFKBIE.
NFKB1/p50 interacts with NFKBIZ. Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit interacts with NFKBID (By similarity).
Directly interacts with MEN1. Interacts with HIF1AN
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for NFKB1 (see all 8):
1MDI (3D)        1MDJ (3D)        1MDK (3D)        1NFI (3D)        1SVC (3D)        2DBF (3D)    
Secondary accessions: A8K5Y5 B3KVE8 Q68D84 Q86V43 Q8N4X7 Q9NZC0
Alternative splicing: 3 isoforms:  P19838-1   P19838-2   P19838-3   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for NFKB1: NX_P19838

Explore proteomics data for NFKB1 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • While translation occurs, the particular unfolded structure after the GRR repeat promotes the generation of p50
    making it an acceptable substrate for the proteasome. This process is known as cotranslational processing. The
    processed form is active and the unprocessed form acts as an inhibitor (I kappa B-like), being able to form
    cytosolic complexes with NF-kappa B, trapping it in the cytoplasm. Complete folding of the region downstream of
    the GRR repeat precludes processing1
  • Phosphorylation at 'Ser-903' and 'Ser-907' primes p105 for proteolytic processing in response to TNF-alpha
    stimulation. Phosphorylation at 'Ser-927' and 'Ser-932' are required for BTRC/BTRCP-mediated proteolysis1
  • Polyubiquitination seems to allow p105 processing1
  • S-nitrosylation of Cys-61 affects DNA binding1
  • The covalent modification of cysteine by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin-J2 is autocatalytic and reversible. It
    may occur as an alternative to other cysteine modifications, such as S-nitrosylation and S-palmitoylation1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys856
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See NFKB1 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001158884.1  NP_003989.2  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000226574   ENSP00000378297   ENSP00000420904   ENSP00000426147   ENSP00000424790  
     ENSP00000423877   ENSP00000469340   ENSP00000424815  
    Reactome Protein details: P19838

    NFKB1 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant NFKB1 Protein
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for NFKB1
    OriGene Purified Protein for NFKB1
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for NFKB1
    OriGene MassSpec for NFKB1
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for NFKB1
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for NFKB1
    Novus Biologicals NFKB1 Proteins
    Novus Biologicals NFKB1 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for NFKB1 

     
    antibodies-online proteins for NFKB1 (11 products) 

     
    antibodies-online peptides for NFKB1

    NFKB1 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of NFKB1
    R&D Systems Antibodies for NFKB1
    Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for NFKB1  (NFkB-p105)
    OriGene Antibodies for NFKB1
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for NFKB1
    Novus Biologicals NFKB1 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for NFKB1
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for NFKB1
    antibodies-online antibodies for NFKB1 (459 products) 

    NFKB1 Assay Products:

    EMD Millipore Kits and Assays for the Analysis of NFKB1
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for NFKB1
    R&D Systems Proteome Profiler Antibody Arrays for NFKB1
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for NFKB1
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    eBioscience ELISAs for NFKB1: (see all 3
                        NFkB p65 (Total) InstantOne ELISA 96 tests
    antibodies-online kits for NFKB1 (28 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ANKRD: Ankyrin repeat domain containing

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 10):
     IPR014756 Ig_E-set
     IPR008967 p53-like_TF_DNA-bd
     IPR011029 DEATH-like_dom
     IPR002909 IPT
     IPR013783 Ig-like_fold

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P19838

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P19838

    4 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000451 NF-kappa-B/Rel/dorsal family
    IPB000488 Death domain
    IPB002909 Cell surface receptor IPT/TIG
    IPB011539 Rel homology


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NFKB1_HUMAN, P19838
    Domain: The C-terminus of p105 might be involved in cytoplasmic retention, inhibition of DNA-binding, and
    transcription activation
    Domain: Glycine-rich region (GRR) appears to be a critical element in the generation of p50
    Similarity: Contains 7 ANK repeats
    Similarity: Contains 1 death domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 RHD (Rel-like) domain


    Find genes that share domains with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: NFKB1_HUMAN, P19838
    Function: NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of
    a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological
    processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B
    is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105,
    NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers
    bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for
    different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer
    combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various
    mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions
    with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state
    complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway,
    I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently
    degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B
    heterodimeric p65-p50 and RelB-p50 complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p50-p50 homodimer is
    a transcriptional repressor, but can act as a transcriptional activator when associated with BCL3. NFKB1 appears
    to have dual functions such as cytoplasmic retention of attached NF-kappa-B proteins by p105 and generation of
    p50 by a cotranslational processing. The proteasome-mediated process ensures the production of both p50 and p105
    and preserves their independent function, although processing of NFKB1/p105 also appears to occur
    post-translationally. p50 binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region
    of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. In a complex with MAP3K8, NFKB1/p105 represses
    MAP3K8-induced MAPK signaling; active MAP3K8 is released by proteasome-dependent degradation of NFKB1/p105
    Induction: By phorbol ester and TNF

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for NFKB1:
    nuclear transcription factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B cells,1,(encoding the p105 precursor and the
    amino-terminal active p50 subunit),NF-kappa B/REL family

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000975regulatory region DNA binding IDA17426251
    GO:0000976transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA18718911
    GO:0001071nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity IDA17426251
    GO:0003677DNA binding ----
    GO:0003690double-stranded DNA binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for NFKB1:
     Decreased OCT4 protein express  Decreased POU5F1-GFP protein e 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 5 alleles(MGI details for Nfkb1) (see all 17):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  craniofacial  digestive/alimentary  growth/size/body 
     hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument 
     liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  muscle  nervous system  normal 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for NFKB1: Nfkb1tm1Brv Nfkb1tm1Bal

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for NFKB1

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 
    Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for NFKB1 (see all 1066):
    A3GALT2,  AARS2,  ABAT,  ABCA4,  ABCB6,  ABR,  ACAD11,  ACSM2B,  ACTR3B,  ADD2

    Targeting motifs: HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif viewer 
                                          Consensus sequence:  GGGGGAATCCCC 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target NFKB1:
    mmu-mir-210-3p (MIRT006938), hsa-mir-15a-5p (MIRT004829), hsa-mir-21-5p (MIRT006529), hsa-mir-146a-5p (MIRT004459), hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT030242), hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT021048), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049105), hsa-let-7a-5p (MIRT004830), hsa-mir-16-5p (MIRT006528), hsa-mir-146b-5p (MIRT004530), hsa-mir-9-5p (MIRT003193)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat NFKB1 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate NFKB1 (see all 22):
    hsa-miR-548j hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-548i hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-548l hsa-miR-508-3p hsa-miR-298
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidNFKB1 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for NFKB1
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat NFKB1

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for NFKB1

    Clone
    Products:
         
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for NFKB1 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for NFKB1
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): NFKB1 (NM_003998)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for NFKB1
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for NFKB1
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat NFKB1
    Addgene plasmids for NFKB1 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for NFKB1
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for NFKB1 
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for NFKB1

    Flow Cytometry
    Products:
       

     
    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA1-12176 VF6-14229) for NFKB1 


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    NFKB1_HUMAN, P19838: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Nuclear, but also found in the cytoplasm in an inactive form
    complexed to an inhibitor (I-kappa-B)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus5
    cytosol4
    mitochondrion4
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    extracellular1
    peroxisome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for NFKB1 About   (see all 170)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1TWEAK Pathway
    TWEAK Pathway0.87
    Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV10.42
    DR3 Signaling0.87
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    TNFR1 Pathway0.56
    TRAIL Pathway0.40
    TNF Signaling0.55
    Fas Signaling0.35
    2NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Mucin expression in CF via TLRs, EGFR signaling pathways0.42
    NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways0.58
    Immune response IL 1 signaling pathway0.42
    Inflammasome Activation Pathways0.51
    Immune response Role of TLRs 3 and 4 in cell antiviral response TICAM1 specific signaling pathways0.33
    IL-1 Family Signaling Pathways0.44
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways0.31
    3RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts
    BAFF in B-Cell Signaling0.92
    Apoptosis and survival APRIL and BAFF signaling0.39
    APRIL Pathway0.92
    RANK Pathway0.38
    RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts0.45
    RANKL/RANK Signaling Pathway0.31
    4Development IGF 1 receptor signaling
    Development IGF RI signaling0.49
    Development IGF 1 receptor signaling0.48
    Signal transduction AKT signaling0.49
    Immune response IL 4 signaling pathway0.39
    5B cell receptor signaling pathway (KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway0.42
    T cell receptor signaling pathway0.38
    BCR signaling pathway0.42
    TCR Signaling Pathway0.36


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for NFKB1 (see all 8)
        Inflammasome Activation Pathways
    IL-17 Family Signaling Pathways
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways
    Pathogen or Damage-activated C-Type Lectin Receptor Signaling Pathways
    Notch Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for NFKB1 (see all 100)
        Toll-Like Receptors Pathway
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    NF-kappaB Activation by Viruses
    BMP Pathway
    ITK and TCR Signaling

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for NFKB1
        NF-kappaB Signaling

    4 Tocris Bioscience Pathways for NFKB1
        Akt Pathway
    Apoptosis Pathway
    Toll-like Receptor Pathway
    NF-kappaB Pathway

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for NFKB1 (see all 57)
        Immune response TLR3 and TLR4 induce TICAM1-specific signaling pathway
    Development A2A receptor signaling
    Immune response Bacterial infections in normal airways
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Development EGFR signaling pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for NFKB1 (see all 59)
        Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways
    Osteopontin Signaling
    MAPK signaling pathway
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
    Apoptosis


    Selected Reactome Pathways for NFKB1 (see all 13)
        DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation
    FCERI mediated NF-kB activation
    TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex
    Activation of NF-kappaB in B cells

    3 PharmGKB Pathways for NFKB1
        Doxorubicin Pathway (Cancer Cell), Pharmacodynamics
    EGFR Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics
    Tacrolimus/Cyclosporine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for NFKB1) (see all 47):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Ras signaling pathway
    Chemokine signaling pathway
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    HIF-1 signaling pathway

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including NFKB1 (see all 46): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for NFKB1

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for NFKB1 (P198381, 2, 3 ENSP000002265744) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 449)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    NFKB2Q006531, 2, 3, ENSP000001894444EBI-300010,EBI-307326 MINT-48553 MINT-6178467 MINT-6178504 MINT-47910 MINT-48724 MINT-6178544 MINT-48674 MINT-47890 MINT-48585 MINT-6178520 MINT-47923 MINT-6178488 I2D: score=8 STRING: ENSP00000189444
    RELBQ012011, 2, 3, ENSP000002214524EBI-300010,EBI-357837 MINT-48017 MINT-48562 MINT-6178544 MINT-48996 MINT-6178520 MINT-47912 MINT-6178488 MINT-48690 I2D: score=7 STRING: ENSP00000221452
    RELAQ042061, 2, 3, ENSP000003842734EBI-300010,EBI-73886 MINT-47911 MINT-6178467 MINT-48923 MINT-47891 MINT-6178544 MINT-48559 MINT-6178520 MINT-48686 I2D: score=10 STRING: ENSP00000384273
    ENSG00000183311P074372, 3MINT-48672 MINT-48551 I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000224156P074372, 3MINT-48672 MINT-48551 I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 45):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IMP19881551
    GO:0001818negative regulation of cytokine production IEA--
    GO:0002224toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002755MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--
    GO:0002756MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Compounds for NFKB1 available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    SC 514IKKbeta inhibitor; attenuates NF-kappaB-induced gene expression[354812-17-2]
    Ro 106-9920Inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation[62645-28-7]
    IMD 0354Inhibitor of IKKbeta[978-62-1]
    CelastrolInhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation[34157-83-0]
    Bay 11-7085Irreversible inhibitor of TNF-alpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation[196309-76-9]

    3 DrugBank Compounds for NFKB1    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Triflusal-- --targetantagonist15678110 18317243 19465361 17194886
    Pranlukast-- 103177-37-3targetother/unknown12801315 12801316
    Thalidomidealpha-phthalimidoglutarimide (see all 5)50-35-1targetantagonist15723633 11752352

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for NFKB1 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    etoposide 3.68 1 16778171 (1)
    nitric oxide 0 1 16964402 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

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    REFSEQ mRNAs for NFKB1 gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001165412.1  NM_003998.3  

    Unigene Cluster for NFKB1:

    Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1
    Hs.618430  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_003998
    12 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000226574(uc011cep.2 uc011ceq.2 uc011cer.2) ENST00000394820
    ENST00000511926 ENST00000507079 ENST00000505458 ENST00000509165 ENST00000513803
    ENST00000502367 ENST00000510638 ENST00000600343 ENST00000508584 ENST00000504044

    miRNA
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    hsa-miR-548j hsa-miR-4291 hsa-miR-548i hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-340 hsa-miR-548l hsa-miR-508-3p hsa-miR-298
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidNFKB1 3' UTR sequence
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    Addgene plasmids for NFKB1 
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK122850.1 AK291450.1 BC033210.1 BC051765.1 CR749522.1 M55643.1 M58603.1 

    14 DOTS entries:

    DT.91766168  DT.100723199  DT.100744892  DT.95258128  DT.100752227  DT.121254190  DT.101962127  DT.121254226 
    DT.316891  DT.316893  DT.40260693  DT.95288477  DT.315662  DT.40117323 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 221):

    BM931012 T86858 CA423964 BQ710652 CA313061 BU616125 CK299474 AI333374 
    AL118961 BQ023914 BQ962865 BC033210 H44238 AA213622 CA941741 BQ189331 
    AK122850 BE885945 AW612589 CA307880 CB150024 BQ687254 N41629 BC051765 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for NFKB1    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^
    SP1:                          -                             -                             -                                                                     
    SP2:                          -                             -                             -                                                                     
    SP3:                                                                                      -                                                                     
    SP4:                                                                                                                                                            
    SP5:                                                                                                                                                            

    ExUns: 22 ^ 23 ^ 24a · 24b · 24c
    SP1:                              
    SP2:                              
    SP3:                              
    SP4:                              
    SP5:                              


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for NFKB1

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

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    NFKB1 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GTTACAATCA
    NFKB1 Expression
    About this image


    NFKB1 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     
     Hair (Integumentary System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Fetal Precortex Cells Hair Shaft
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Fetal Precortex Cells Hair Shaft
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
     
     Bone (Muscoskeletal System)
             Bone Marrow
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)
             Metanephros
    NFKB1 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    NFKB1 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.618430
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including NFKB1 (see all 46): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat
              Inflammasomes in human mouse rat

    Primer
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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for NFKB1 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Nfkb11 , 5 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer more1, 5 84.46(n)1
    87.75(a)1
      3 (62.82 cM)5
    180331  NM_008689.21  NP_032715.21 
     1355846555 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves NFKB11 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer more 71.87(n)
    73.79(a)
      396033  NM_205134.1  NP_990465.1 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia Str.114352 Transcribed sequence with weak similarity to protein more 73.34(n)    137695842 
    rainbow trout
    (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    Actinopterygii Omy.109432 Oncorhynchus mykiss transcribed sequence with weak more 74.53(n)    BX880658.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta dl3 immune response transcription factor 41(a)
    (best of 2)
        --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for NFKB1 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for NFKB1 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for NFKB1 gene
    REL2  NFKB22  RELB2  RELA2  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for NFKB1 using alignment to 5 protein entries:     NFKB1_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    NFKB2    RELA    NFKBIA

    Find genes that share paralogs with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for NFKB1 (see all 2220)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 4 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs780231091,2
    C,F--103420609(+) TATGCC/GTGCTC 2 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.04CSA WA 120
    rs119400171,2
    C,F,H--103420759(+) ATTTAT/CCTATC 2 -- us2k1 tfbs310Minor allele frequency- C:0.15NA EA WA 610
    rs68197751,2
    C--103420838(+) tccctC/Tcctct 2 -- us2k1 tfbs3 trp30--------
    rs106475501,2
    C--103420851(+) TCTCTCTCT/-  
            
    TTCTT
    2 -- us2k1 tfbs3 trp31Minor allele frequency- -:0.50CSA 2
    rs623285391,2
    C,F--103420851(+) CCCTCC/TCTCTC 2 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- T:0.50WA NA 4
    rs666418611,2
    C--103420852(+) CTCCC-/CTC   
      T
    /TCTC
    TCTCT
    2 -- us2k11NA 2
    rs119400651,2
    C,H--103420860(+) TCTCTT/CTCTTT 2 -- us2k1 trp34Minor allele frequency- C:0.19NA WA EA 360
    rs1842561501,2
    --103420916(+) GCGCAA/GTCTTG 2 -- us2k10--------
    rs119444431,2
    C,F,H--103421018(+) GGCTAA/GTTTTT 2 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- G:0.33NA 6
    rs1896083811,2
    --103421131(+) TTACAA/GGTGTG 2 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for NFKB1 (103422486 - 103538459 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for NFKB1:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2728077CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv4442CNV Insertion18451855
    esv27559CNV Loss19812545
    nsv830020CNV Loss17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): NFKB1
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing NFKB1
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for NFKB1

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 164011    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for NFKB1:    
    About MalaCards
    limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2h    hepatitis d    aneurysmal bone cysts    primary mediastinal large b-cell lymphoma


    Find genes that share disorders with NFKB1           About GenesLikeMe

    10 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for NFKB1 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    leukemia t-cell 36.5 4 16778171 (3)
    colitis ulcerative 35.3 4 14613970 (2), 16804398 (1), 17852842 (1)
    necrosis 32.8 3 19692203 (1), 12839942 (1), 16964402 (1)
    tumors 23.2 8 17725175 (2), 16740744 (1), 19692203 (1), 12839942 (1) (see all 5)
    inflammation 21.9 1 18315734 (1)
    leukemia 19.9 2 1612589 (1), 9619918 (1)
    colorectal cancer 6.87 4 17852842 (2), 12839942 (1)
    vasculitis 1.79 1 15262741 (1)
    breast cancer 0 4 12406554 (3), 17487680 (1)
    diabetes mellitus 0 1 17318773 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): NFKB1
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: NFKB1 (125 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): NFKB1

    Export disorders for NFKB1 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

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    PubMed articles for NFKB1 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 2197):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with NFKB1)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning of the DNA-binding subunit of human nuclear factor kappa B: the level of its mRNA is strongly regulated by phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor alpha. (PubMed id 1992489)1, 2, 3 Meyer R....Scheidereit C. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991)
    2. HLA, NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphism profile in autoimmune diabetes mellitus patients. (PubMed id 17318773)1, 4, 9 Katarina K....Marie C. (amp 2007)
    3. Functional annotation of a novel NFKB1 promoter polymorphism that increases risk for ulcerative colitis. (PubMed id 14613970)1, 4, 9 Karban A.S....Brant S.R. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2004)
    4. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for superficial bladder cancer in Chinese. (PubMed id 19778281)1, 4, 9 Tang T....Li J. (DNA Cell Biol. 2010)
    5. A functional promoter polymorphism in NFKB1 increases susceptibility to endometriosis. (PubMed id 20218898)1, 4, 9 Zhou B....Zhang L. (DNA Cell Biol. 2010)
    6. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter of NFKB1 as a potential molecular marker for the risk of recurrence in superficial bladder cancer. (PubMed id 17725175)1, 4, 9 Riemann K....Siffert W. (Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007)
    7. The complete exon-intron structure of the 156-kb human gene NFKB1, which encodes the p105 and p50 proteins of transcription factors NF- kappa B and I kappa B-gamma: implications for NF-kappa B-mediated signal transduction. (PubMed id 8825636)1, 2, 9 Heron E.... van Loon A.P.G.M. (Genomics 1995)
    8. The DNA binding subunit of NF-kappa B is identical to factor KBF1 and homologous to the rel oncogene product. (PubMed id 2203531)1, 2, 9 Kieran M.... Israel A. (Cell 1990)
    9. Role of the NFKB1 -94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism in IBD and potential interactions with polymorphisms in the CARD15/NOD2, IKBL, and IL-1RN genes. (PubMed id 16804398)1, 4, 9 Glas J....Folwaczny C. (Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2006)
    10. A functional insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for prostate cancer. (PubMed id 19446741)1, 4, 9 Zhang P....Li H. (Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4790 HGNC: 7794 AceView: NFKB1 Ensembl:ENSG00000109320 euGenes: HUgn4790
    ECgene: NFKB1 Kegg: 4790 H-InvDB: NFKB1

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section

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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for NFKB1 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for NFKB1 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/nfkb1/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for NFKB1 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving NFKB1

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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     Search www.enzolifesciences.com for proteins, assays, substrates, inhibitors & antibodies

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 7 May 2014 - Incrementals: 9 May 2014 , 2 Jun 2014 , 26 Jun 2014 , 30 Jun 2014 , 21 Aug 2014 , 8 Sep 2014 , 7 Oct 2014

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