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Aliases for MC1R Gene

Aliases for MC1R Gene

  • Melanocortin 1 Receptor 2 3 5
  • Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Receptor 2 3
  • MC1-R 3 4
  • MSH-R 3 4
  • Melanocortin 1 Receptor (Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Receptor) 2
  • Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Receptor 3
  • Melanocortin Receptor 1 4
  • Melanotropin Receptor 3
  • SHEP2 3
  • CMM5 3
  • MSHR 4

External Ids for MC1R Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MC1R Gene

  • GC16P081304
  • GC16P090971
  • GC16P089685
  • GC16P089727
  • GC16P088513
  • GC16P089985
  • GC16P089982

Summaries for MC1R Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MC1R Gene

  • This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MC1R Gene

MC1R (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MC1R include Melanoma, Cutaneous Malignant, 5 and Uv-Induced Skin Damage. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and hormone binding. An important paralog of this gene is MC4R.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

  • Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.

Tocris Summary for MC1R Gene

  • Melanocortin receptors are activated by members of the melanocortin family: alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The melanocortins are involved in a range of physiological functions, including pigmentation and inflammation.

Gene Wiki entry for MC1R Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MC1R Gene

Genomics for MC1R Gene

Regulatory Elements for MC1R Gene

Enhancers for MC1R Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH16F089993 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 30.3 +83.1 83129 3.5 PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 SLC30A9 CBX5 ZNF416 ZNF207 AFG3L1P MC1R ENSG00000259877 SPG7 DBNDD1 GAS8 SNORD68 CDK10 ENSG00000268218 ZNF778
GH16F089401 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 27.9 -504.1 -504064 13.1 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 FOS PAF1 MXD4 ZHX2 AFG3L1P LOC101927863 MC1R SPG7 ENSG00000259877 URAHP ENSG00000268218 SNORD68 RPL13 RNU6-430P
GH16F089917 0.2 ENCODE 22.2 +6.2 6248 2.2 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 MC1R RPL13 TUBB3
GH16F089240 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 20.3 -670.9 -670919 2.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ENSG00000259877 AFG3L1P ENSG00000268218 MC1R SPG7 ENSG00000261692 RNU6-430P ENSG00000259006 ZNF778 LOC101927863
GH16F089421 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 20.2 -488.0 -488019 5.0 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT MLX CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 AFG3L1P MC1R ENSG00000259877 ZNF778 SNORD68 ENSG00000260121 CTU2 SPG7 ANKRD11 TCF25
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around MC1R on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MC1R Gene

89,912,119 bp from pter
89,920,977 bp from pter
8,859 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MC1R Gene

Genes around MC1R on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MC1R Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MC1R Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MC1R Gene

Proteins for MC1R Gene

  • Protein details for MC1R Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q66K38
    • Q6UR93
    • Q8WWX6
    • Q8WWX7
    • Q96I33
    • Q96RU4
    • Q9UBF7
    • Q9UN58
    • Q9UN59
    • Q9UN60
    • Q9UN61
    • Q9UN62

    Protein attributes for MC1R Gene

    317 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34706 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MGRN1, but does not undergo MGRN1-mediated ubiquitination; this interaction competes with GNAS-binding and thus inhibits agonist-induced cAMP production.

neXtProt entry for MC1R Gene

Post-translational modifications for MC1R Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 29
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MC1R Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MC1R Gene

Domains & Families for MC1R Gene

Gene Families for MC1R Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MC1R: view

Function for MC1R Gene

Molecular function for MC1R Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
melanocortin receptor 1,murine extension (Ext) homolog,expressed in cells of melanocytic origin and adrenal cortex,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,regulator of eumelanin and phaeomelanin production
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004977 melanocortin receptor activity TAS 9571181
GO:0004980 melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor activity IPI 19743876
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19329486
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity TAS 18292087
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MC1R: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MC1R Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for MC1R Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MC1R:
  • Mc1r tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MC1R

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MC1R
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for MC1R (Melanocortin-1 R/MC1R)

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MC1R Gene

Localization for MC1R Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MC1R Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MC1R gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9571181
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view

Pathways & Interactions for MC1R Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MC1R: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007187 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger TAS 9571181
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development TAS 7581459
GO:0009650 UV protection TAS 7581459
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MC1R Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MC1R Gene

(35) Drugs for MC1R Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Afamelanotide Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Desipramine Approved Pharma 39
CZEN 002 Investigational Pharma Target 0
BMS 470539 dihydrochloride Pharma MC1 receptor,potent and selective, Potent, selective MC1 receptor agonist 0
Melanotan II Pharma High affinity melanocortin receptor agonist 0

(13) Additional Compounds for MC1R Gene - From: Novoseek and IUPHAR

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for MC1R Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ACTH (1-39) Potent endogenous MC2 agonist 12279-41-3
BMS 470539 dihydrochloride Potent, selective MC1 receptor agonist 457893-92-4
Melanotan II High affinity melanocortin receptor agonist 121062-08-6
ML 00253764 hydrochloride Melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist; brain penetrant 1706524-94-8
SHU 9119 MC3 and MC4 antagonist; MC5 partial agonist 168482-23-3

(8) ApexBio Compounds for MC1R Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[Nle4,D-Phe7]-α-MSH 75921-69-6
BMS 470539 dihydrochloride MC1 receptor,potent and selective 457893-92-4
HS 014 207678-81-7
HS 024 212370-59-7
MCL 0020 475498-26-1
Melanotan II 121062-08-6
THIQ 312637-48-2
α-MSH 581-05-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MC1R: view

Transcripts for MC1R Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MC1R Gene

Unigene Clusters for MC1R Gene

Melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MC1R
  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for MC1R (Melanocortin-1 R/MC1R)

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MC1R Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MC1R Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MC1R Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MC1R Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MC1R Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (43.5), Lung (12.7), and Saliva (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MC1R Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MC1R Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MC1R Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MC1R Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MC1R Gene:

Tissue specificity: Melanocytes and corticoadrenal tissue.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MC1R: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MC1R Gene

Orthologs for MC1R Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MC1R Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MC1R 34 35
  • 98.21 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MC1R 34
  • 84.65 (n)
MC1-R 35
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MC1R 34
  • 83.91 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mc1r 34
  • 81.07 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mc1r 34 16 35
  • 79.68 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MC1R 35
  • 35 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MC1R 35
  • 27 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MC1R 34 35
  • 74.04 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mc1r 34
  • 58.9 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mc1r 34 35
  • 63.46 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 17 (a)
-- 35
  • 15 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MC1R was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MC1R Gene

Gene Tree for MC1R (if available)
Gene Tree for MC1R (if available)

Paralogs for MC1R Gene

Variants for MC1R Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

Genetic variants in MC1R define the skin/hair/eye pigmentation variation locus 2 (SHEP2) [MIM:266300]. Hair, eye and skin pigmentation are among the most visible examples of human phenotypic variation, with a broad normal range that is subject to substantial geographic stratification. In the case of skin, individuals tend to have lighter pigmentation with increasing distance from the equator, with type I skin being the most lightly pigmented and type IV the most dark pigmented. By contrast, the majority of variation in human eye and hair color is found among individuals of European ancestry, with most other human populations fixed for brown eyes and black hair. Partial loss-of-function mutations are associated with fair skin, poor tanning and increased skin cancer risk.
MC1R variants associated with red hair and fair skin, determine female-specific increased analgesia from kappa-opioid receptor agonist [MIM:613098].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MC1R Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs200050206 Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099] 89,919,370(+) TGGAG(A/G)TGTCC reference, missense
rs369542041 Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099] 89,920,123(+) TCATC(C/T)GCAAT upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs374235260 Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099] 89,919,641(+) CTCCA(C/T)GCTGT reference, missense
rs766080391 Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099] 89,919,410(+) GCTGG(C/T)GAGCT reference, missense
VAR_059019 Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099]

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MC1R Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2762221 CNV gain+loss 21179565
nsv1066499 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1070371 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv428331 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv482951 CNV loss 15286789
nsv509640 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv519064 CNV loss 19592680
nsv525671 CNV loss 19592680
nsv573799 CNV gain 21841781
nsv573810 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for MC1R Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 96.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.04; 80.21% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MC1R Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for MC1R Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(17) MalaCards diseases for MC1R Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
melanoma, cutaneous malignant, 5
  • melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5
uv-induced skin damage
  • skin/hair/eye pigmentation, variation in, 2
albinism, oculocutaneous, type ii
  • albinism, brown oculocutaneous
malignant melanoma, somatic
  • dysplastic nevus syndrome
ocular melanoma
  • eye melanoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MC1R in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099]: A malignant neoplasm of melanocytes, arising de novo or from a pre-existing benign nevus, which occurs most often in the skin but also may involve other sites. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17434924, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19338054}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for MC1R

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MC1R: view

No data available for Genatlas for MC1R Gene

Publications for MC1R Gene

  1. MC1R: three novel variants identified in a malignant melanoma association study in the Spanish population. (PMID: 17434924) Fernandez L. … Ribas G. (Carcinogenesis 2007) 3 4 22 46 64
  2. MC1R variants increase melanoma risk in families with CDKN2A mutations: a meta-analysis. (PMID: 20189796) Fargnoli M.C. … Raimondi S. (Eur. J. Cancer 2010) 3 22 46 64
  3. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), pigmentary characteristics and sun exposure: findings from a case-control study of diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphoma. (PMID: 20129839) Kane E.V. … Lightfoot T. (Cancer Epidemiol 2010) 3 22 46 64
  4. Melanocortin receptor 1 variants and melanoma risk: a study of 2 European populations. (PMID: 19585506) Scherer D. … Kumar R. (Int. J. Cancer 2009) 3 22 46 64
  5. MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women. (PMID: 19656326) Latreille J. … Guinot C. (Photochem. Photobiol. 2009) 3 22 46 64

Products for MC1R Gene

Sources for MC1R Gene

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